Lutz Eckstein

Lutz Eckstein
RWTH Aachen University · Institute of Automotive Engineering Aachen

About

263
Publications
52,751
Reads
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2,189
Citations
Citations since 2017
148 Research Items
1879 Citations
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Publications

Publications (263)
Conference Paper
The noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) performance is becoming increasingly important in vehicle development. On the one hand, simulation-based investigations and optimizations are carried out to reduce development time and cost. On the other hand, experimental studies still need to be conducted to verify the actual performance or to investigate...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Enabling secure and reliable high-bandwidth low-latency connectivity between automated vehicles and external servers, intelligent infrastructure, and other road users is a central step in making fully automated driving possible. The availability of data interfaces, which allow this kind of connectivity, has the potential to distinguish artificial a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In perception tasks of automated vehicles (AVs)data-driven have often outperformed conventional approaches.This motivated us to develop a data-driven methodology tocompute occupancy grid maps (OGMs) from lidar measurements.Our approach extends previous work such that the estimatedenvironment representation now contains an additional layer forcells...
Conference Paper
This paper evaluates the potentials of dual-speed transmissions for battery-electric powertrains in different passenger vehicle segments. The evaluation takes into account the differing performance requirements as well as boundary conditions within these segments. Three design approaches, considering single and dual-speed transmission topologies as...
Conference Paper
The present research gives an overview of the process of designing and building prototypes of electric axles for heavy-duty vehicles at the Institute for Automotive Engineering (ika) of RWTH Aachen University. This overview starts with a brief presentation on the road transport and logistics industry. The expected growth of this market motivates -...
Article
Virtual test driving is a methodology to evaluate vehicle performance and environmental impacts under realistic driving conditions. This approach can generate comprehensive traffic information and trajectory data that reflect the dynamic and stochastic properties of transportation systems. Despite the benefits of virtual test driving, it is challen...
Article
In order to investigate hysteresis friction separately from other friction contributions (mainly adhesive friction), linear friction tests are performed with cut out tread specimens from passenger car tires on 3D-printed sinusoidal surfaces under dry and wet conditions. In this work, a multiscale approach based on the finite element method (FEM) is...
Preprint
Full-text available
The validation and verification of automated driving functions (ADFs) is a challenging task on the journey of making those functions available to the public beyond the current research context. Simulation is a valuable building block for scenario-based testing that can help to model traffic situations that are relevant for ADFs. In addition to the...
Conference Paper
Over the past years, automated driving has moved towards a stage, where the public introduction of automated driving functions (ADF) seems conceivable. However, the question of verification and validation of these systems as well as assuring their safety is still a discussion among researchers, manufacturers, and authorities. Whilst the approach of...
Conference Paper
A thermal model is presented which can be utilized to estimate the resulting temperatures in the components of a PMSM for different operation points and duty cycles. Different model types have been reviewed initially and the presented thermal model is realized in the form of a Lumped Parameter Thermal Model (LPTM). This model type was identified to...
Preprint
Full-text available
Enabling secure and reliable high-bandwidth low-latency connectivity between automated vehicles and external servers, intelligent infrastructure, and other road users is a central step in making fully automated driving possible. The availability of data interfaces, which allow this kind of connec-tivity, has the potential to distinguish artificial...
Article
Full-text available
Freight transport accounts for about half of all distances travelled in Europe. Therefore, freight transport is one of the decisive factors for reducing greenhouse gases and air pollutants. For this reason, the electrification of road freight transport is being promoted as part of the project “BEV Goes eHighway—[BEE]”. The data basis for the modell...
Article
Full-text available
The use of infrastructure sensors has proven to be an effective method for recording large traffic datasets. In order to achieve a high data quality for such datasets, an accurate extrinsic calibration of the sensors is essential. While previous approaches are not fast enough or do not fit the use-case of infrastructure sensing, we present a method...
Article
Full-text available
The spread of all-electric drives is steadily increasing in all sectors of road transport. Due to the constantly increasing demands on efficiency and performance by legislation and customers, it is necessary to continuously push the system limits of the powertrains. This paper presents an approach that performs an initial thermal system analysis ba...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The RGB complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) sensor works within the visible light spectrum. Therefore it is very sensitive to environmental light conditions. On the contrary, a long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensor operating in 8-14 µm spectral band, functions independent of visible light. In this paper, we exploit both visual and thermal per...
Preprint
Full-text available
The RGB complementary metal-oxidesemiconductor (CMOS) sensor works within the visible light spectrum. Therefore it is very sensitive to environmental light conditions. On the contrary, a long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensor operating in 8-14 micro meter spectral band, functions independent of visible light. In this paper, we exploit both visual and the...
