Luke C Mullany

Luke C Mullany
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health | JHSPH · Department of International Health

PhD, MS, MHS

About

234
Publications
57,372
Reads
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8,882
Citations
Citations since 2017
99 Research Items
5370 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,000
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,000
Additional affiliations
October 2009 - present
Johns Hopkins University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (234)
Article
Full-text available
Objective Preterm birth can have short-term and long-term complications for a child. Socioeconomic factors and pregnancy-related morbidities may be important to predict and prevent preterm births in low-resource settings. The objective of our study was to find prevalence and predictors of spontaneous preterm birth in rural Nepal. Design This is a...
Article
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Objective: Risk factors predisposing infants to community-acquired bacterial infections during the first 2 months of life are poorly understood in South Asia. Identifying risk factors for infection could lead to improved preventive measures and antibiotic stewardship. Methods: Five sites in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan enrolled mother-child pa...
Article
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The burden of neonatal mortality remains high worldwide, particularly in South Asia. Verbal Autopsy is a method used to identify cause of death (COD) where vital registration capabilities are lacking. This study examines the causes of neonatal mortality in a large study population in rural Southern Nepal. The data used is from a larger cluster-rand...
Article
Background Globally, neonatal mortality accounts for almost half of all deaths in children younger than 5 years. Aetiological agents of neonatal infection are difficult to identify because the clinical signs are non-specific. Using data from the Aetiology of Neonatal Infections in south Asia (ANISA) cohort, we aimed to describe the spectrum of infe...
Article
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Background In South Asia, a third of babies are born small-for-gestational age (SGA). The risk factors are well described in the literature, but many studies are in high-and-middle income countries or measure SGA on facility births only. There are fewer studies that describe the prevalence of risk factors for large-for-gestational age (LGA) in low-...
Article
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Objectives In low-income countries, birth weights for home deliveries are often measured at the nadir when babies may lose up of 10% of their birth weight, biasing estimates of small-for-gestational age (SGA) and low birth weight (LBW). We aimed to develop an imputation model that predicts the ‘true’ birth weight at time of delivery. Design We dev...
Preprint
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Background In South Asia, a third of babies are born small-for-gestational age (SGA) accounting for a quarter of all neonatal deaths. The risk factors are well described in the literature, but many studies are in high-and-middle income countries or measure SGA on facility births only. There are fewer studies that describe the prevalence of risk fac...
Article
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Background: In Nepal, neonatal mortality fell substantially between 2000 and 2018, decreasing 50% from 40 to 20 deaths per 1,000 live births. Nepal's success has been attributed to a decreasing total fertility rate, improvements in female education, increases in coverage of skilled care at birth, and community-based child survival interventions....
Article
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Introduction The WHO Nutrition Target aims to reduce the global prevalence of low birth weight by 30% by the year 2025. The Enhancing Nutrition and Antenatal Infection Treatment (ENAT) study will test the impact of packages of pregnancy interventions to enhance maternal nutrition and infection management on birth outcomes in rural Ethiopia. Method...
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Background The Global Nutrition Target of reducing low birthweight (LBW) by at least 30% between 2012 and 2025 has led to renewed interest in producing accurate, population-based, national low birthweight (LBW) estimates. Low- and middle-income countries rely on household surveys for birthweight data. These data are frequently incomplete and exhibi...
Article
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Background Low birthweight (LBW) (< 2500 g) is a significant determinant of infant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In low-income settings, the quality of birthweight data suffers from measurement and recording errors, inconsistent data reporting systems, and missing data from non-facility births. This paper describes birthweight data quality and...
Article
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Abstract Background The intrapartum period is a time of high mortality risk for newborns and mothers. Numerous interventions exist to minimize risk during this period. Data on intervention coverage are needed for health system improvement. Maternal report of intrapartum interventions through surveys is the primary source of coverage data, but they...
Article
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Background In South Sudan, the civil war in 2016 led to mass displacement in Juba that rapidly spread to other regions of the country. Access to health care was limited because of attacks against health facilities and workers and pregnant women and newborns were among the most vulnerable. Translation of newborn guidelines into public health practic...
Article
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Infants born to HIV-infected mothers are more likely to be low birthweight (LBW) than other infants, a condition that is stigmatized in many settings worldwide, including sub-Saharan Africa. Few studies have characterized the social-cultural context and response to LBW stigma among mothers in sub-Saharan Africa or explored the views of women living...
Article
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Background: Nausea and vomiting are experienced by a majority of pregnant women worldwide. Previous studies have yielded conflicting results regarding their impact on birth outcomes and few studies have examined this relationship in settings with limited resources. We aimed to determine the effect of nausea, vomiting and poor appetite during pregn...
Article
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Background: Despite recent improvements in child survival, neonatal mortality continues to decline at a slower rate and now represents 47% of under-five deaths globally. The World Health Organization developed core indicators to better monitor the quality of maternal and newborn health services. One such indicator for newborn health is "the propor...
