Lutz Fromhage

Lutz Fromhage
University of Jyväskylä | JYU ·  Department of Biological and Environmental Science

PhD

About

165
Publications
11,801
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2,163
Citations
Citations since 2016
38 Research Items
1074 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150

Publications

Publications (165)
Article
Full-text available
Sex-role evolution theory attempts to explain the origin and direction of male-female differences. A fundamental question is why anisogamy, the difference in gamete size that defines the sexes, has repeatedly led to large differences in subsequent parental care. Here we construct models to confirm predictions that individuals benefit less from cari...
Article
Full-text available
Searching for mates is a critical stage in the life-cycle of most internally, and many externally, fertilising species. Males usually invest more in this costly activity than females, but the reasons for this are poorly understood. Previous models have shown that female-biased parental investment, including anisogamy, does not by itself select for...
Article
Full-text available
In eusocial species, some individuals sacrifice their own reproduction for the benefit of others. It has been argued that the evolution of sterile helpers in eusocial insects requires synergistic efficiency gains through cooperation that are uncommon in cooperatively breeding vertebrates and that this precludes a universal ecological explanation of...
Article
Full-text available
Explaining the rise and maintenance of cooperation is central to our understanding of biological systems and human societies. When an individual's cooperativeness is used by other individuals as a choice criterion, there can be competition to be more generous than others, a situation called competitive altruism. The evolution of cooperation between...
Article
Full-text available
In eusocial species, some individuals sacrifice their own reproduction for the benefit of others. The evolutionary transition towards eusociality may have been facilitated by ancestral species having a monogamous mating system (the monogamy hypothesis) or a haplodiploid genetic system (the haplodiploidy hypothesis), or it may have been entirely dri...
Article
Full-text available
In species with separate sexes, females and males often differ in their morphology, physiology and behaviour. Such sex-specific traits are functionally linked to variation in reproductive competition, mate choice and parental care, which have all been linked to sex roles. At the 150th anniversary of Darwin's theory on sexual selection, the question...
Article
Resources are often central to the formation and persistence of human consortships, and to the evolutionary fitness consequences of those consortships. As a result, the distribution of resources within a society should influence the number and quality of mating opportunities an individual of given status/wealth experiences. In particular, in a wide...
Article
The aesthetic preferences of potential mates have driven the evolution of a baffling diversity of elaborate ornaments. Which fitness benefit—if any—choosers gain from expressing such preferences is controversial, however. Here, we simulate the evolution of preferences for multiple ornament types (e.g., “Fisherian,” “handicap,” and “indicator” ornam...
Article
Full-text available
Neo‐Darwinism characterises biological adaptation as a one‐sided process, in which organisms adapt to their environment but not vice versa. This asymmetric relationship – here called Williams’ asymmetry – is called into question by Niche Construction Theory, which emphasises that organisms and their environments often mutually affect each other. He...
Article
Full-text available
In juveniles extreme intraspecies aggression can seem counter-intuitive, as it might endanger their developmental goal of surviving until reproductive stage. Ultimately, aggression can be vital for survival, although the factors (e.g., genetic or environmental) leading to the expression and intensity of this behavior vary across taxa. Attacking (an...
Preprint
Resources are often central to the formation and persistence of human consortships, and to the evolutionary fitness consequences of those consortships. As a result, the distribution of resources within a society should influence the number and quality of mating opportunities an individual of given status/wealth experiences. In particular, in a wide...
Article
Full-text available
Costly signalling theory is based on the idea that individuals may signal their quality to potential mates and that the signal's costliness plays a crucial role in maintaining information content ('honesty') over evolutionary time. Whereas costly signals have traditionally been described as 'handicaps', here we present mathematical results that mot...
Article
Full-text available
Both cognitive abilities and dispersal tendencies can vary strongly between individuals. Since cognitive abilities may help dealing with unknown circumstances, it is conceivable that dispersers may rely more heavily on learning abilities than residents. However, cognitive abilities are costly and leaving a familiar place might result in losing the...
Article
Sex allocation theory predicts that the proportion of daughters to sons will evolve in response to ecological conditions that determine the costs and benefits of producing each sex. All else being equal, the adult sex ratio (ASR) should also vary with ecological conditions. Many studies of subterranean species reported female‐biased ASR, but no sys...
