Lukas Novotny

Lukas Novotny
ETH Zurich | ETH Zürich · Photonics Laboratory

About

297
Publications
47,367
Reads
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25,195
Citations
Citations since 2016
127 Research Items
13126 Citations
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201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,5002,000
201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,5002,000
201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,5002,000

Publications

Publications (297)
Preprint
Full-text available
Optical information processing using photonic integrated circuits is a key goal in the field of nanophotonics. Extensive research efforts have led to remarkable progress in integrating active and passive device functionalities within one single photonic circuit. Still, to date, one of the central components - i.e. light sources - remain a challenge...
Article
Full-text available
Motional control of levitated nanoparticles relies on either autonomous feedback via a cavity or measurement-based feedback via external forces. Recent demonstrations of the measurement-based ground-state cooling of a single nanoparticle employ linear velocity feedback, also called cold damping, and require the use of electrostatic forces on charge...
Article
Full-text available
Fluctuation theorems based on time-reversal have provided remarkable insight into the non-equilibrium statistics of thermodynamic quantities like heat, work, and entropy production. These types of laws impose constraints on the distributions of certain trajectory functionals that reflect underlying dynamical symmetries. In this work, we introduce a...
Article
Within the framework of stochastic electrodynamics we derive the noise spectrum of a laser beam reflected from a suspended mirror. The electromagnetic field follows Maxwell's equations and is described by a deterministic part that accounts for the laser field and a stochastic part that accounts for thermal and zero-point background fluctuations. Li...
Article
Full-text available
Growing graphene nanoribbons from small organic molecules encapsulated in carbon nanotubes can result in products with uniform width and chirality. We propose a method based on encapsulation of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene from the liquid phase and subsequent annealing. This procedure results in graphene nanoribbons several tens of nanometers long. The p...
Preprint
Within the framework of stochastic electrodynamics we derive the noise spectrum of a laser beam reflected from a suspended mirror. The electromagnetic field follows Maxwell's equations and is described by a deterministic part that accounts for the laser field and a stochastic part that accounts for thermal and zero-point background fluctuations.Lik...
Preprint
Full-text available
The quantum ground state of a massive mechanical system is a steppingstone for investigating macroscopic quantum states and building high fidelity sensors. With the recent achievement of ground-state cooling of a single motional mode, levitated nanoparticles have entered the quantum domain. To overcome detrimental cross-coupling and decoherence eff...
Preprint
Full-text available
Excitons in optoelectronic devices have been generated through optical excitation, external carrier injection, or employing pre-existing charges. Here, we reveal a new way to electrically generate excitons in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). The TMD is placed on top of a gold-hBN-graphene tunnel junction, outside of the tunneling pathway. T...
Preprint
Full-text available
We theoretically show that laser recoil heating in free-space levitated optomechanics can be strongly reduced by shining squeezed light onto an optically trapped nanoparticle. The presence of squeezing modifies the quantum electrodynamical light-matter interaction in a way that enables us to control the amount of information that the scattered ligh...
Preprint
Full-text available
Fluctuation theorems based on time-reversal have provided remarkable insight into the non-equilibrium statistics of thermodynamic quantities like heat, work, and entropy production. These types of laws impose constraints on the distributions of certain trajectory functionals that reflect underlying dynamical symmetries. In this work, we introduce a...
Article
Coherence has been used as a resource for optical communications since its earliest days. It is widely used for the multiplexing of data, but not for the encoding of data. Here we introduce a coding scheme, which we call mutual coherence coding, to encode information in the mutual coherence of spatially separated light beams. We describe its implem...
Preprint
Full-text available
Coherence has been used as a resource for optical communications since its earliest days. It is widely used for multiplexing of data, but not for encoding of data. Here we introduce a coding scheme, which we call \textit{mutual coherence coding}, to encode information in the mutual coherence of spatially separated light beams. We describe its imple...
Article
A mechanically compliant element can be set into motion by the interaction with light. In turn, this light-driven motion can give rise to ponderomotive correlations in the electromagnetic field. In optomechanical systems, cavities are often employed to enhance these correlations up to the point where they generate quantum squeezing of light. In fre...
