Łukasz Gawęda

Łukasz Gawęda
Polish Academy of Sciences | PAN · Institute of Psychology

PhD
Currently our focus is on mechanisms of paranoia and auditory hallucinations in non-clinical and clinical contextes.

About

103
Publications
35,756
Reads
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Introduction
Our research group is focused on early risk states of psychopathology, including psychosis, depression and suicide. We are particularly focused on cognitive biases in the context of their relevance to the development of psychopathology. Our research focuses on an interaction between environmental adversities, personality traits, cognition and emotional processes. Our recent projects: 1. An interaction trauma-cognition-psychosis; cognitive biases in psychotic-like experiences; 2. a role of psychotic-like experiences, depression and trauma in suicidal behaviours and non-suicidal self-injuries; 3. auditory false perceptions in psychosis and its risk states 4. Interrelations between different cognitive biases and their linkage to psychotic symptoms and social functioning;
Additional affiliations
October 2018 - November 2018
Medical University of Warsaw
Position
  • Principal Investigator
September 2014 - present
SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
August 2014 - August 2014
King's College London
Position
  • Research visor
Description
  • 2 weeks research visit under a supervision of dr Matteo Cella.

Publications

Publications (103)
Article
Introduction: Paranoia in community samples is associated with higher levels of depression, anxiety symptoms and suicidality. The metacognitive model assumes the role of metacognitive factors in these associations. Positive and negative metacognitive beliefs (PMB and NMB, respectively) and cognitive-attentional syndrome (CAS) are to mediate between...
Preprint
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Background: A feeling of vulnerability is believed to be the foundation upon which paranoia is built. Factors that may increase vulnerability include negative affective states, low self-esteem and high social rejection sensitivity. Body image, which is one aspect of overall self-esteem, has recently been shown to be associated with paranoia, and th...
Article
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Numerous studies have reported that stressful life experiences increase the risk of psychosis and psychotic-like experiences (PLEs). Common variations of the FKBP5 gene have been reported to impact the risk of psychosis by moderating the effects of environmental exposures. Moreover, anxious and avoidant attachment styles have been shown to increase...
Article
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The hypothesis of the psychosis continuum enables to study the mechanisms of psychosis risk not only in clinical samples but in non-clinical as well. The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate self-disturbances (SD), a risk factor that has attracted substantial interest over the last two decades, in combination with trauma, cognitive bia...
Article
Sleep quality has been found to play an important role in paranoia-like thoughts both in clinical and non-clinical populations. Previous studies have shown that the presence of negative emotional states can mediate the link between sleep and paranoia, however, their role in the linkage is still not entirely clear. Hence, our study aimed to investig...
Article
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To the Editors, The metacognitive model of paranoia in schizophrenia and paranoia-like beliefs in general population assumes that such beliefs originate because of positive metacognitive beliefs about paranoia activate as a coping strategy in response to interpersonal threats. Then paranoia and psychological distress are maintained and perpetuated...
Article
Background Anomalous self-experiences (ASE) are suggested as a phenotypic core feature of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and present in at risk samples as well. In our study, we investigated the relation between ASE and clinical high risk state for psychosis (CHRP) against the background of further influencing factors like childhood trauma and ge...
Book
Ta książka jest próbą dyskusji na temat wybranych aspektów problematyki zdrowia psychicznego w kontekście obserwowanych zmian zachodzących we współczesnym świecie. Autorzy wskazali, w jaki sposób takie procesy jak rozluźnienie więzi społecznych, wzrost poczucia osamotnienia, stopniowe zwiększanie się wpływu technologii na nasze codzienne funkcjonow...
Article
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Cognitive biases are an important factor contributing to the development and symptom severity of psychosis. Despite the fact that various cognitive biases are contributing to psychosis, they are rarely investigated together. In the current systematic review, we aimed at investigating specific and shared functional neural correlates of two important...
Article
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Current psychopathology attempts to understand personality disorders in relation to deficits in higher cognition such as min-dreading and metacognition. Deficits in mindreading are usually related to limitations in or a complete lack of the capacity to understand and attribute mental states to others, while impairments in metacognition concern dysf...
Article
Background: The most extensively used instrument to measure dissociation is the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). Recently, an extended version of this instrument was provided, which also measures somatoform symptoms of dissociation. The aim of this study was to examine the component structure and internal consistency of the extended version of...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cognitive biases are an important factor contributing to the development and symptom severity of psychosis. Despite that various cognitive biases are contributing to psychosis, they are rarely investigated together. In the current systematic review, we aimed at investigating specific and shared neural correlates of two important cognitive biases: a...
