Lukas Esterle

Lukas Esterle
Aarhus University | AU · Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

PhD

About

78
Publications
6,887
Reads
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951
Citations
Introduction
Lukas Esterle is an Associate Professor at Aarhus University. He leads the Distributed Computational Intelligence research group with Electrical and Computer Engineering. Lukas' research revolves around Distributed and Autonomous Systems in combination with Computational and Artificial Intelligence inspired by biological and psychological processes.
Additional affiliations
October 2021 - present
Aarhus University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Description
  • Leading the Autonomous Intelligent Systems research theme
May 2019 - September 2021
Aarhus University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
February 2019 - April 2019
Aston University
Position
  • Lecturer
Education
September 2010 - June 2014
Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt
Field of study
  • Informationtechnology
October 2003 - May 2010
Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt
Field of study
  • Computer Science
September 1997 - June 2002
HBLA für Kultur- und Kongressmanagement
Field of study

Publications

Publications (78)
Conference Paper
Using hardwood nails in timber construction could help reduce the amount of metal fasteners, the production of which is relatively energy intensive. Moreover, metallic fasteners are difficult to remove and reclaim at the end of a building’s service life: not only is their recycling challenging, but their presence also complicates the reuse and down...
Preprint
Images and video frames captured by cameras placed throughout smart cities are often transmitted over the network to a server to be processed by deep neural networks for various tasks. Transmission of raw images, i.e., without any form of compression, requires high bandwidth and can lead to congestion issues and delays in transmission. The use of l...
Article
We focus on the online multi-object k -coverage problem (OMOkC), where mobile robots are required to sense a mobile target from k diverse points of view, coordinating themselves in a scalable and possibly decentralised way. There is active research on OMOkC, particularly in the design of decentralised algorithms for solving it. We propose a new tak...
Conference Paper
This review focuses on methods for trajectory prediction of moving entities (i.e., pedestrian workers and heavy construction equipment) in construction. To the authors’ knowledge it is the first review on trajectory prediction devoted to construction safety. Through a bibliometric analysis of the relevant literature, it examines the input data and...
Conference Paper
The amount of robots in industry is increasing, pushing the need for easier configuration and integration of robots. The cost of robot integration is often larger than the cost of the robots themselves. With the increasing complexity of robotic systems and the tasks they perform, the future of reducing the expenses of robot system integration is si...
Chapter
Autonomous agents are able to work toward their given goal and interact with their environment and other systems without the immediate help from humans. To accomplish this, they need to understand their environment, their goals, the task at hand as well as other agents in their vicinity. This makes deep learning an essential factor among the capabi...
Conference Paper
In this short vision paper we outline a framework incorporating multi-modal sensory information into so-called digital twins in construction sites. Starting from a first-order principle model (i.e., the construction plan), we enrich the digital twin during runtime with additional information such as work plans, identified and mitigated hazard zones...
Conference Paper
Self-integrating and self-improving system are required to verify their state in order to understand whether they have achieved their goal or need to adapt themselves to reach it. In this short position paper, we outline the main challenges specifically when verifying systems interacting with each other and operating under uncertainties. A short ou...
Conference Paper
Determining which components are required for a system configuration, and whether they are compatible, can be a difficult task, especially in an industry with significant amounts of information that resides within a group of experts. In this paper we illustrate some of the main challenges we and our industrial partner (Technicon) face when configur...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this paper we present an experience report for the RMQ\-FMU, a plug and play tool, that enables feeding data to/from an FMI2-based co-simulation environment based on the AMQP protocol. Bridging the co-simulation to an external environment allows on one side to feed historical data to the co-simulation, serving different purposes, such as visuali...
Article
Large pervasive systems, deployed in dynamic environments, require flexible control mechanisms to meet the demands of chaotic state changes while accomplishing system goals. As centralized control approaches may falter in environments where centralized communication and knowledge may be impossible to implement, researchers have proposed decentraliz...