Preprint
Full-text available
Growing graphene nanoribbons from small organic molecules encapsulated in carbon nanotubes can result in products with uniform width and chirality. We propose a method based on encapsulation of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, from the liquid phase, and subsequent annealing. This procedure results in 6-armchair graphene nanoribbon without byproducts. The pr...
Article
Full-text available
Memristors hold great promise as building blocks for future computing architectures where memory and logic are combined at the hardware level. However, scaling down the dimensions of memristive devices has been limited by high leakage currents, thus inhibiting further progress. Recent studies have demonstrated memristors with monolayers of MoS2 and...
Preprint
Full-text available
The field of levitodynamics has made significant progress towards controlling and studying the motion of a levitated nanoparticle. Motional control relies on either autonomous feedback via a cavity or measurement-based feedback via external forces. Recent demonstrations of measurement-based ground-state cooling of a single nanoparticle employ linea...
Article
The angular orientation of an anisotropic scatterer with cylindrical symmetry in a linearly polarized light field represents an optomechanical librator. Here, we propose and theoretically analyze an optimal measurement scheme for the two angular degrees of freedom of such a librator. The imprecision–back-action product of this scheme reaches the He...
Article
Full-text available
Carbyne, a linear chain of carbon atoms, is the truly one-dimensional allotrope of carbon and the strongest known Raman scatterer. Here, we use tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) to further enhance the Raman response of a single carbyne chain confined inside a double-walled carbon nanotube. We observe an increase of the anti-Stokes scattering by...
Preprint
Full-text available
A mechanically compliant element can be set into motion by the interaction with light. In turn, this light-driven motion can give rise to ponderomotive correlations in the electromagnetic field. In optomechanical systems, cavities are often employed to enhance these correlations up to the point where they generate quantum squeezing of light. In fre...
Article
Long linear chains of carbon encapsulated in carbon nanotubes represent the finite realization of carbyne, the truly one-dimensional carbon allotrope. Driven by advances in the synthesis of such structures, carbyne has attracted significant interest in recent years, with numerous experimental studies exploring its remarkable properties. As for othe...
Chapter
We built an experimental setup consisting of two phase-only liquid crystal-based spatial light modulators to independently control amplitude, phase, and polarisation of an optical beam which is strongly focused by a microscope objective. We have furthermore implemented a method to characterize the intensity distribution in the focus with sub-wavele...
Chapter
Light emitting tunnel junctions based on van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures are expected to be efficient transducers between electrical and optical signals. Using graphene as a material for one or both electrodes, out-coupling limitations to the far-field which are characteristic of metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structures could be overcome. Moreov...
Conference Paper
Ultra-short, low-loss graphene-organic hybrid phase modulators are introduced. 20 Gbit/s PAM-2 and PAM-4 data modulation are demonstrated with devices of 25 m length and on-chip losses of 0.86 dB.
Conference Paper
The mutual correlations between spatially separated optical fields can be controlled employing an optical linear port. By shaping the wavefront of the light transmitted through a complex medium, we realize this port for three beams.
Article
Control over optical spatial coherence is a key requirement in diverse applications including imaging, optical trapping, and communications. Current approaches to controlling spatial coherence are constrained by speed or limited to a single pair of optical fields. Here, we propose a method to achieve single-shot control of the spatial coherence bet...
Preprint
The control of levitated nano- and micro-objects in vacuum is of considerable interest, capitalizing on the scientific achievements in the fields of atomic physics, control theory and optomechanics. The ability to couple the motion of levitated systems to internal degrees of freedom, as well as to external forces and systems, provides opportunities...
Article
To have to hold The ability to control and cool the motion of levitated systems—in some cases down to their motional ground state—and to couple these systems to external forces provides opportunities for fundamental science and technology. Gonzalez-Ballestero et al . provide an overview of the status, challenges, and prospects of levitodynamics, th...