Article
Full-text available
A fundamental task of evolutionary biology is to explain the pervasive impression of organismal design in nature, including traits benefiting kin. Inclusive fitness is considered by many to be a crucial piece in this puzzle, despite ongoing discussion about its scope and limitations. Here we use individual‐based simulations to study what quantity (...
Preprint
Both cognitive abilities and dispersal tendencies can vary strongly between individuals. Since cognitive abilities may help dealing with unknown circumstances it is conceivable that dispersers may rely more heavily on learning abilities than residents. However, cognitive abilities are costly and leaving a familiar place might result in losing the a...
Article
Full-text available
The evolution of dispersal tendencies and of cognitive abilities have both been intensely studied. Yet little attention has been given to the question of how these two aspects may relate to each other, as a result of their joint evolution. On the one hand, learning abilities may help dispersers to cope with their new habitat. On the other hand, dis...
Preprint
Full-text available
Aggression between juveniles can be unexpected, as their primary motivation is to survive until their reproductive stage. However, instances of aggression, which may escalate to cannibalism, can be vital for survival, although the factors (e.g. genetic or environmental) leading to cannibalism vary across taxa. While cannibalism can greatly accelera...
Article
Full-text available
We investigate competition between separate periodical cicada populations each possessing different life‐cycle lengths. We build an individual‐based model to simulate the cicada life cycle and allow random migrations to occur between patches inhabited by the different populations. We show that if hybridization between different cycle lengths produc...
Research
Full-text available
Additional files: Figure S1. Predation prevents the emergence of fast exploration strategy. Figure S2. Predation hinders co-existence. Figure S3. Predation can also induce co-existence. Figure S4. Influence of behavioural traits on cognitive traits and vice versa.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Individuals consistently differ in behaviour, exhibiting so-called personalities. In many species, individuals differ also in their cognitive abilities. When personalities and cognitive abilities occur in distinct combinations, they can be described as 'cognitive styles'. Both empirical and theoretical investigations produced contradic...
Preprint
Individuals consistently differ in behaviour, exhibiting so-called personalities. In many species, individuals differ also in their cognitive abilities. When personalities and cognitive abilities occur in distinct combinations, they can be described as ‘cognitive styles’. Both empirical and theoretical investigations produced contradicting or mixed...
Article
Full-text available
It is generally assumed that an investment into cognitive abilities and their associated cost is particularly beneficial for long-lived species, as a prolonged lifespan allows to recoup the initial investment. However, ephemeral organisms possess astonishing cognitive abilities too. Invertebrates, for example, are capable of simple associative lear...
Preprint
Individuals consistently differ in behaviour, exhibiting so-called personalities. In many species, individuals differ also in their cognitive abilities. When personalities and cognitive abilities occur in distinct combinations, they can be described as ‘cognitive styles’. Both empirical and theoretical investigations produced contradicting or mixed...
Article
Full-text available
Males and females are defined by the relative size of their gametes (anisogamy), but secondary sexual dimorphism in fertilization, parental investment and mating competition is widespread and often remarkably stable over evolutionary timescales. Recent theory has clarified the causal connections between anisogamy and the most prevalent differences...
Article
How to define and use the concept of inclusive fitness is a contentious topic in evolutionary theory. Inclusive fitness can be used to calculate selection on a focal gene, but it is also applied to whole organisms. Individuals are then predicted to appear designed as if to maximize their inclusive fitness, provided that certain conditions are met (...
Preprint
Full-text available
How to define and use the concept of inclusive fitness is a contentious topic in evolutionary theory. Inclusive fitness can be used to calculate selection on a focal gene, but it is also applied to whole organisms. Individuals are then predicted to appear designed as if to maximise their inclusive fitness, provided that certain conditions are met (...
Article
It has been previously hypothesized that the perfectly synchronized mass emergence of periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) evolved as a result of a switch from size-based to age-based emergence. In the former case, cicada nymphs emerge immediately (at the first opportunity) on reaching maturity, whereas in the latter case, nymphs wait in order to e...
Article
Full-text available
Models of sex allocation conflict are central to evolutionary biology but have mostly assumed static decisions, where resource allocation strategies are constant over colony lifespan. Here, we develop a model to study how the evolution of dynamic resource allocation strategies is affected by the queen‐worker conflict in annual eusocial insects. We...
Article
In a rapidly changing environment, does sexual selection on males elevate a population’s reproductive output? If so, does phenotypic plasticity enhance or diminish any such effect? We outline two routes by which sexual selection can influence the reproductive output of a population: a genetic correlation between male sexual competitiveness and fema...
