Lutz Kunzmann

Lutz Kunzmann
Senckenberg Natural History Collections Dresden · Museum of Mineralogy and Geology

PhD

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104
Publications
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Publications

Publications (104)
Article
Full-text available
Early Cretaceous floras containing angiosperms were described from several geographic areas, nearly from the Arctic to the Antarctic, and are crucial to understand their evolution and radiation. However, most of these records come from northern mid-latitudes whereas those of lower paleolatitude areas, such as the Crato Fossil Lagerstätte in NE Braz...
Article
Full-text available
At the junction of greenhouse and icehouse climate states, the Eocene–Oligocene Transition (EOT) is a key moment in Cenozoic climate history. While it is associated with severe extinctions and biodiversity turnovers on land, the role of terrestrial climate evolution remains poorly resolved, especially the associated changes in seasonality. Some pal...
Article
Full-text available
We describe the first evidence of fossil Abies wood from the late early Miocene fossil plant assemblage of Wiesa in east Germany. The comparatively well-preserved piece of xylitic wood was recovered in the kaolin quarry at Hasenberg hill in Wiesa. The Wiesa assemblage is characterized as being allochthonous and partly parautochthonous mass deposits...
Preprint
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At the junction of greenhouse and icehouse climate phases, the Eocene-Oligocene Transition (EOT) is a key moment in the history of the Cenozoic climate. Yet, while it is associated with severe extinctions and biodiversity turnovers, terrestrial climate evolution remains poorly resolved. Paleobotanical and geochemical continental records suggest a m...
Article
Full-text available
The Eocene–Oligocene transition (EOT) was a climate shift from a largely ice-free greenhouse world to an icehouse climate, involving the first major glaciation of Antarctica and global cooling occurring ∼34 million years ago (Ma) and lasting ∼790 kyr. The change is marked by a global shift in deep-sea δ18O representing a combination of deep-ocean c...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT Data of climate-sensitive leaf traits, which are usually collected and analyzed for entire fossil leaf assemblages, also include intraspecific responses to environmental conditions. Intraspecific correlations between climate and leaf traits represent plastic responses on the individual level as well as plasticity caused by genetic differen...
Article
The Araripe Basin, located in the Northeast of Brazil, contains many fossils. Among these, the gymnosperms stand out, especially species of the fossil taxon Brachyphyllum. It encompasses conifer shoots with helically arranged scale-like, adpressed leaves whose length does not exceed the width. This foliage morphotype was widely distributed during t...
Article
PREMISE: Fossil leaf traits can enable reconstruction of ancient environments and climates. Among these, leaf size has been particularly studied because it reflects several climatic forcings (e.g., precipitation and surface temperature) and, potentially, environment characteristics (e.g., nutrient availability, local topography, and openness of veg...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Amber has been reported from the Early Cretaceous Crato Formation, as isolated clasts or within plant tissues. Undescribed cones of uncertain gymnosperm affinity have also been recovered with amber preserved in situ. Here, we provide multiple lines of evidence to determine the botanical affinity of this enigmatic, conspicuous cone type...
Article
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The Society of Vertebrate Paleontology (SVP) has recently circulated a letter, dated 21st April, 2020, to more than 300 palaeontological journals, signed by the President, Vice President and a former President of the society (Rayfield et al. 2020). In this letter, significant changes to the common practices in palaeontology are requested. In our pr...
Chapter
Large areas of Earth’s continents were covered by temperate forests before the dramatic increase of the human population in the past two millennia. Prior to human expansion, temperate forests were more extensive in the Neogene (23–2.6 Ma) when climate at the middle latitudes was slightly warmer and more equable than at the present. These temperate...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract. The Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT) from a largely ice-free greenhouse world to an icehouse climate with the first major glaciation of Antarctica was a phase of major climate and environmental change occurring ~34 million years ago (Ma) and lasting ~500 kyr. The change is marked by a global shift in deep sea δ<sup>18</sup>O representing...