Article
Full-text available
Single-layer graphene has many remarkable properties but does not lend itself as a material for light-emitting devices as a result of its lack of a band gap. This limitation can be overcome by a controlled stacking of graphene layers. Exploiting the unique Dirac cone band structure of graphene, we demonstrate twist-controlled resonant light emissio...
Preprint
Full-text available
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) demands reliable, high enhancement substrates in order to be used in different fields of application. Here, we introduce freestanding porous gold membranes (PAuM) as easy to produce, scalable, mechanically stable, and effective SERS substrates. We fabricate large-scale sub-30 thick PAuM, that form freestan...
Article
The understanding of the dynamics of nonequilibrium cooling and heating processes at the nanoscale is still an open problem. These processes can follow surprising relaxation paths due to, e.g., memory effects, which significantly alter the expected equilibration routes. The Kovacs effect can take place when a thermalization process is suddenly inte...
Preprint
The angular orientation of an anisotropic scatterer with cylindrical symmetry in a linearly polarized light field represents an optomechanical librator. Here, we propose and theoretically analyze an optimal measurement scheme for the two angular degrees of freedom of such a librator and demonstrate that this scheme reaches the Heisenberg limit of t...
Article
Rotational optomechanics strives to gain quantum control over mechanical rotors by harnessing the interaction of light and matter. We optically trap a dielectric nanodumbbell in a linearly polarized laser field, where the dumbbell represents a nanomechanical librator. Using measurement-based parametric feedback control in high vacuum, we cool this...
Preprint
Full-text available
Control over optical spatial coherence is a key requirement in diverse applications including imaging, optical trapping, and communications. Current approaches to controlling spatial coherence are constrained by speed or limited to a single pair of optical fields. Here, we propose a method to achieve single-shot control of the spatial coherence bet...
Article
Full-text available
The interest of nanoparticle-based aerogels —3-dimensional (3D) nanoparticle assemblies of macroscopic sizes— in photocatalysis is mainly their versatility for tailoring properties. However, little is known about the true viability of the aerogels as photocatalysts in part because of their 3D structure that is unusual for this application. Here, we...
Article
Gabriele Rainò, Lukas Novotny and Martin Frimmer discuss the approach they are pursuing at ETH Zürich to provide students with an education in quantum engineering.
Article
Full-text available
Tests of quantum mechanics on a macroscopic scale require extreme control over mechanical motion and its decoherence1,2,3. Quantum control of mechanical motion has been achieved by engineering the radiation–pressure coupling between a micromechanical oscillator and the electromagnetic field in a resonator4,5,6,7. Furthermore, measurement-based feed...
Article
Full-text available
We investigate the anti-Stokes Raman scattering of single carbyne chains confined inside double-walled carbon nanotubes. Individual chains are identified using tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) and heated by resonant excitation with varying laser powers. We study the temperature dependence of carbyne’s Raman spectrum and quantify the laser-induc...
Article
Full-text available
Rare transitions between long-lived metastable states underlie a great variety of physical, chemical and biological processes. Our quantitative understanding of reactive mechanisms has been driven forward by the insights of transition state theory and in particular by Kramers’ dynamical framework. Its predictions, however, do not apply to systems t...
Preprint
Full-text available
We demonstrate Raman sideband thermometry of single carbyne chains confined in double-walled carbon nanotubes. Our results show that carbyne's record-high Raman scattering cross section enables anti-Stokes Raman measurements at the single chain level. Using laser irradiation as a heating source, we exploit the temperature dependence of the anti-Sto...
Preprint
Full-text available
The understanding of the dynamics of nonequilibrium cooling and heating processes at the nanoscale is still an open problem. These processes can follow surprising relaxation paths due to, e.g., memory effects, which significantly alter the expected equilibration routes. The Kovacs effect can take place when a thermalization process is suddenly inte...
Preprint
Full-text available
Tests of quantum mechanics on a macroscopic scale require extreme control over mechanical motion and its decoherence. Quantum control of mechanical motion has been achieved by engineering the radiation-pressure coupling between a micromechanical oscillator and the electromagnetic field in a resonator. Furthermore, measurement-based feedback control...