Article
The research initiative “self-improving system integration” (SISSY) was established with the goal to master the ever-changing demands of system organisation in the presence of autonomous subsystems, evolving architectures, and highly-dynamic open environments. It aims to move integration-related decisions from design-time to run-time, implying a fu...
Chapter
When multiple robots are required to collaborate in order to accomplish a specific task, they need to be coordinated in order to operate efficiently. To allow for scalability and robustness, we propose a novel distributed approach performed by autonomous robots based on their willingness to interact with each other. This willingness, based on their...
Chapter
The Department of Engineering at Aarhus University has started up a new science-based BSc degree in Computer Engineering. We report about our planning of the curriculum during the first two years in the Software Engineering area. We discuss highlights, basic concepts, selected course contents, inter and intra course progression, observations from t...
Chapter
The successful development of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) requires collaborative working across diverse engineering disciplines, notations and tools. However, classical computing curricula rarely provide opportunities for students to look beyond the confines of one set of methods. In this paper, we report approaches to raising students’ awareness...
Article
Full-text available
Cyber-physical systems operate in our real world, constantly interacting with the environment and collaborating with other systems. The increasing number of devices will make it infeasible to control each one individually. It will also be infeasible to prepare each of them for every imaginable rapidly unfolding situation. Therefore, we must increas...
Article
In this paper we make the case for the new class of Self-aware Cyber-physical Systems. By bringing together the two established fields of cyber-physical systems and self-aware computing, we aim at creating systems with strongly increased yet managed autonomy, which is a main requirement for many emerging and future applications and technologies. Se...
Article
In this article, we explore the online multiobject k‐coverage problem in visual sensor networks. This problem combines k‐coverage and the cooperative multirobot observation of multiple moving targets problem, and thereby captures key features of rapidly deployed camera networks, including redundancy and team‐based tracking of evasive or unpredictab...
Conference Paper
The overlap of the two established fields of cyber-physical systems and self-aware computing systems constitutes a challenging class of systems that require autonomy and must satisfy multiple, possibly conflicting constraints (e.g., performance, timeliness, energy, reliability). Self-aware cyber-physical systems are situated in dynamic physical env...
Article
Full-text available
Intelligent machines have reached capabilities that go beyond a level that a human being can fully comprehend without sufficiently detailed understanding of the underlying mechanisms. The choice of moves in the game Go (generated by Deep Mind?s Alpha Go Zero [1]) are an impressive example of an artificial intelligence system calculating results tha...
Conference Paper
When a network of cameras with adjustable zoom lenses is tasked with object coverage, an important question is how to determine the optimal zoom level for each camera. While covering a smaller area allows for higher detection likelihood, overlapping fields of view introduce a redundancy which is vital to fault tolerance and acquisition of multiple...
Chapter
The Borg are a conglomeration of a large number of different species. They exploit the positive traits of the individual species in order to progress towards their common goal of achieving ‘perfection’. When teaching about self-aware collective computing systems, the Borg are an ideal example. First, the collective system is often built from hetero...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Inspired by the emerging problem of CPS security, we introduce the concept of controller-attacker games. A controller-attacker game is a two-player stochastic game, where the two players, a controller and an attacker, have antagonistic objectives. A controller-attacker game is formulated in terms of a Markov Decision Process (MDP), with the control...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we combine k-coverage with the Cooperative Multi-robot Observation of Multiple Moving Targets problem, defining the new problem of online multi-object k-coverage. We demonstrate the benefits of mobility in tackling this and propose a decentralised multi-camera coordination that improves this further. We show that coordination exploit...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Camera networks become smart when they can interpret video data on board, in order to carry out tasks as a collective, such as target tracking and (re-)identification of objects of interest. Unlike today's deployments, which are mainly restricted to lab settings and highly controlled high-value applications, future smart camera networks will be mes...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We introduce ARES, an efficient approximation algorithm for generating optimal plans (action sequences) that take an initial state of a Markov Decision Process (MDP) to a state whose cost is below a specified (convergence) threshold. ARES uses Particle Swarm Optimization, with adaptive sizing for both the receding horizon and the particle swarm. In...
