Luke K Fryer

Luke K Fryer
The University of Hong Kong | HKU · Faculty of Education

Ph.D.

About

111
Publications
57,239
Reads
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1,660
Citations
Citations since 2016
94 Research Items
1566 Citations
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Introduction
My research addresses why and how students learn on and offline. A considerable portion of my recent work is focused on interest development within and across formal education. I have a longstanding, personal interest in the potential role of Bots within student learning. Everything my lab works on is carefully organised and presented here: Motivation2Learn.com. This is the place to go if you are interested in doing a Ph.D. with us, joining us for a PostDoc, or just collaborating.
Additional affiliations
January 2015 - April 2016
The University of Sydney
Position
  • Research Associate
March 2005 - January 2015
Kyushu Sangyo University
Position
  • Head of Instruction and Curricula

Publications

Publications (111)
Article
Background: Self-efficacy beliefs have well established theoretical and empirical linkages to persistence and achievement. Budding theoretical and recent empirical research has worked to connect self-efficacy to interest. Building on research in these areas, burgeoning research has begun to examine the relative role of intercept and slope of self-...
Poster
Full-text available
A wide range of empirical studies have explored various situational interest sources (e.g., novelty, utility-value) within learning activities. This review aims to systematically summarize the situational interest sources identified by existing empirical studies based on the four-phase model of interest development (Hidi & Renninger, 2006) and to s...
Chapter
Full-text available
As research questions in the rapidly growing field of Open, Distance, and Digital Education shift from if to how these forums should be approached, a paramount and complementary area of research is the accompanying motivation students’ exhibit to learn in ODDE environments. This chapter critically examines the existing literature on student motivat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Students arrive to university with varying readiness to navigate high-stakes large-enrolment courses. Declines in students' ability beliefs (e.g., self-efficacy beliefs), motivations (e.g., interest) and achievement are well known. A bespoke mobile testing platform is used to moderate declines through automated large-scale feedback comparing goals...
Poster
Full-text available
Gamified formative assessment has been increasingly popular within English language education due to its potential to promote learning processes. However, no existing review was identified to synthesise the effectiveness of gamified formative assessment for English language learning, especially for school-aged learners. This scoping review contribu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background: In 2018, the national decision was made for foreign languages (generally English) to become a formal school subject in Japanese elementary schools. There is considerable evidence to suggest that many elementary school teachers remain poorly equipped to satisfy these curricular requirements. As part of Japan’s response to covid-19, chrom...
Article
Full-text available
Developing the fundamentals of a foreign language is a major focus of most elementary school language programs (Butler, 2015). One of the established key fundamentals for all later language studies comes in the form of awareness and understanding of the sounds commonly used in the new language, commonly known as phonological awareness (PA). Finding...
Research Proposal
Full-text available
This is a registration of a protocol for a scoping review which aims to provide a comprehensive overview regarding how built-in social tools in MOOCs affects students' belongingness, interest and completion rate, and identify relevant research gaps.
Article
Full-text available
Background: The use of chatbots as learning assistants is receiving increasing attention in language learning due to their ability to converse with students using natural language. Previous reviews mainly focused on only one or two narrow aspects of chatbot use in language learning. This review goes beyond merely reporting the specific types of cha...
Preprint
Full-text available
How students experience educational environments and the interconnections between their readiness, task experiences and their long-term desire to reengage with course content are critical questions for educators. Research postgraduate students (n=310) at a research- intensive university in Hong Kong, engaging in a 24-hour introductory teaching cour...
Article
Full-text available
How students experience educational environments and the interconnections between their readiness, task experiences and their long-term desire to reengage with course content are critical questions for educators. Research postgraduate students (n = 310) at a research-intensive university in Hong Kong, engaging in a 24-h introductory teaching course...
Article
Full-text available
Effective assessment of university experiences is critical for quality assurance/enhancement but fragmented across the Pacific-Asian universities. A shared conceptual and measurement foundation for understanding student experiences is a necessary first step for inter-institutional communication across the region. The current study is a first step t...
Article
en Higher education's rapid expansion is paired with growing social expectations of its benefits and concern on its teaching quality. In response to these, institutional/national surveys based on an array of theories are widely used in universities for quality assurance, enhancement, and benchmarking. This paper reviews three major types of instrum...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Self-efficacy has well established theoretical and empirical linkages to persistence and achievement. Budding theoretical and recent empirical research has worked to connect self-efficacy to students' interest. Building on research in these areas, burgeoning research has begun to examine the relative role of intercept and slope of self-...