Preprint
Full-text available
According to quantum theory, measurement and backaction are inextricably linked. In optical position measurements, this backaction is known as radiation pressure shot noise. In analogy, a measurement of the orientation of a mechanical rotor must disturb its angular momentum by radiation torque shot noise. In this work, we observe the shot-noise tor...
Preprint
Full-text available
Rare transitions between long-lived metastable states underlie a great variety of physical, chemical and biological processes. Our quantitative understanding of reactive mechanisms has been driven forward by the insights of transition state theory. In particular, the dynamic framework developed by Kramers marks an outstanding milestone for the fiel...
Article
Full-text available
In addition to their strong nonlinear optical response, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) possess a high refractive index in the visible and infrared regime. Therefore, by patterning those TMDCs into dielectric nanoresonators, one can generate highly confined electromagnetic modes. Controlled fabrication of TMDC nanoresonators does not only...
Article
Full-text available
We experimentally quantify the Raman scattering from individual carbyne chains confined in double-walled carbon nanotubes. We find that the resonant differential Raman cross section of confined carbyne is on the order of 10⁻²² cm² sr⁻¹ per atom, making it the strongest Raman scatterer ever reported.
Article
Full-text available
Van der Waals heterostructures assembled from two-dimensional materials offer a promising platform to engineer structures with desired optoelectronic characteristics. Here we use waveguide-coupled disk resonators made of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) to demonstrate cavity-coupled emission from interlayer excitons of a heterobilayer of two monolaye...
Preprint
Full-text available
Van der Waals heterostructures assembled from two-dimensional materials offer a promising platform to engineer structures with desired optoelectronic characteristics. Here we use waveguide-coupled disk resonators made of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) to demonstrate cavity-coupled emission from interlayer excitons of a heterobilayer of two monolaye...
Article
Optically levitated rotors are prime candidates for torque sensors whose precision is limited by the fluctuations of the rotation frequency. In this work we investigate an optically levitated rotor at its fundamental thermal limit of frequency stability, where rotation-frequency fluctuations arise solely due to coupling to the thermal bath.
Preprint
We experimentally quantify the Raman scattering from individual carbyne chains confined in double-walled carbon nanotubes. We find that the resonant differential Raman cross section of confined carbyne is on the order of $10^{-22}$ cm$^{2}\,$sr$^{-1}$ per atom, making it the strongest Raman scatterer ever reported.
Preprint
Full-text available
In addition to their strong nonlinear optical response, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) possess a high refractive index in the visible and infrared regime. Therefore, by patterning those TMDCs into dielectric nanoresonators, one can generate highly confined electromagnetic modes. Controlled fabrication of TMDC nanoresonators does not only...
Article
Optische Präzisionsmessungen haben es erstmals erlaubt, eine Signatur der Nullpunktsbewegung eines im Vakuum schwebenden Glaspartikels zu beobachten. Das Ergebnis macht Hoffnung, dass es eines Tages gelingen kann, die Grenzen der Quantentheorie an makroskopischen Objekten zu testen.
Preprint
Optically levitated rotors are prime candidates for high-precision torque sensors whose precision is limited by the fluctuations of the rotation frequency. In this work, we investigate an optically levitated rotor at its fundamental thermal limit of frequency stability, where rotation-frequency fluctuations arise solely due to coupling to the therm...
Article
Full-text available
Intensive efforts have been devoted to the exploration of new optoelectronic devices based on two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) owing to their strong light–matter interaction and distinctive material properties. In particular, photodetectors featuring both high-speed and high-responsivity performance are of great interest for...
Article
The hallmark of quantum physics is Planck’s constant h, whose finite value entails the quantization that gave the theory its name. The finite value of h gives rise to inevitable zero-point fluctuations even at vanishing temperature. The zero-point fluctuation of mechanical motion becomes smaller with growing mass of an object, making it challenging...