Article
Full-text available
Paläontologische Sammlungen sind gleichermaßen Quelle und Resultat von Wissen. Als rchive der Erd- und Lebensgeschichte dokumentieren sie nicht nur räumlich-zeitliche Gegebenheiten, die heute nicht mehr existieren, sondern summieren oft den Beitrag mehrerer Forschergenerationen. Im Zuge der Revision fossiler Farnstämme des Karbons und Perms konnten...
Article
Leaves are the most appropriate plant organs for studying adaptations to environmental changes as they are the locations of photosynthetic metabolism and thus directly exposed to habitat conditions. Besides investigations on complete assemblages, individual long-ranging species could directly mirror adaptations and changes of leaf traits on environ...
Article
Leaves as main locations of photosynthesis show various adaptations of morphological and anatomical traits to habitat conditions. By implication, leaf traits of fossil dicotyledonous plants can be used as proxies for reconstructions of palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic conditions. Herein, a Paleogene leaf flora, the Profen-Süd LC assemblage fr...
Book
This book will cover the entire evolutionary history that the terrestrial plants have recorded in Brazilian sedimentary rocks, ranging from the first vestiges of terrestrial environments colonization about 400 million years ago, until reaching the eve of the present time, when the current vegetation formations were organizing to reach their current...
Poster
Full-text available
The study compares insect herbivory pattern of two late Eocene leaf assemblages from the central German Leipzig Embayment. The aim is to estimate the impact of habitat differences on plants and related interaction with insect herbivores. Assemblage 1 comes from the opencast mine Profen-Süd and was collected from the underbedding horizon of the main...
Article
Pseudofrenelopsis is a genus of the conifer family Cheirolepidiaceae, whose temporal distribution was restricted to the Early Cretaceous. Its set of features correspond to adaptive responses to rather unstable and stressful environmental conditions, such as aridity and/or groundwater salinity. In this paper, we describe Pseudofrenelopsis salesii sp...
Article
Full-text available
Plants and insects are constantly interacting in complex ways through forest communities since hundreds of millions of years. Those interactions are often related to variations in the climate. Climate change, due to human activities, may have disturbed these relationships in modern ecosystems. Fossil leaf assemblages are thus good opportunities to...
Data
Table S1. Estimation of the mean annual temperature (MAT), mean temperature of the coldest month (CMMT) and the mean annual precipitation (MAP). These are based on the following methods: co-existing approach (CoA), leaf margin analysis (LMA), Climate Leaf Analysis Multivariate Program (CLAMP), European Leaf Physiognomic Approach (ELPA), Climatic Am...
Data
Table S3. General spreadsheet of plant species considered statistically (more than 20 specimens) for each outcrop. Results are expressed in percent. The plant species with less than 20 specimens were taken into account for the plant species richness and the general result of FFGs in each fossil leaf assemblages. In Willershausen (Germany, late Plio...
Data
Raw data for Willershausen. This contains the bulk data used for the present study.
Data
Data S1. Significance of the axes 1 and 2 from the PCAs presented in Fig. 6.
Data
Raw data for Berga. This contains the bulk data used for the present study.
Data
Table S2. Plant-insect interactions and herbivory patterns observed and originally described by Adolf Straus (1977) in his first comprehensive work on leaf interactions in Willershausen (Germany, late Pliocene). ¶ not found in the collections; * new ichnospecies type; § named after recent species with the addendum fossilis; H: holotype; P: paratype...
Data
Raw data for Bernasso. This contains the bulk data used for the present study.
Article
The study comprises a first detailed analysis of insect herbivory patterns in a Paleogene megaflora from the central German Leipzig Embayment (former Weißelster Basin). The compression plant assemblage comes from the upper Eocene (upper Bartonian or lower Priabonian) Luckenau Clay Complex (lignite-bearing Borna Formation) that represents sediments...
Article
Full-text available
Morphometric characters of fossil leaves such as size and shape are important and widely used sources for reconstructing palaeoenvironments. Various tools, including CLAMP or Leaf Margin Analysis, utilize leaf traits as input parameters for estimating palaeoclimate, mostly based on correlations between traits and climate parameters of extant plants...
