Luisa F. Cabeza

Luisa F. Cabeza
Universitat de Lleida | UDL · Department of Computer and Industrial Engineerings

47.16
 · 
PhD on Industrial Engineering
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Projects (7)
Archived project
Energy use in buildings represents 40% of the total primary energy used in the EU and therefore developing effective energy alternatives is imperative. Solar thermal systems (STS) will have a main role to play as they contribute directly to the heating and cooling of buildings and the provision of domestic hot water. STS are typically mounted on building roofs with no attempt to incorporate them into the building envelope, creating aesthetic challenges and space availability problems. The Action will foster and accelerate long-term development in STS through critical review, experimentation, simulation and demonstration of viable systems for full incorporation and integration into the traditional building envelope. Viable solutions will also consider economic constraints, resulting in cost effective Building Integrated STS. Additionally, factors like structural integrity, weather impact protection, fire and noise protection will be considered. The most important benefit of this Action is the increased adoption of RES in buildings. Three generic European regions are considered; Southern Mediterranean, Central Continental and Northern Maritime Europe, to fully explore the Pan-European nature of STS integration. The Action consortium presents a critical mass of European knowledge, expertise, resources, skills and R&D in the area of STS, supporting innovation and conceptual thinking.
Research
Research items (490)
Article
The increase of the capacity factor of thermal processes which use renewable energies is closely linked to the implementation of thermal energy storage (TES) systems. Currently, TES systems can be classified depending on the technology for storing thermal: sensible heat, latent heat, and sorption and chemical reactions (usually known as thermochemi...
Article
The supply intermittency of energy sources like solar energy or industrial waste heat should be properly addressed when studying latent heat thermal energy storage (TES) systems, since it might cause an incomplete melting/solidification of phase change materials (PCM). In the present paper, and experimental study was performed to analyse the storag...
Article
High temperature corrosion is one of the most important issues for materials selection, structure design and service life prediction of engineering parts that are exposed to high temperature environments. The prevention of high temperature corrosive attacks on materials plays a critical role in aspects such as reliability, quality, safety and profi...
Chapter
Sensible thermal energy storage is widely used in different technologies such as buildings and solar power plants, but also in solar cooling, solar drying of food products, and solar cooking. This chapter summarizes the materials mostly used in thermal energy storage, with special highlight to high temperatures (>150 °C).
Chapter
In the present chapter, an introduction about latent TES technology is reported. Requirements and different types of phase change materials (PCM) are discussed. Finally, a short introduction to PCM composites is presented.
Chapter
This chapter summarizes the techniques to characterize phase change materials for thermal energy storage applications. The most relevant properties include giving answer to physical, thermal, and technical requirements. The chapter includes characterisation at different scales, from laboratory (including latent heat, melting temperature, specific h...
Chapter
This chapter presents the corrosion characterisation methods used for thermal energy storage, in molten salts used in CSP plants and phase change materials (PCM) used for latent energy storage. The chapter also summarises results found in the literature and give hints on corrosion mitigation techniques.
Chapter
With the aim of standardizing the evaluation of thermal storage systems/tanks, this chapter assesses and compares the different performance indicators that can be found in the literature and tries to recommend those which enable a better comparison.
Chapter
Among the several materials that can be appropriate for thermal energy storage (TES) application, this study focuses on sensible heat storage technology. In particular, are selected the common used materials at high temperature, molten salts and concrete. The aim is to define the key parameters and characterization techniques that determine the sui...
Chapter
In the present chapter, the experimental methods employed for the characterisation of latent TES are discussed. The investigated systems comprise both static and dynamic PCM storage concepts. In particular, experimental approaches applied by different laboratories are discussed in details and examples are provided to confirm the reliability of the...
Article
Aligning with the ambitious EU 2030 climate and energy package for cutting the greenhouse emissions and replacing conventional heat sources through the presence of renewable energy share inside efficient district heating fields, central solar heating plants coupled with seasonal storage (CSHPSS) can have a viable contribution to this goal. However,...
Article
Understanding the development of the trends in the ownership of different appliances in a historic context in various countries of the world can not only provide important insights for understanding the dynamics of adoption of different appliances, but can also help with foresight: how the future may develop for these or other, new appliances on th...