Article
Much of formal higher education research on learning experiences has focused on processing strategies and outcomes, however, less attention has been paid to their precursors. This study employed Biggs’ 3P model to examine the contributions of learning conceptions (as part of learning patterns (LPs) research; construction of knowledge, intake of kno...
Preprint
Full-text available
Higher education’s rapid expansion is paired with growing social expectations of its benefits and concern on its teaching quality. In response to these, institutional/national surveys based on an array of theories are widely used in universities for quality assurance, enhancement, and benchmarking. This paper reviews three major types of instrument...
Preprint
Full-text available
The paired development of an individual’s knowledge and interest in an object/topic has well-established theoretical and empirical support. Their shared role within learning experiences has similar support but has less often been researched intensively in formal contexts such as classrooms. To address this gap, four studies in four foundation unive...
Article
Full-text available
Motivations-beliefs for learning and their relationship to instructional experiences are a poorly understood aspect of higher education. Notably, interest is an individual difference that both researchers and educators alike believe should be supported. However, this support is too often relegated to the craft of instruction. To be enhanced broadly...
Preprint
Full-text available
Young learners require developmental benchmarks to improve awareness of the phonemes in a new language. This study aimed to extend our understanding of Japanese elementary school students’ general and specific phonemic awareness across four years of English instruction. A public elementary school 3rd-6th year students in Japan (n=261, ages=8–12) pa...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
How do students become interested in a new domain of study? How does students' readiness (prior interest, self-efficacy and prior knowledge) play a role in this process? How do specific learning experiences play a role in this process?
Preprint
Full-text available
Interest is a critical fuel for and outcome of learning. Building on and refocusing the Four-Phase Model of interest development, this study provides a window into the ecology of the learning experience and interest it generates. This research tests a task interest model for understanding learning experiences in three university courses (mathematic...
Preprint
Full-text available
Phonemic awareness is a necessary but not sufficient skill for language development. Phonemic awareness is therefore a critical factor for initial foreign language learning leading to ultimate attainment of literacy in the new language. The current study presents a test of phonemic awareness applied to the Japanese elementary school EFL environment...
Article
Formative assessment can be seen as an integral part of teaching and learning, as formative assessment affects students’ learning and vice versa. Students’ motivation can theoretically be placed at the centre of this reciprocal relationship, as formative assessment is assumed to affect students’ need satisfaction of autonomy, competence and related...
Article
Full-text available
Graduate students often teach in higher education but lack necessary experience, while enrolment for teacher-training courses is often voluntary with varying standards. The development and malleability of graduate students' teaching approaches, self-efficacy, interest and teaching ability were evaluated in a mandatory teaching course at a research-...
Article
Full-text available
Bots are destined to dominate how humans interact with the internet of things that continues to grow around them. Despite their still budding intellectual capacity, major companies (e.g., Apple, Google and Amazon) have already placed (chat)bots at the center of their flagship devices. Chatbots currently fill the internet acting as guides, merchants...
Article
Full-text available
Interest and self-efficacy are crucial to academic success. This study addresses two gaps in our understanding of their development and support during university courses: how prior self-efficacy and interest plays a role in, and how different classroom activities build toward the development of students' future interest and self-efficacy. In this s...
Article
Full-text available
Students' gender can have subtle long-term effects on students' motivation, engagement, and ultimate achievement in learning a new language. Given the current focus on motivation in primary and secondary schools in many Asian countries, understanding both boys' and girls' orientations toward learning English may offer insight into students' future...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous theorists have offered opinions about motivational differences between learning a new language and other school subjects. At the same time, little empirical evidence for the differences has been brought forward. In this study, we aimed to address these motivational differences and similarities between learning a new (foreign) language and...
Article
Full-text available
Self-report is a fundamental research tool for the social sciences. Despite quantitative surveys being the workhorses of the self-report stable, few researchers question their format-often blindly using some form of Labelled Categorical Scale (Likert-type). This study presents a brief review of the current literature examining the efficacy of surve...
Cover Page
Full-text available
While self-report measures are ubiquitous in the educational research literature, the benefits of self-report are often maligned. Rather than discarding or ignoring data generated from self-report measures of cognitive processing and motivation, research is needed to determine when and if self-report measures can contribute to our collective unders...