Article
Background Resilience has been increasingly recognized as a relevant area of research and clinical intervention in mental health. Although resilience is considered a putative protective factor against psychopathology development, its role in psychosis continuum disorders has been less frequently recognized. Aims To examine neurocognitive and perso...
Article
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Background: Cognitive models suggest that top-down and emotional processes increase false perceptions in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD). However, little is still known about the interaction of these processes in false auditory perceptions. The present study aimed at investigating the specific as well as joint impacts of expectancies and emo...
Article
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Anomalous self-experiences (ASEs) are subjective disturbances in the experience of the self and are common among people with psychotic-spectrum disorders. Previous research has shown that ASEs are highly correlated but distinct from other aspects of schizotypal personality. The current study examined the nomological network of ASEs by examining the...
Article
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Objectives: The theoretical affinity between need for closure (NFC) construct and psychotic symptomatology, especially delusionality, has been tested in various studies and brought diverse results. This study tested this relationship on a large sample from the general population using an online survey. Methods: "Preference for Predictability","D...
Article
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Common variations of the FKBP5 gene are implicated in psychotic disorders, by modulating the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis reactivity to stress. It has been demonstrated that some of them might moderate the effects of childhood trauma on psychosis proneness. However, these associations have not been investigated with respect to traumatic life...
Article
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Although self-disturbances (SD) are considered to be a core psychopathological feature of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, there is still insufficient empirical data on the mechanisms underlying these anomalous self-experiences. The aim of the present study was to test a hypothesized model in which cognitive biases and exposure to traumatic life e...
Article
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The present study investigated the accuracy of metacognitive judgments in source monitoring with self-report scales engaging either information- or experienced-based knowledge. We expected that the source monitoring abilities may be affected by the origins of meta-knowledge that underlie post-decision wagering (PDW) based on economic categorization...
Article
Introduction The distinction between the schizophrenia spectrum and other types of disorders may be clinically relevant in terms of its predictive validity as suggested by studies showing schizophrenia spectrum patients have more unfavourable outcomes compared to other psychotic disorders. The present study aimed to investigate whether basic self-d...
Article
Background Due to coronavirus pandemic, governments have ordered a nationwide isolation. In this situation, we hypothesised that people holding conspiracy beliefs are less willing to adhere to medical guidelines. Furthermore, we explored what possible factors may modify relationships between conspiracy, paranoia-like beliefs, and adherence to epid...
Article
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Background There is a growing number of studies showing interactions between genetic polymorphisms associated with dopaminergic neurotransmission and traumatic life events (TLEs) on a risk of psychotic-like experiences (PLEs). Anomalous self-experiences (ASEs) have been associated both with TLEs as well as with PLEs. However, it remains unknown wha...
Article
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Both cognitive appraisals of risks associated with the specific disease and affective response to crisis situations have been shown to shape an individual response to pandemics. COVID-19 pandemic and measures introduced to contain it present an unparalleled challenge to mental well-being worldwide. Here, we examine the relationship between self-rep...
Chapter
This review brings together findings on the emotional processes and cognitive biases underlying psychosis, particularly delusions. A focus is set on two recent models of psychosis formation and maintenance. The model by Daniel Freeman and Philippa Garety has identified six causal mechanisms for persecutory delusions, four of which are emotional in...
Article
Objective The study investigates the relationship between cognitive biases and attachment styles and social functioning. Method Fifty‐three patients (28 females, age M = 41.73, SD = 11.71) with the diagnosis of schizophrenia participated in the study. We measured attachment styles, cognitive biases, and social functioning using self‐report questio...
Article
The present study examined the factorial structure of the Pathological Gambling Adaptation of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (PG-YBOCS) to delineate similarities and differences between thoughts and behavior related to pathological gambling (PG) versus obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The PG-YBOCS was administered in its self-report...
Article
Although the linkage between traumatic life events and psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) is well established, the knowledge of potential mechanisms of this relationship is scarce. The aim of the present study was to better understand the structure of connections between traumatic life events and PLEs by considering at the same time the role of cogn...
Article
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Persecutory beliefs predict adherence to epidemiological safety guidelines over time – a longitudinal study - Joachim Kowalski, Łukasz Gawęda
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Background Contemporary psychiatric research focuses its attention on the patient’s dysfunction of metacognition in relation to the basic cognitive processes of mental activity. The current study investigated dysfunctional metacognition in relation to self-monitoring of memory in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Dysfunctions in metacognition...