Article
Full-text available
We introduce the concept of a V-formation game between a controller and an attacker, where controller's goal is to maneuver the plant (a simple model of flocking dynamics) into a V-formation, and the goal of the attacker is to prevent the controller from doing so. Controllers in V-formation games utilize a new formulation of model-predictive contro...
Chapter
The goals of this chapter are to identify the challenges involved in self-adaptation (including learning and knowledge sharing) of multiple self-aware systems (or system collectives). We shall discuss the techniques available for dealing with the challenges identified (e.g., algorithms for conflict resolution, collective learning, and negotiation p...
Chapter
We define the notion of “self-aware computing” and the relationship of this term to related terms such as autonomic computing, self-management, and similar. The need for a new definition, driven by trends that are only partially addressed by existing areas of research, is motivated. The semantics of the provided definition are discussed in detail e...
Chapter
In this chapter, we propose a methodology to analyse the different levels of self-awareness present in distinct types of computing systems and architectures, investigate the level of self-awareness that is already present in those systems and architectures, and describe some transition strategies to increase the level of self-awareness in these sys...
Chapter
In this chapter, we discuss the open challenges in building self-aware computing systems that are still being faced by the research and development community. The challenges can be theoretical, technical, computational, or even sociological. First, we highlight the challenges associated with each of the earlier parts of the book and summarize on re...
Chapter
Full-text available
Increased self-awareness in computing systems can be beneficial in several respects, including a greater capacity to adapt, to build potential for future adaptation in unknown environments, and to explain their behaviour to humans and other systems. When attempting to endow computing systems with a form of self-awareness, it is important to have a...
Chapter
This chapter aims to discuss the architectural aspects relevant to collectives of self-aware computing systems. Here, collectives consist of several self-aware computing systems that interact in some way. Their interactions may, potentially, lead to the formation of a self-aware collective of systems. Hence, the chapter defines different types of i...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the role of self-awareness for adaptation at the individual level, when one single entity receives inputs both from itself or some of its components and from the external environment and uses the input to adjust to the current conditions. The chapter reviews the most widely used techniques for self-adaptation and identifies t...
Chapter
The purpose of this chapter is to discuss why self-aware systems must pay special attention to self-modeling capabilities, clarify what is meant by both strong and weak self-modeling, and describe some of the defining characteristics of self-modeling. This chapter is also about self-management via run-time model creation by the operational system,...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter discusses the importance of assessing self-awareness of a system and different approaches and aspects on how to enable a human as well as a machine to perform such an assessment. The chapter also elaborates on the different requirements and constraints for an assessment. Furthermore, this chapter outlines how these requirements and con...
Article
Full-text available
We introduce ARES, an efficient approximation algorithm for generating optimal plans (action sequences) that take an initial state of a Markov Decision Process (MDP) to a state whose cost is below a specified (convergence) threshold. ARES uses Particle Swarm Optimization, with adaptive sizing for both the receding horizon and the particle swarm. In...
Article
Full-text available
Cyber-physical systems and the Internet of Things will be omnipresent in the near future. These systems will be tightly integrated in and interacting with our environment to support us in our daily tasks and in achieving our personal goals. However, to achieve this vision, we have to tackle various challenges.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Understanding the working principle of nervous systems of living species has long been a huge source of inspiration in the arti�cial intelligence (AI) community. In particular, the interpretation of reflexive behavior employing neural circuits. Reflex is considered to be the fundamental reason of many physiological behaviors in physical organs of c...
Chapter
As explained in Chapter 5, self-aware and self-expressive systems can be designed based on a number of patterns and primitives. In this chapter, we discuss issues to be considered when developing such systems, especially when going through phases 3 (selecting the best pattern) and 5 (determining primitives and alternatives), and possibly also phase...
Chapter
Chapter 5 has provided step-by-step guidelines on how to design selfaware and self-expressive systems, including several architectural patterns with different levels of self-awareness. Chapter 6 has explained important features in self-aware and self-expressive systems, including adaptivity, robustness, multiobjectivity and decentralisation. To all...