Article
Full-text available
As a prelude to this special issue on the promise and pitfalls of self-report, this article addresses three issues critical to its current and future use. The development of self-report is framed in Vertical (improvement) and Horizontal (diversification) terms, making clear the role of both paths for continued innovation. The ongoing centrality of...
Article
Full-text available
Self-report is a fundamental research tool for the social sciences. Despite quantitative surveys being the workhorses of the self-report stable, few researchers question their format—often blindly using some form of Labelled Categorical Scale (Likert-type). This study presents a brief review of the current literature examining the efficacy of surve...
Chapter
Full-text available
Student learning and development in higher education is a broad topic. While learning and development are certainly related components of the university experience, researchers have generally focused on one or the other, thus creating two research streams that rarely converge. In student development, there are at least three long-established bodi...
Chapter
The present chapter will present what is, as yet, a very small niche within the strategic processing research literature: the (potential) role of person-centered analyses for strategic processing research. This chapter is organised into three sections. The first aims to situate person-centered quantitative research methodologies within the plethora...
Cover Page
Full-text available
Handbook of Strategies and Strategic Processing provides a state-of-the-art synthesis of conceptual, measurement, and analytical issues regarding learning strategies and strategic processing. Contributions by educational psychology experts present the clearest-yet definition of this essential and quickly evolving component of numerous theoretical f...
Article
Full-text available
Research postgraduate students (RPgs) are often accepted into degree programmes for their research potential rather than proficiency in teaching and communication skills. In Hong Kong, previous exposure in these areas vary among RPgs, and introductory training courses are often employed to mitigate the experience gap. The aim of this study was to i...
Cover Page
Full-text available
The special issue offers a new, up-to-date look on a plurality of non-cognitive individual difference factors with the potential to meaningfully influence language learning in formal educational settings. For the purpose of this discussion, we use the commonly accepted operational definition of non-cognitive individual difference factors as specifi...
Poster
Full-text available
This poster presents a framework for determining whether (and then when) to use technology to support learning inside and outside classrooms. The framework first seeks to focus educators’ attention on the critical teaching-learning aims which technology might support (e.g., Peer learning, Feedback, Self-directed learning, and Enjoyment/Motivation)....
Poster
Full-text available
Numerous theorists have offered opinions about the differences between learning a new language and other school subjects. At the same time, little empirical evidence for the differences has been brought forward. In this study, we aimed to address the motivational differences and similarities between learning a new (foreign) language and learn one's...
Poster
Full-text available
Across three first-year science courses (Mathematics-Analysis, Biochemistry and Introduction-to-Physics), an online tool for the micro-analytic collection of students’ interest in lecture-hall/tutorial tasks/activities was piloted/refined. Utilising Partial Least Squares (PLS) latent regression modelling, data from three courses were each modelled,...
Article
Full-text available
This review positions current conceptions of interest and its development as a critical and (importantly) sustainable source of motivation for learning a new language across formal education. We begin with the gap in our understanding of motivation to learn a new language generated by the longstanding dominance of applied linguistics identity/socio...
Poster
Full-text available
We tested the interplay between ability-beliefs (self-efficacy and self-concept) and interest at three levels of specificity (Domain, Course and Task), and their relationship with students’ interest in the domain and self-efficacy for the course across one semester of study. Longitudinal latent modelling of the first-year students (n=128) studying...
Article
Full-text available
Strategies – and the motivation to use them – are critical to helping learners solve complex problems and complete complex tasks. These strategies and motivation are specific to certain domains – such as science – and even specific to certain tasks. Policies to improve learners’ strategies and motivations should consider the learners themselves, th...
Article
Full-text available
How do we support students through their difficult transition to secondary school? Perceived value for and perceived ability to be successful during secondary school are a crucial part of any answer to this question. These perceptions and their interaction with classroom instruction are at the heart of many issues students face in this challenging...
Article
Full-text available
17 With increasing globalization, English has become an essential tool for communication across national and cultural borders. For Asia-Pacific countries, which include a diverse range of languages, there is a sustained and growing interest in expanding the percentage of their population competent in English (Kachru, 1997). As a result of this move...
Article
The current study used a longitudinal design to model initial interest and utility-value as antecedents of de- veloping interest and course proficiency. Using measures from four time points across one academic year and competency assessed at the beginning of the previous year, we examined direct and mediated contributions of utility-value, self-eff...
Article
Full-text available
Conversation practice, while paramount for all language learners, can be difficult to get enough of and very expensive. In this mobile age, chatbots are an obvious means of filling this gap, but have yet to realize their potential as practice partners. The current study was undertaken to examine why chatbots are not yet a substantial instrument for...