Article
Background Impairments in self-recognition (i.e. recognition of own thoughts and actions) have been repeatedly shown in individuals with schizophrenia. According to classical clinical characterizations, schizophrenia is included in a continuum encompassing a large range of genetic statuses, psychotic states and symptoms. The current meta-analysis a...
Article
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Background In the last decades psychological resilience has been increasingly recognized as a relevant area of research and clinical intervention in mental health. However, in the field of “at risk mental states” this topic remains underexplored. Limited studies involving individuals with ‘at risk mental state’ have demonstrated that they have lowe...
Article
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Immersive virtual reality is a technology that allows the user to immerse in the virtual world in isolation from external stimuli. It enables the simulation of different social situations, often impossible to arrange in reality, with high control over the confounding variables. Thanks to the VR realism, the viewer of this reality behaves similarly...
Article
Objectives: The significance of cognitive functioning deficits in schizophrenia is already well acknowledged. The relationships among lower and higher order cognitive skills and symptoms, as well as their relevance to holding a paid job are relatively less researched, though. The purpose of this study was to conduct an analysis concerning these is...
Article
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Background: Childhood traumatic events are risk factors for psychotic-like experiences (PLEs). However, the mechanisms explaining how trauma may contribute to the development of PLEs are not fully understood. In our study, we investigated whether cannabis use and cognitive biases mediate the relationship between early trauma and PLEs. Methods: A to...
Article
We have been invited to reply to the article by Yung et al. titled ‘The reality of at risk mental state services: a response to recent criticisms,’ which comments on two manuscripts highlighting possible problems with the early detection approach for people deemed at high risk for developing psychosis. One of these articles was written by our group...
Article
Anomalous self-experiences are disturbances in the subjective experience of the self and have been shown to be related to the premorbid, prodromal, acute, and chronic phases of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Despite having a long history in psychopathology research, anomalous self-experiences are not explicitly represented in any major nosology...
Article
Jumping to conclusions and bias against disconfirmatory evidence are two cognitive biases common in people with psychotic-like experiences and psychosis. However, many participants show comprehension problems doing traditional tasks; new paradigms with additional applied scenarios are thus needed. A large MTurk community sample (N = 1422) was recru...
Article
Aims Recent studies have provided evidence that interactions between variation in dopaminergic genes and stressful experiences might impact risk of psychosis. However, it remains unknown whether these interactions impact the development of subclinical symptoms, including psychotic‐like experiences (PLEs). In this study, we aimed to test the effect...
Article
Background: The integration of various domains or levels of analysis (clinical, neurobiological, genetic, etc.) has been a challenge in schizophrenia research. A promising approach is to use the core phenomenological features of the disorder as an organising principle for other levels of analysis. Minimal self-disturbance (fragility in implicit fi...
Article
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Objectives: We aimed to investigate latent classes of psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) and self disturbances (SD) and to explore mutual overlapping between derived subgroups. Further, our goal was to investigate class membership relationship with an exposure to childhood trauma and different psychopathological factors such as cognitive biases, dep...
Article
Since the 1990s, facilities for individuals at putative risk for psychosis have mushroomed and within a very short time have become part of the standard psychiatric infrastructure in many countries. The idea of preventing a severe mental disorder before its exacerbation is laudable, and early data indeed strongly suggested that the earlier the inte...
Article
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Introduction: Stress aggravates delusional symptoms, but the exact underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. One of the routes may be via exacerbation of information processing distortions frequently observed in psychosis. The aim of the present study was thus to investigate the impact of social and sensory stress on specific cognitive...
Article
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Background: Early trauma is an important risk factor for depression. However, little is known about the mechanisms of how traumatic life events shape the risk of depression. The present study focused on the mediating role of cognitive biases and mental resilience between early trauma and depressive symptoms in young men and women. Methods: 2218 non...
Article
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Objectives The present study aimed to test a hypothetical model where causally linked and ordered cognitive biases, resilience, and depressive symptoms serve as mediators of the relationship between early traumatic life events and psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) in the general population of young adults. Methods Two thousand six hundred and fourt...
Article
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Introduction: The relationship between childhood trauma and the risk of psychosis is well established. However, the mechanisms of the relationship are still unknown. We investigated whether two factors involved in the risk of psychosis – self-disturbances and aberrant salience – mediate the relationship between childhood trauma and psychotic-like e...
Article
Objective: Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) often occur across different non-psychotic disorders in adolescent and young adult population and are related to early trauma. However, the mechanisms of how exposure to early trauma shapes the risk of PLEs are unclear. In our study, we investigated whether borderline personality features and further non...