Poster
Full-text available
Robust Environment Perception for Automated Driving: A Unified Learning Pipeline for Visual-Infrared Object Detection
Poster
Full-text available
Cloud Services for Collective Driving developed in the project UNICARagil
Poster
Full-text available
Cloud-based Inverse Perspective Mapping developed in the project UNICARagil
Poster
Full-text available
Collective Memory developed in the project UNICARagil
Conference Paper
Abstract: The most crucial aspects influencing the behavior of Automated Vehicles (AVs) are static environment, dynamic objects and weather. Traffic recordings that include these aspects allow the derivation of comprehensive test scenarios of AVs. However, existing recording descriptions are either not designed for test scenario derivation or use s...
Preprint
Full-text available
Highly automated vehicles represent one of the most crucial development efforts in the automotive industry. In addition to the use of research vehicles, production vehicles for the general public are realistic in the near future. However, to fully exploit the benefits of these systems, it is fundamental that users have an appropriate level of trust...
Chapter
Driving comfort is becoming increasingly important in the development of modern vehicles. As the only link between the vehicle and the road, tires have a significant impact on the vehicle ride and NVH behavior. Nowadays, the influence of tires on overall vehicle comfort is evaluated by expensive vehicle testing sessions. To reduce this effort and t...
Chapter
The ongoing electrification process of passenger cars leads to constantly changing and increasing requirements regarding the NVH behavior of cars and their efficiency. In order to quickly meet these requirements, development processes are often supported by the use of simulation models. To reproduce the behavior of complex structures such as tires...
Article
Full-text available
The steady enhancement of driver assistance systems and the automation of driving functions are in need of advanced driver monitoring functionalities. To evaluate the driver state, several parameters must be acquired. A basic parameter is the position of the driver, which can be useful for comfort automation or medical applications. Acquiring the p...
Article
Full-text available
Safety assurance of automated driving systems must consider uncertain environment perception. This paper reviews literature addressing how perception testing is realized as part of safety assurance. The paper focuses on testing for verification and validation purposes at the interface between perception and planning, and structures the analysis alo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Storing and transmitting LiDAR point cloud data is essential for many AV applications, such as training data collection , remote control, cloud services or SLAM. However, due to the sparsity and unordered structure of the data, it is difficult to compress point cloud data to a low volume. Transforming the raw point cloud data into a dense 2D matrix...
Preprint
Trajectory datasets of road users have become more important in the last years for safety validation of highly automated vehicles. Several naturalistic trajectory datasets with each more than 10.000 tracks were released and others will follow. Considering this amount of data, it is necessary to be able to compare these datasets in-depth with ease t...
Chapter
Inhalt Pitch der Innovationen – Impulsvorträge im Plenummit anschließender Poster-Session Manipulation von Sensordaten aus Testfahrten zur Analyse und Bewertung implementierter Rückfalllösungen . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Sensortechnologien und Perzeption Radar Target Simulator – Key Technology for AV Development . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Künstlich...
Conference Paper
This paper presents the application-based development of a transferable system concept for the targeted detection of acoustic signals and sound patterns in the vehicle environment. The focus in this paper is on the acoustic properties of the system and the processing of the acoustic data. Based on a siren signal in the vehicle environment, the appl...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This deliverable presents the results of the Technical and Traffic Evaluation, and the User and Acceptance Evaluation of the L3Pilot project. For these evaluations, vehicle and questionnaire data were collected during the piloting operations of automated driving functions (ADFs) in L3Pilot. Results were generated separately for different types of A...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Testing of automated driving functions on public roads becomes crucial for market introduction of such systems since the complexity and variety of real traffic scenarios is nearly impossible to reconstruct in a controlled environment such as test tracks. At the same time, it is theoretically necessary to drive billions of miles to show statisticall...
Conference Paper
With the accelerating effort of electrifying vehicles, new challenges, e.g. regarding their powertrain concepts, arise due to a changed torque offer from e-machines. This results in new and innovative transmission layouts. Currently, especially for the truck segment, no state of the art transmission concept is established. To conquer the described...
Conference Paper
Vehicle manufactures not only have to comply with current and future CO2 regulation, they also increasingly commit themselves to a holistic optimization of the automotive life cycle with the aim to become carbon-neutral. This is generating a high pressure for innovation on vehicle manufacturers and the upstream supply chain as well as the demand fo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Self-driving vehicles as part of a connected mobility system are posing completely new challenges compared to conventional driver-centric vehicles. The UNICARagil consortium has developed disruptive architectures for a future mobility system, cover- ing all relevant domains inside and outside of the vehicle. Its modular structure in combination wit...