Chapter
Three out of seven institutes belonging to the Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung (SGN) house considerable palaeontological collections: The Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum in Frankfurt on the Main including the Research Station on Quaternary Palaeontology in Weimar, the Senckenberg Naturhistorische Sammlungen Dre...
Article
Full-text available
Eocene Baltic amber constitutes the largest amber deposit on Earth, however, knowledge about the vegetation and habitat diversity of its source area is very fragmentary. We analysed coniferous foliage from several historic Baltic amber collections and from new material, and consequently verify the occurrence of Calocedrus, Quasisequoia and Taxodium...
Article
Yunnan, in southwestern China, straddles two of the world's most important biodiversity hot spots (i.e., a biogeographic region that is both a reservoir of biodiversity and threatened with destruction) and hosts more than 200 fossiliferous sedimentary basins documenting the evolutionary history of that biodiversity, monsoon development, and regiona...
Poster
Full-text available
The use of insect body fossils and insect feeding traces on leaf compressions for the reconstruction of a late Eocene riparian forest ecosystem from central Germany is presented.
Article
Cryptomeria (Cupressaceae) is a relic genus that was widely distributed throughout Eurasia during the Cenozoic. Interpretation of the biogeographic history of this genus is currently limited by lack of fossil records from the Paleogene of East Asia. Here, we report on a new fossil species of Cryptomeria, Cryptomeria yunnanensis W.N. Ding et Z.K. Zh...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Fossil leaves are interesting tools to reconstruct ancient environments and climates. However, they are sometimes poorly preserved and fragmented, what limits the applicability of their leaf-traits and physiognomic characters (i.e. size and shape) within palaeoecological approaches. The present study aims to deal with this problem and build a metho...
Article
The first unequivocal insect remains from compression plant assemblages of the central German Leipzig Embayment (former Weißelster Basin) are reported and briefly described. The fossil taphocoenosis comes from the upper Bartonian or lower Priabonian Luckenau Clay complex (lignite-bearing Borna Formation) that represents sediments of coastal alluvia...
Article
Numerous data based on extant vegetation reveal global patterns of relationships between functional leaf traits and climate. Leaf life span (LLS), i.e. evergreen vs. deciduous leaves, represents a central parameter linking functional traits related to the global leaf economics spectrum. Paleogene climate transitions are therefore expected to be ref...
Article
The Cenozoic basins in Germany (Weißelster) and the Czech Republic (Cheb, Sokolov and Most) have an extensive fossil record of riparian vegetation traceable from the middle Eocene to the early Miocene. Within this paper we focus on its evolution and gradual changes between the late Bartonian and the Eocene-Oligocene turnover, a time interval of gra...
Book
Full-text available
„Dieter H. Mai and Harald Walther Memorial Issue – Part 2“ Celebrating the legacies of Dieter H. Mai and Harald Walther: Cenozoic taxonomy, palaeoecology, and phytostratigraphy based on coordinated palaeobotanical investigations Editorial Volume 293 of Palaeontographica B, published in December 2015, is the first part of a special issue (Kunzmann...
Article
The Baltic amber deposit represents the largest accumulation of any fossil resin worldwide and hundreds of thousands of entrapped arthropods have been recovered so far. The source plants of Baltic amber, however, are still controversial, and the botanical composition of the 'Baltic amber forest' remains poorly studied. Here, we provide the first un...
Article
Full-text available
A unique stratigraphic sequence of fossil leaves of Eotrigonobalanus furcinervis (extinct trees of the beech family, Fagaceae) from central Germany has been used to derive an atmospheric pCO2 record with multiple data points spanning the late middle to late Eocene, two sampling levels which may be earliest Oligocene, and two samples from later in t...
Article
The Eocene, the world’s last global greenhouse period, shows distinct climatic developments through time, from subtropical towards warm-temperate conditions in Europe. The present paper investigates the response of five floras of the central German Weißelster Basin from different stratigraphic ages to terrestrial palaeoclimatic variations. The flor...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Plant foliage plants provides a wealth of morphometric properties that are influenced by the environment. It therefore represents a valuable source of information for ecological and climatological research. Numerous important and famous fossil floras showing well preserved morphometric leaf traits with high research potential are housed in various...