Chapter
This chapter discusses another example of self-aware and self-expressive systems: a multi-camera network for object tracking. It provides a detailed description of how the concepts of self-awareness and self-expression can be implemented in a real network of smart cameras. In contrast to traditional cameras, smart cameras are able to perform image...
Article
Smart cameras perform on-board image analysis, adapt their algorithms to changes in their environment, and collaborate with other networked cameras to analyze the dynamic behavior of objects. A proposed computational framework adopts the concepts of self-awareness and self-expression to more efficiently manage the complex tradeoffs among performanc...
Article
Full-text available
There is a clear trend in camera networks toward enhanced functionality and flexibility, and a fixed static deployment is typically not sufficient to fulfill these increased requirements. Dynamic network reconfiguration helps to optimize the network performance to the currently required specific tasks while considering the available resources. Alth...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We have developed a self-aware multi-camera multi-object tracking application for distributed heterogeneous smart camera networks. This application is able to track multiple persons through the network whereby the cameras are able to transfer the tracking responsibility between each other in a self-organizing manner without any central control. Thi...
Article
Full-text available
When faced with the task of designing and implementing a new self-aware and self-expressive computing system, researchers and practitioners need a set of guidelines on how to use the concepts and foundations developed in the Engineering Proprioception in Computing Systems (EPiCS) project. This report provides such guidelines on how to design self-a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
To solve multi-objective problems, multiple reward signals are often scalarized into a single value and further processed using established single-objective problem solving techniques. While the field of multi-objective optimization has made many advances in applying scalarization techniques to obtain good solution trade-offs, the utility of applyi...
Article
We study heterogeneity among nodes in self-organizing smart camera networks, which use strategies based on social and economic knowledge to target communication activity efficiently. We compare homogeneous configurations, when cameras use the same strategy, with heterogeneous configurations, when cameras use different strategies. Our first contribu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Despite significant interest in the research com-munity, the development of multi-camera applications is still quite challenging. This paper presents Ella -a dedicated pub-lish/subscribe middleware system that facilitates distribution, component reuse and communication for heterogeneous multi-camera applications. We present the key components of th...
Conference Paper
In this paper we study the self-organising behaviour of smart camera networks which use market-based handover of object tracking responsibilities to achieve an efficient allocation of objects to cameras. Specifically, we compare previously known homogeneous configurations, when all cameras use the same marketing strategy, with heterogeneous configu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Smart cameras allow pre-processing of video data on the camera instead of sending it to a remote server for further analysis. Having a network of smart cameras allows various vision tasks to be processed in a distributed fashion. While cameras may have different tasks, we concentrate on distributed tracking in smart camera networks. This applicatio...
Conference Paper
Modern compute systems continue to evolve towards increasingly complex, heterogeneous and distributed architectures. At the same time, functionality and performance are no longer the only aspects when developing applications for such systems, and additional concerns such as flexibility, power efficiency, resource usage, reliability and cost are bec...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we present increased adaptivity and robustness in distributed object tracking by multi-camera net-works using a socio-economic mechanism for learning the vision graph. To build-up the vision graph autonomously within a distributed smart-camera network, we use an ant-colony inspired mechanism, which exchanges responsibility for trackin...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Smart camera networks usually have limited re-sources. This includes not only processing power and memory but in many applications also the amount of available energy. To find a trade-off between available resources and the current requirements of the application, the configuration of the network is very important. Due to rapid changes in the visua...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we propose an approach based on selfinterested autonomous cameras, which exchange responsibility for tracking objects in a market mechanism, in order to maximise their own utility. A novel ant-colony inspired mechanism is used to grow the vision graph during runtime, which may then be used to optimise communication between cameras. Th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A recent trend in smart camera networks is that they are able to modify the functionality during runtime to better re-flect changes in the observed scenes and in the specified monitoring tasks. In this paper we focus on different config-uration methods for such networks. A configuration is given by three components: (i) a description of the camera...