Preprint
Full-text available
Models of sex allocation conflict are central to evolutionary biology but have mostly assumed static decisions, where resource allocation strategies are constant over colony lifespan. Here, we develop a model to study how the evolution on dynamic resource allocation strategies is affected by the queen-worker conflict in annual eusocial insects. We...
Article
Background: Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) have a life cycle that ends with the entire underground nymph population exhibiting a synchronized mass emergence to mate above ground. Previous studies have hypothesized that the periodical cicadas evolved from non-periodical cicadas by switching from a life-cycle length determined by body size to o...
Article
Full-text available
Sperm competition may select for male reproductive traits that influence female mating or oviposition rate. These traits may induce fitness costs to the female; however, they may be costly for the males as well as any decrease in female fitness also affects male fitness. Male adaptations to sperm competition manipulate females by altering not only...
Article
Full-text available
The term ‘sex roles’ encapsulates male–female differences in mate searching, competitive traits that increase mating/fertilization opportunities, choosiness about mates and parental care. Theoretical models suggest that biased sex ratios drive the evolution of sex roles. To model sex role evolution, it is essential to note that in most sexually rep...
Article
Full-text available
We study the evolution of male and female mating strategies and mate choice for female fecundity and male fertilization ability in a system where both sexes can mate with multiple partners, and where there is variation in individual quality (i. e. in the availability of resources individuals can allocate to matings, mate choice and production of ga...
Chapter
Parental care is common throughout the animal kingdom, and much variation exists among species in how, and how much, parents care for their offspring. In most species, females care more; in others, males care more and in some, caring is more or less equally shared between the sexes. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain patterns of paren...
Data
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In this section we describe the details of the agent's activity bouts over the course of a simulation, and show how the behaviour di↵ers as the c 1 , c 3 and c 4 parameters are systematically varied. In a single simulation the agent was allowed to forage for 200 steps, with t = 0.001 (i.e., 200, 000 time steps total). The simulations were altered s...
Article
Full-text available
We consider a behavioural model of an animal choosing between two activities, based on positive feedback, and examine the effect of introducing cross inhibition between the motivations for the two activities. While cross-inhibition has previously been included in models of decision making, the question of what benefit it may provide to an animal’s...
Article
Positive allometry of secondary sexual traits (whereby larger individuals have disproportionally larger traits than smaller individuals) has been called one of the most pervasive and poorly understood regularities in the study of animal form and function. Its widespread occurrence is in contrast with theoretical predictions that it should evolve on...
Article
The capacity of organisms to change their sex has evolved independently in several plant and animal lineages. Sex change has been widely studied, but research approaches have differed for plants and animals, and conclusions have often been taxon-specific. Although sex allocation theory provides a unifying framework for the study of sex change, this...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Efficient action selection is a crucial aspect of animal behaviour. Different competing physiological and behavioural requirements must be satisfied in the most effective manner possible, and these will have different and changing importances to the animal over time. In managing the competition between different behaviours, pathological outcomes su...
Article
A placebo is a treatment which is not effective through its direct action on the body, but works because of its effect on the patient's beliefs. From an evolutionary perspective, it is initially puzzling why, if people are capable of recovering, they need a placebo to do so. Based on an argument put forward by Humphrey [Great expectations: the evol...
Article
Full-text available
Monogynous males in various species actively limit themselves to mating with a single female in their lifetime. Whereas previous models have considered monogyny as an obligate mating strategy, here we explore the potential of monogyny to evolve as a context-specific (conditional) behavior. Using a state-dependent dynamic game model based on the bio...
Article
Full-text available
In socially monogamous species with bi-parental care, males suffer reduced reproductive success if their mate engages in extra-pair copulations (EPCs). One might therefore expect that males should refuse to care for a brood if they can detect that an EPC has occurred. Here, we use a game-theory model to study male brood care in the face of EPCs in...
Article
Mating plugs are male-derived structures that may impede female remating by physically obstructing the female genital tract. Although mating plugs exist in many taxa, the forces shaping their evolution are poorly understood. A male can clearly benefit if his mating plug secures his paternity. It is unclear, however, how plug efficacy can be maintai...
Article
Spatial and temporal variation in ecological parameters selects for plastic responses to prevailing conditions. Males of web spiders have been shown to adjust developmental decisions to cues that relate to the degree of competition from other males. Here, we explore experimentally whether males of the spider Nephila senegalensis base behavioural de...