Article
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Background: Most newborn deaths occur among those of low birthweight (LBWt), due to prematurity &/or impaired fetal growth. Simple practices can substantially mitigate this risk. In low-income country settings where many births occur at home, strategies are needed that empower mothers to determine if their babies are at higher risk and, if so, to...
Article
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Influenza is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and the World Health Organization highly recommends maternal vaccination during pregnancy. The indirect effect of maternal vaccination on other close contacts other than newborns is unknown. To evaluate this, we conducted a nested substudy between 2011 and 2012 of influenza and...
Article
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Objectives Observational studies have identified associations between periodontitis and adverse pregnancy outcomes, but randomised controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of periodontal therapy have yielded inconsistent results. Few studies have explored relationships between gingival inflammation and these outcomes or been conducted in rural, lo...
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Background: Maternal retention in HIV care is lower for women in the postpartum period than during pregnancy, but the reasons are poorly understood. We examined key differences in barriers to retention in HIV care during and after pregnancy. Methods: We conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 30 postpartum women living with HIV. Part...
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Background: Few randomized trials have assessed the impact of reducing household air pollution from biomass stoves on adverse birth outcomes in low-income countries. Methods: Two sequential trials were conducted in rural low-lying Nepal. Trial 1 was a cluster-randomized step-wedge trial comparing traditional biomass stoves and improved biomass s...
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Objectives Antiseptic oral rinses have been evaluated as interventions to reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with periodontal disease in pregnant women. Oral rinse use is not common in Nepal or other countries in South Asia, where the prevalence of adverse pregnancy outcomes is high. Understanding whether pregnant women in rur...
Article
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Background Maternal influenza immunisation can reduce morbidity and mortality associated with influenza infection in pregnant women and young infants. We aimed to determine the vaccine efficacy of maternal influenza immunisation against maternal and infant PCR-confirmed influenza, duration of protection, and the effect of gestational age at vaccina...
Article
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Background: In many low- and middle-income countries, insufficient human resources limit access to oral health services. Shifting clinical tasks to less specialized health professionals, such as community health workers, has been used as a strategy to expand the health workforce, especially in remote or underserved locations. The objective of this...
Preprint
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Background: In South Sudan, civil war worsened in 2016 leading to massive displacement in Juba that rapidly spread to other regions of the country. Access to health care is sparse due to attacks on health facilities and workers; pregnant women and newborns are amongst the most vulnerable in this context. The feasibility of implementing a new packag...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The civil war in 2016 led to mass displacement in Juba that rapidly spread to other regions of the country. Access to health care was limited because of attacks against health facilities and workers and pregnant women and newborns were among the most vulnerable. Translation of newborn guidelines into public health practice, particularly...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: In South Sudan, the civil war in 2016 led to mass displacement in Juba that rapidly spread to other regions of the country. Access to health care was limited because of attacks against health facilities and workers and pregnant women and newborns were among the most vulnerable. Translation of newborn guidelines into public health practi...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Prenatal anxiety is a prevalent condition that is harmful for women and a strong predictor of postpartum depression. This trial assesses an intervention initiated in early pregnancy to mid pregnancy among women with clinical or subclinical symptoms of anxiety in Pakistan. Methods and analysis Happy Mother, Healthy Baby (HMHB) is a pha...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Most newborn deaths occur among those of low birthweight (LBWt), due to prematurity &/or impaired fetal growth. Simple practices can substantially mitigate this risk. In low-income country settings where many births occur at home, strategies are needed that empower mothers to determine if their babies are higher risk and take measures t...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To assess the extent to which maternal histories of newborn danger signs independently or combined with birth weight and/or gestational age (GA) can capture and/or predict postsecond day (age>48 hours) neonatal death. Methods Data from a cluster-randomised trial conducted in rural Bangladesh were split into development and validation set...
Article
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Background: One in five women suffer from anxiety during pregnancy. Untreated anxiety is a risk factor for postnatal depression and is associated with adverse birth outcomes. Despite the high prevalence of prenatal anxiety in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), efforts to develop and evaluate context-specific interventions in these settings a...
Article
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Background Increased coverage of antenatal care and facility births might not improve maternal and newborn health outcomes if quality of care is sub-optimal. Our study aimed to assess the facility readiness and health worker knowledge required to provide quality maternal and newborn care. Methods Using an audit tool and interviews, respectively, f...
Article
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Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) in pregnancy, including asymptomatic bacteriuria, is associated with maternal morbidity and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preterm birth and low birthweight. In low-middle income countries (LMICs), the capacity for screening and treatment of UTIs is limited. The objective of this study was to descri...
Article
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Background: Natural vegetable oils are widely used for newborn massage in many low resource settings. Animal models indicated that sunflower seed oil (SSO) can accelerate skin barrier recovery following damage, while other oils, including mustard oil (MO), may cause further skin barrier damage. The objective was to compare the effects of two SSO a...