Article
Das Brennstoffzellenfahrzeug stellt im Zuge der Flottenelektrifizierung eine vielversprechende Alternative zum batterieelektrischen Fahrzeug dar. Bisher stellt der Großteil der Fahrzeughersteller allerdings nur Kleinserien vor und es verkaufen nur wenige asiatische OEMs FCEV in größerer Stückzahl. Der wohl am häufigsten genannte Grund sind die hohe...
Article
The fuel cell electric vehicle represents a promising alternative to the battery electric vehicle in the course of fleet electrification. So far, however, the majority of vehicle manufacturers are only presenting small series, and only a few Asian OEMs are selling FCEVs in larger numbers. Probably the most frequently cited reason is the high produc...
Preprint
Full-text available
With the Corridor for New Mobility Aachen - D\"usseldorf, an integrated development environment is created, incorporating existing test capabilities, to systematically test and validate automated vehicles in interaction with connected Intelligent Transport Systems Stations (ITS-Ss). This is achieved through a time- and cost-efficient toolchain and...
Chapter
This subproject of the research group FOR2089 focuses on the vehicle-induced road load and the interaction between vehicle, tire and road. The here presented measurement methods are not only used to validate the different simulation models established by the research group members, but also to parametrize and optimize physical tire models for the a...
Chapter
When driving a conditionally automated vehicle, a haptic signal might be an option in order to facilitate the TOR, since the driver’s visual and acoustic modalities may be occupied by non-driving related tasks. Therefore, the driver’s seat rotation is examined here as haptic cue in the TOR since, so far, it has not been considered in detail, yet. T...
Chapter
The automotive industry faces a broad variety of different challenges, especially with regard to HMI development. One significant lever for improvement is optimizing the applied processes during development. In order to identify the exact challenges relevant for HMI development and to find requirements for an ideal HMI development approach, 15 semi...
Chapter
Fahrerassistenzsysteme erlebten bereits seit den Anfängen in den 70er und 80er Jahren eine faszinierende Entwicklung, die noch längst nicht abgeschlossen ist: Einerseits sind Einzelsysteme wie Adaptive Cruise Control, Lane Keeping Assistant, Parkassistenz etc. bereits in Serie, die bestimmte Aspekte der Fahrzeugführung unterstützen, indem sie z. B....
Preprint
Full-text available
The research project HDV-Mess aims at a currently missing, but very crucial component for addressing important challenges in the field of connected and automated driving on public roads. The goal is to record traffic events at various relevant locations with high accuracy and to collect real traffic data as a basis for the development and validatio...
Article
Anthropometry is a science concerning human body dimension measurements and proportions that is widely applied in multiple disciplines, particularly in apparel and “human-centered” product design. Designers and engineers generally use percentile anthropometric data that leads to significant errors in practice. Although adopting non-statistic body d...
Preprint
Full-text available
For the assessment of machine perception for automated driving it is important to understand the influence of certain environment factors on the sensors used. Especially when investigating large amounts of real-world data to find and understand perception uncertainties, a smart concept is needed to structure and categorize such complex data dependi...
Article
Full-text available
Verification and validation of automated driving functions impose large challenges. Currently, scenario-based approaches are investigated in research and industry, aiming at a reduction of testing efforts by specifying safety relevant scenarios. To define those scenarios and operate in a complex real-world design domain, a structured description of...
Article
Thermal radiation is considered a fundamental factor of human thermal perception, however the effect of specific radiation spectra has not yet been explored comprehensively. This study investigates the influence of different radiation types, short-wave infrared A and long-wave infrared C radiation, on thermal sensation and thermal comfort. 29 parti...
Preprint
Full-text available
Evidential occupancy grid maps (OGMs) are a popular representation of the environment of automated vehicles. Inverse sensor models (ISMs) are used to compute OGMs from sensor data such as lidar point clouds. Geometric ISMs show a limited performance when estimating states in unobserved but inferable areas and have difficulties dealing with ambiguou...
Preprint
Full-text available
Safety assurance of automated driving systems must consider uncertain environment perception. This paper reviews literature addressing how perception testing is realized as part of safety assurance. We focus on testing for verification and validation purposes at the interface between perception and planning, and structure our analysis along the thr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Verification and validation of automated driving functions impose large challenges. Currently, scenario-based approaches are investigated in research and industry, aiming at a reduction of testing efforts by specifying safety relevant scenarios. To define those scenarios and operate in a complex real-world design domain, a structured description of...