Article
We experimentally demonstrate flipping the phase state of a parametron within a single period of its oscillation. A parametron is a binary logic element based on a driven nonlinear resonator. It features two stable phase states that define an artificial spin. The most basic operation performed on a parametron is a bit flip between these two states....
Preprint
Full-text available
In ultra-thin two-dimensional (2-D) materials, the formation of ohmic contacts with top metallic layers is a challenging task that involves different processes than in bulk-like structures. Besides the Schottky barrier height, the transfer length of electrons between metals and 2-D monolayers is a highly relevant parameter. For MoS$_2$, both short...
Article
We theoretically analyze the problem of detecting the position of a classical dipolar scatterer in a strongly focused optical field. We suggest an optimal measurement scheme and show that it resolves the scatterer's position in three dimensions at the Heisenberg limit of the imprecision-backaction product. We apply our formalism to levitated-optome...
Article
We investigate the influence of laser phase noise heating on resolved sideband cooling in the context of cooling the center-of-mass motion of a levitated nanoparticle in a high-finesse cavity. Although phase noise heating is not a fundamental physical constraint, the regime where it becomes the main limitation in Levitodynamics has so far been unex...
Preprint
Analogous to radio- and microwave antennas, optical nanoantennas are devices that receive and emit radiation at optical frequencies. Until recently, the realization of electrically driven optical antennas was an outstanding challenge in nanophotonics. In this review we discuss and analyze recent reports in which quantum tunneling-specifically inela...
Article
Full-text available
Integration of electrical contacts into van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures is critical for realizing electronic and optoelectronic functionalities. However, to date no scalable methodology for gaining electrical access to buried monolayer two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors exists. Here we report viable edge contact formation to hexagonal boron n...
Article
Analogous to radio- and microwave antennas, optical nanoantennas are devices that receive and emit radiation at optical frequencies. Until recently, the realization of electrically driven optical antennas was an outstanding challenge in nanophotonics. In this review we discuss and analyze recent reports in which quantum tunneling---specifically ine...
Article
Full-text available
Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) exhibit high second harmonic (SH) generation in the visible due to their non-centrosymmetric crystal structure in odd-layered form and direct bandgap transition when thinned down to a monolayer. In order to emit the SH radiation into a desired direction one requires a means to control the phase of the in-pla...
Preprint
The hallmark of quantum physics is Planck's constant $h$, whose finite value entails the quantization that gave the theory its name. The finite value of $h$ gives rise to inevitable zero-point fluctuations even at vanishing temperature. The zero-point fluctuation of mechanical motion becomes smaller with growing mass of an object, making it challen...
Preprint
We theoretically analyze the problem of detecting the position of a classical dipolar scatterer in a strongly focused optical field. We suggest an optimal measurement scheme and show that it resolves the scatterer's position in three dimensions at the Heisenberg limit of the imprecision-backaction product. We apply our formalism to levitated-optome...
Preprint
We investigate the influence of laser phase noise heating on resolved sideband cooling in the context of cooling the center-of-mass motion of a levitated nanoparticle in a high-finesse cavity. Although phase noise heating is not a fundamental physical constraint, the regime where it becomes the main limitation in Levitodynamics has so far been unex...
Article
We develop a theory for cavity cooling of the center-of-mass motion of a levitated nanoparticle through coherent scattering into an optical cavity. We analytically determine the full coupled Hamiltonian for the nanoparticle, cavity, and free electromagnetic field. By tracing out the latter, we obtain a master equation for the cavity and the center-...
Article
Full-text available
We implement a cold-damping scheme to cool one mode of the center-of-mass motion of an optically levitated nanoparticle in ultrahigh vacuum (10−8 mbar) from room temperature to a record-low temperature of 100 μK. The measured temperature dependence on the feedback gain and thermal decoherence rate is in excellent agreement with a parameter-free mod...
Preprint
Since the invention of the solid-state transistor, the overwhelming majority of computers followed the von Neumann architecture that strictly separates logic operations and memory. Today, there is a revived interest in alternative computation models accompanied by the necessity to develop corresponding hardware architectures. The Ising machine, for...