Article
Full-text available
Several hypotheses have been put forward to explain the evolution of inaccurate mimicry. Here we investigated the novel hypothesis that inaccurate mimicry (in color and shape) is maintained by opposing selective pressures from a suite of different predators: model-aversive visually oriented predators and model- and mimic-specialized predators indif...
Article
The evolutionary forces shaping within- and across-species variation in the investment in male and female sex function are still incompletely understood. Despite earlier suggestions that in plants the evolution or cosexuality vs. dioecy, as well as sex allocation among cosexuals, is affected by seed and pollen dispersal, no formal model has explici...
Chapter
Full-text available
To understand the evolution of mating systems, we need to consider why reproductive strategies differ between species in the way they do. For example, males in most mammals appear entirely specialised on mating with many females, whereas males in many birds also invest in offspring quality by providing paternal care. Alternatively or additionally,...
Article
Full-text available
Explaining why organisms schedule reproduction over their lifetimes in the various ways that they do is an enduring challenge in biology. An influential theoretical prediction states that organisms should increasingly invest in reproduction as they approach the end of their life. An apparent mismatch of empirical data with this prediction has been...
Article
Full-text available
In many animal species, females will benefit if they can secure their mate's help in raising their young. It has been suggested that they can achieve this by being coy (i.e. reluctant to mate) when courted, because this gives them time to assess a prospective mate's helpfulness and hence allows them to reject non-helpful males. According to this vi...
Article
The extent to which indirect genetic benefits can drive the evolution of directional mating preferences for more ornamented mates, and the mechanisms that maintain such preferences without depleting genetic variance, remain key questions in evolutionary ecology. We used an individual-based genetic model to examine whether a directional preference f...
Article
Full-text available
The classical viewpoint in sperm competition theory, which holds that males evolve sperm allocation strategies in response to a given degree of sperm competition, has recently been challenged by an alternative viewpoint, which holds that the degree of sperm competition is itself a consequence of these same strategies. Here, we present a game theory...
Article
Sexual selection theory predicts that males should attempt to mate with several females, unless the benefits of male promiscuity are trumped by alternative benefits associated with male monogamy (monogyny). Here we use a game theory model to address the adaptive value of a monogynous strategy, which has the sole benefit of enhancing a male's patern...
Article
Abstract Males, especially in species where they provide little or no parental investment, usually have high potential reproductive rates and are expected to maximize their fitness by mating with several females. This view is challenged, however, by species in which males provide no parental investment, but nevertheless mate with one female only. M...
Article
Full-text available
Models of parental investment often assume a trade-off for males between providing care and seeking additional mating opportunities. It is not obvious, however, how such additional matings should be accounted for in a consistent population model, because deserting males might increase their fertilization success at the cost of either caring males,...
Article
Full-text available
Spadefoot toads (Pelobates) and Parsley frogs (Pelodytes) are an enigmatic group of Western Palaearctic anurans. In the genus Pelobates, a fossorial lifestyle has enforced a conserved bauplan that masks their intraspecific evolutionary history. We used partial sequences of the mitochondrial 16S and 12S rRNA genes to infer a paleobiogeographic scena...
Article
The evolutionary significance of sexual cannibalism depends on the timing of male death. Both female and male spiders possess paired genital organs and, while females can mate multiply, males of some species have limited mating rates because they can use each copulatory organ only once. By attacking a male after he has used one of his pedipalps but...
Article
Full-text available
Female multiple mating selects for male adaptations that maximize fertilization success in a context of sperm competition. While male mating strategies usually reflect a trade-off between present and future reproduction, this trade-off is largely removed in systems where the maximum number of matings for males is very small. Selection may then favo...
Article
Full-text available
Females of the orb-weaving spider Argiope bruennichi are very cannibalistic and regularly terminate copulations by aggressively attacking the male. Few males survive mating and they escape only if they mate no longer than 8 seconds on average. We speculated that the brief copulations of surviving males will not result in complete fertilization of a...
Article
Theory predicts that the outcome and escalation level of animal contests will reflect the contestants' expected payoffs as well as their relative fighting ability. Although an individual's future prospects of reproduction are expected to be critical for the risk of injury that it should accept when contesting a given resource, previous empirical wo...
Article
Full-text available
A consequence of multiple mating by females can be that the sperm of two or more males directly compete for the fertilisation of ova inside the female reproductive tract. Selection through sperm-competition favours males that protect their sperm against that of rivals and strategically allocate their sperm, e.g., according to the mating status of t...