Article
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We aimed to perform a cluster analysis to investigate the group structure of a combination of psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) and self-disturbances in a non-clinical sample. Non-clinical adults (n= 677) were assessed with the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE), the Davos Assessment of Cognitive Biases Scale (DACOBS) and the Invent...
Article
Jumping to conclusions (JTC) is defined as a tendency to make decisions based on insufficient information. JTC has been reported in patients with psychosis, but the mechanisms of this cognitive bias remain unknown. The main aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between JTC and neuropsychological functioning in schizophrenia. A total...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Childhood trauma, psychosis risk, cognition, and depression have been identified as important risk markers for suicidal behaviors. However, little is known about the interplay between these distal and proximal markers in influencing the risk of suicide. We aimed to investigate the interplay between childhood trauma, cognitive biases, ps...
Article
Full-text available
Alexithymia is an important but poorly understood emotional deficit in schizophrenia. We aimed at investigating the role of basic cognitive functions, cognitive biases, and symptom severity in alexithymia among patients with schizophrenia. Sixty patients (31 females) with schizophrenia were assessed with standardized clinical interviews for symptom...
Article
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Hallucination-like experiences (HLEs) are typically defined as sensory perceptions in the absence of external stimuli. Multidimensional tools, able to assess different facets of HLEs, are helpful for a better characterization of hallucination proneness and to investigate the cross- national variation in the frequencies of HLEs. The current study se...
Article
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Aim The Inventory of Psychotic‐Like Anomalous Self‐Experiences (IPASE) is a self‐report measure of minimal self‐disturbance. The aim of the current report was to assess the construct validity of the scale by examining its convergent validity with the gold‐standard measure of minimal self‐disturbance, the Examination of Anomalous Self‐Experience (EA...
Article
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Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD) are complex and multidimensional disorders with high heritability rates. The contribution of genetic factors to the etiology of these disorders is increasingly being recognized as the action of multiple risk variants with small effect sizes, which might explain only a minor part of susceptibility. On the othe...
Article
Full-text available
Background Patients with schizophrenia display a tendency to jump to conclusions (JTC), although the cognitive mechanisms of JTC remain unknown. The main aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between the subjective and objective measure of JTC and neuropsychological functioning in a sample of people with schizophrenia. Methods A tot...
Article
Full-text available
Background Source monitoring (SM) is a metacognitive process involved in making judgments about the origin of memories, knowledge and beliefs. Many studies have demonstrated that people with schizophrenia perform more poorly on tasks of source monitoring when compared to non-schizophrenic. Although source of monitoring is considered as an important...
Article
Although traumatic life events have been linked to the risk of psychosis, the mechanisms of the relationship remain unclear. We investigated whether insecure (anxious and avoidant) attachment styles, cognitive biases and self-disturbances serve as significant mediators in the relationship between traumatic life events and psychotic-like experiences...
Article
Background: Self-monitoring biases and overconfidence in incorrect judgments have been suggested as playing a role in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Little is known about whether self-monitoring biases may contribute to early risk factors for psychosis. In this study, action self-monitoring (i.e., discrimination between imagined and performed ac...
Article
Background: Traumatic life events have been established as an environmental risk factor for psychosis. However, the exact mechanisms by which traumatic life events increase risk for psychosis are unknown. In the present study we tested an integrative model of traumatic life events being related to psychosis proneness via self-disturbances and cogni...
Poster
Full-text available
Aim: In the everyday clinical practice it is essential to use short and reliable screening tools. One of the main maintenance factors for psychotic symptoms are cognitive distortions. The aim of this study is to provide a short version of the Davos Assessment of Cognitive Biases Scale (DACOBS), a self-report tool to assess cognitive distortions rel...
Article
Jumping to conclusions (JTC) distinguishes patients with schizophrenia from both healthy and psychiatric controls. JTC is typically assessed using the beads task, which, however, faces a number of limitations as to its interpretability and reliability. The present study set out to validate a new paradigm to assess JTC: the box task. We adopted a ps...
Article
Aim: The aim of this study was to provide a short version of the Davos Assessment of Cognitive Biases Scale (DACOBS), which is a self-report tool to assess cognitive distortions related to psychosis. Methods: A principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted on a large non-clinical sample (N = 1207) and cross-validated with a confirmatory factor...
Article
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Background and objectives: This study aimed to assess specific changes in cognitive biases and the efficacy of two individual metacognitive training (MCT) modules which target the jumping to conclusions bias and theory of mind deficits among people diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Methods: Thirty-one patients were randomly allocated...