Article
Introduction and hypothesis Although pelvic floor disorders (PFDs) are a significant public health issue in higher income countries, less is known about these disorders and associated risk factors in low income countries. We aimed to determine prevalence and associated risk factors for stress urinary incontinence (SUI), urge urinary incontinence (U...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Nausea and vomiting are experienced by a majority of pregnant women worldwide. Previous studies have yielded conflicting results regarding their impact on birth outcomes and few studies have examined this relationship in settings with limited resources. We aimed to determine the effect of nausea, vomiting and poor appetite (NVP) during...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Nausea and vomiting are experienced by a majority of pregnant women worldwide. Previous studies have yielded conflicting results regarding their impact on birth outcomes and few studies have examined this relationship in settings with limited resources. We aimed to determine the effect of nausea, vomiting and poor appetite during pregnan...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Nausea and vomiting are experienced by a majority of pregnant women worldwide. Previous studies have yielded conflicting results regarding their impact on birth outcomes and few studies have examined this relationship in settings with limited resources. We aimed to determine the effect of nausea, vomiting and poor appetite during pregnan...
Article
Full-text available
Background/objectives: To estimate the risks of term-small for gestational age (SGA), preterm-appropriate for gestational age (AGA), and preterm SGA associated with maternal height and body mass index (BMI) and to calculate the population attributable fractions (PAF) of term SGA, preterm AGA, and preterm SGA associated with maternal short stature....
Article
Background: The presence of natal or neonatal teeth, which have been associated with environmental factors and hereditary syndromes, can have an impact on the psychosocial growth of children. Methods: We aimed to estimate the incidence of natal tooth in Sarlahi district of Nepal.Live births from Sarlahi district in Nepal were assessed for natal...
Article
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Background: The presence of natal or neonatal teeth, which have been associated with environmental factors and hereditary syndromes, can have an impact on the psychosocial growth of children. Methods: We aimed to estimate the incidence of natal tooth in Sarlahi district of Nepal.Live births from Sarlahi district in Nepal were assessed for natal te...
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Abstract Background Iron-deficiency anemia during pregnancy is an underlying cause of maternal deaths, and reducing risk through routine iron supplementation is a key component of antenatal care (ANC) programs in most low- and middle income countries. Supplementation coverage during pregnancy is estimated from maternal self-reports in population-ba...
Article
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Care for low birthweight (LBW) infants can contribute to psychological difficulties and stigma among mothers living with HIV, creating challenges for antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and retention in HIV care. We explored how caring for LBW infants affects maternal ART adherence and retention in care. We conducted 30 in-depth interviews with...
Article
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Abstract Background The oral health status of pregnant women in low-resource communities such as Nepal has not been well characterized. This sub-population is also of specific interest given associations between poor oral health and adverse pregnancy outcomes previously documented in other settings. We explored relationships between gingivitis and...
Article
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Background One-third of preterm births are attributed to pregnancy infections. We implemented a community-based intervention to screen and treat maternal genitourinary tract infections, with the aim of reducing the incidence of preterm birth. Methods We did an unblinded cluster-randomised controlled trial in two subdistricts of Sylhet, Bangladesh....
Article
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Introduction: The role of screening and treatment for abnormal vaginal flora (AVF) on adverse pregnancy outcomes remains unclear. Using data from women who participated in a population-based cluster randomized trial who were screened and treated for AVF, we report risk factors for AVF and association of persistent AVF with adverse perinatal outcom...
Article
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Background Quantitative validation studies alone may not be able to distinguish between instances when participants did not accurately report an event vs when participants did not understand a question. We used an explanatory qualitative study design to acquire an in-depth understanding of why some mothers in rural Nepal overestimate birth size of...
Article
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Objective The present study examined the prevalence of and risk factors for malnutrition in a population-based cohort of women of childbearing age in rural Bangladesh. Design A cross-sectional study that collected pre-pregnancy weight, height, and data on selected risk factors for nutritional status of women. Setting The study was conducted in Sy...
Article
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Background: Targeted clinical interventions have been associated with a decreased risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality. In conflict-affected countries such as South Sudan, however, implementation of lifesaving interventions face barriers and facilitators that are not well understood. We aimed to describe the factors that influence implementati...
Article
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Background: More than 500 000 neonatal deaths per year result from possible serious bacterial infections (pSBIs), but the causes are largely unknown. We investigated the incidence of community-acquired infections caused by specific organisms among neonates in south Asia. Methods: From 2011 to 2014, we identified babies through population-based p...
Article
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Background Tracking progress towards global newborn health targets depends largely on maternal reported data collected through large, nationally representative surveys. We evaluated the validity, across a range of recall period lengths (1 to 24 months post-delivery), of maternal report of birthweight, birth size and length of pregnancy. Methods We...
Article
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Background: Oral health behavior and attitudes of pregnant women in low-income countries are rarely examined, yet should be considered when designing preventative or therapeutic studies to reduce burden of oral diseases. We aimed to understand dental care-seeking behavior, as well as oral health knowledge and attitudes of oral health among pregnan...