Chapter
Full-text available
The idiosyncrasies of the Japanese system of education generate specific trends in the development of Japanese students' motivation. From the perspective of modern engagement and motivation theories, every level of Japanese schooling differs in its degree of institutional and societal focus on externally and internally controlled sources of motivat...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter explores the methodological choices made in an illustrative complex and longitudinal study of classroom interest in a language task. They walk the reader through choices that must be made in a quantitative analysis step by step while also advocating for best practices in quantitative research, such as using technology as a partner in r...
Article
Full-text available
Biggs’ Presage-Process-Product (3P) model provides a flexible model for testing hypotheses about intra-psychic and contextual effects on student learning processes and outcomes; however, few empirical studies have effectively tested the longitudinal and reciprocal effects implied by the model. The current study provides an empirical test of theoriz...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Teaching to promote motivation in Japanese elementary schools is about helping students engage with material. Engagement describes how students think, act, and feel when they work on their learning tasks. Research has indicated that supportive teaching in elementary schools involves several specific elements, including pacing, clarity, and interest...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study examined an integrative model for assessing students’ learning experience of foreign and native languages at Japanese junior high schools. The integrated model consisted of perceived control, regulation of motivation, and perceptions of instruction. The hypothetical support and harm of instruction for students’ motivations and beliefs wa...
Poster
Full-text available
The reciprocal connections between student and teacher behavior have long been established (Skinner & Belmont, 1993). The essential roles of both interest (Dewey, 1913) and self-efficacy (Bandura, 1993) within student learning are well-recognized. Recent research has established that this pair of beliefs and motivations/emotions are reciprocally re...
Poster
Full-text available
Four practical levels of interest were assessed: Task, Class, Course and Domain (see Fryer et al., 2016). The scales tapped the collative concepts of value, enjoyment, curiosity, and the desire to learn more, and aimed to measure interest at each level. Scales were completed on a touch interface, web platform immediately after the lecture-hall task...
Poster
Full-text available
Students with less confidence in their foreign language skills prefer chatbots over human partners (Fryer, 2006). While growing in language competence, Chatbots are still imperfect language partners (Coniam, 2014; Fryer & Nakao, 2009) . Initial interest in chatbot partners might be due chiefly to their novelty, therefore contributing little or noth...
Poster
Full-text available
A pairing of theoretical positions on value and ability motivation, combined with our growing understanding of how students perceive instructions is an important integrative lens for understanding the student experience. In particular, this collation of theories might provide an important window into perhaps one of the most difficult periods of for...
Presentation
Fryer, L. K., Ainley, M. D., Thompson, A., & Nakao, K. (August, 2018). Getting and Keeping University Students Interested: An Educational Technology Perspective. A symposium presentation at the International Conference on Motivation, Aarhus, Denmark.
Poster
Full-text available
Abstract: Teaching and effective communication skills are critical to the success of many roles beyond full-time teachers (e.g. medicine, law, engineering, apprenticeships, postgraduate students). Such responsibilities include informally training others and giving presentations in addition to formal teaching roles. Introductory training courses can...
Poster
Full-text available
Abstract: Teaching assistants (TA) are vital to higher education (Park, 2004; Santandreu Calonge et al, 2013; Parker et al, 2015). As many TAs are assigned duties with little prior experience, formal training of teaching skills is essential (Blouin & Moss, 2015). For practical teaching, microteaching sessions serve as a valuable substitute to in-cl...
Article
Full-text available
Elementary school is as much about developing attitudes as competence. With this fact in mind, the Japanese national government established a plan to enhance elementary school students’ motivation for learning English. The success of this program has, however, not been empirically tested. This study aimed to assess the longitudinal, discrete develo...
Article
Full-text available
Persistence in any of the growing variety of e-learning formats is a longstanding and pernicious problem. The widely acknowledged nature of this issue makes the considerable gap in our understanding of students’ motivation to e-learn a serious concern. Building on initial studies, the current research examines important predictors and outcomes of s...
Poster
Full-text available
The poster demonstrates how externally controlling teacher behaviors have a more strongly negative impact on Japanese students' long-term motivation than autonomy supportive and structured teaching.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Contemporary models of student learning within higher education are often inclusive of processing and regulation strategies. Considerable research has examined their use over time and their (person-centred) convergence. The longitudinal stability/variability of learning strategy use, however, is poorly understood, but essential to supp...