Article
Pseudotsuga is an accessory element in the Neogene vegetation in Central Europe. Two species based on coalified seed cones and one species each based on leaves and wood have been described so far from Miocene and Pliocene localities, mainly in Germany. Based on a new seed cone record from the site of Wiesa in Germany, I describe here evidence suppo...
Article
Full-text available
Araucarioxylon Kraus is a widely known fossil genus generally used for woods similar to that of the extant Araucariaceae. However, since 1905, several researchers have pointed out that this name is a junior nomenclatural synonym and, as such, a nomen illegitimum. At least four generic names are in current use for fossil wood of this type: Agathoxyl...
Article
The late Oligocene represents a comparatively cool phase followed by a warming event, the so-called Late Oligocene Warming that predates the Mi-1 glacial event at the Oligocene–Miocene transition. There is evidence that these climate events were linked to level changes in atmospheric CO2. In this study, atmospheric CO2 from the late Oligocene to th...
Article
Full-text available
The Eocene has been commonly called "The world`s last greenhouse period" covering the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) as well as the Eocene-Oligocene turnover. In the mid-latitudes of Europe this turnover was characterized by pronounced climatic changes from subtropical towards temperate conditions that were accompanied by significant veget...
Article
Full-text available
In the Cenozoic era, global climate changed from greenhouse to icehouse conditions. During the Oligocene, the comparatively cool phase in the earlier part of the late Oligocene is followed by the Late Oligocene Warming and a major glaciation event at the Oligocene-Miocene transition (Mi-1). Various studies indicate that these climate events were co...
Article
Pflanzenfossilien spiegeln in idealer Weise die kontinentalen Umwelt- und Klimabedingungen in der erdgeschichtlichen Vergangenheit wider. In wissenschaftlichen Analysen liefern sie daher sehr oft die Primärdaten, mit denen Umwelt- und Klimabedingungen, wie etwa Jahresmitteltemperaturen und Jahresniederschlagssummen, aber auch die Zusammensetzung de...
Article
A remarkable fossil plant assemblage from the lowermost Oligocene Haselbach horizon (Gröbers Member, Böhlen Formation) was excavated at the Vereinigtes Schleenhain opencast mine (northwestern Saxony, Germany) and is described herein. The lower unit of the Haselbach horizon represents abandoned channel deposits that contain masses of Zingiberoideoph...
Article
In this article, vegetational reconstructions of leaf floras from the early Oligocene Haselbach megafloral complex, which have been published by several authors since the 1960s, are compiled, summarised, reconsidered and partly revised. The geological setting of the fossil material is updated based on the most recent monographs on stratigraphy and...
Article
Full-text available
The genus Cunninghamites was originally described for fossil sterile foliage. The inclusion of fertile material, and the debate about the nomenclature and taxonomy of Cunninghamites have initiated its revision. Revision has shown that only six species undoubtedly belong to Cunninghamites. Ovuliferous cones of Cunninghamites oxycedrus and Cunningham...
Article
Full-text available
Leaf fossils of Rosa lignitum Heer have often been documented as an accessory element in mixed mesophytic forests from the Oligocene and Miocene of central Europe. Its relationship to extant rose species is not yet firmly understood because leaf morphology contributes only marginally to the current taxonomy of the genus Rosa L. In this study, we in...
Article
The genus Cunninghamites was originally described for fossil sterile foliage. The inclusion of fertile material, and the debate about the nomenclature and taxonomy of Cunninghamites have initiated its revision. Revision has shown that only six species undoubtedly belong to Cunninghamites. Ovuliferous cones of Cunninghamites oxycedrus and Cunningham...
Article
Investigations of previously undescribed material from the early Maastrichtian (Late Cretaceous) Walbeck flora in Sachsen-Anhalt, Germany provide the first evidence for the occurrence of fossil Metasequoia in continental Europe. The material consists of a few fragmentarily preserved seed cones. This record confirms a long-held assumption that the g...