Article
As a key tool for decarbonization, thermal energy storage systems integrated into processes can address issues related to energy efficiency and process flexibility, improve utilization of renewable energy resources and thus reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, integration of these systems is dominated by the variety of potential processes in w...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, the smart management of buildings energy use by means of an innovative renewable micro-cogeneration system is investigated. The system consists of a concentrated linear Fresnel reflectors solar field coupled with a phase change material thermal energy storage tank and a 2 kWe/18 kWth organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system. The microsolar...
Article
Thermally activated building systems (TABS) can work as thermal energy storage (TES) systems, which are useful in shifting the energy use of space cooling and heating in buildings. The present study analyses and optimizes simple deterministic control concepts for radiant wall supplied by a heat pump for cooling purposes. First, the “solar” concept...
Article
Nowadays, there is an increasing interest in more efficient building materials and new technologies to accomplish the objectives defined by energy policies. The combination of energy efficient building designs and integration of renewable energies makes the use of thermal energy storage (TES) necessary. Within this context, the improvement of build...
Article
Full-text available
Energy planning is fundamental for energy planners to accurately plan for the future and to utilize the sustainable and renewable energy resources to a larger extent. But how well are we able to project the future? In this paper, past projections of global and regional energy consumption are compared to real data. The conclusions found that when co...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to perform a review of the state-of-the-art of the reactors available in the literature, which are used for solid–gas reactions or thermal decomposition processes around 1000 °C that could be further implemented for thermochemical energy storage in CSP (concentrated solar power) plants, specifically for SPT (solar power tow...
Article
Green roofs can be considered as effective and esthetically appreciated passive tools for energy saving systems in buildings. In particular, the effect of evapotranspiration and the large thermal inertia of such solutions, represent highly attractive properties to be implemented in advanced building envelope components. Although these properties ar...
Article
Energy efficiency and environmental sustainability in building has become a key issue since the built environment is nowadays responsible for more than 30% of the total carbon emissions. While new building design and construction reached massive improvements toward net zero energy and high environmental performance standards, existing and historica...
Article
The reduction in energy demand for heating and cooling with insulation materials increases the material related environmental impact. Thus, implementing low embodied energy materials may equilibrate this trade-off. Actual trends in passive house postulate bio-based materials as an alternative to conventional ones. Despite that, the implementation o...
Article
In the present study, geometry optimization of a phase change material (PCM) heat storage system is presented. The existing PCM-fins heat exchanger system works at the back side of a solar receiver in order to minimize the effect of the solar radiation fluctuations inside the cavity. As initially designed, the system does not accomplish the expecte...
Article
The need to achieve energy efficiency standards in new and existing buildings has triggered both research and design practice aimed at reducing their carbon footprint and improving their indoor comfort and functionality conditions. In this view, a dedicated scientific effort has to be spent while dealing with historical architectures needing to pre...
Article
Nowadays, the most matured thermal energy storage (TES) technology for Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants is the use of molten solar salts (60 wt% NaNO3 – 40 wt% KNO3), but the thermal decomposition of nitrate salts can result in changes in the composition of molten salts or potential risks of NOx emissions. Up to now, all studies on the decompo...
Article
This work presents an experimental research on the thermal properties of novel cementitious mortars incorporating microencapsulated Phase Change Materials intended to be used as the innermost layer in a precast radiant building component actively controlled by an integrated hydronic system. The characterization was developed in two steps: the first...
Article
Full-text available
The use of Phase Change Material (PCM) for improving building indoor thermal comfort and energy saving has been largely investigated in the literature in recent years, thus confirming PCM's capability to reduce indoor thermal fluctuation in both summer and winter conditions, according to their melting temperature and operation boundaries. Further t...
Article
One of the features that should be considered when designing a thermal energy storage (TES) system is its behaviour when subjected to non-continuous (partial loads) operating conditions. Indeed, the system performance can be sensibly affected by the partial charging and discharging processes. This topic is analysed in the present study by means of...
Article
Heat removal is the most extended method for food preservation in food manufacturing industry by lowering food temperatures to stop microorganisms growing, which might spoil the product and could cause toxicity. Therefore, walk-in freezers are used for that purpose consuming a relevant part of the energy on service sector. The compression refrigera...
Chapter
New phase change materials (PCMs) are promising fillers for the realization of multifunctional concretes, combining good mechanical properties with enhanced thermal storage capabilities within building envelope. These materials are currently receiving a growing interest in the scientific literature. Encapsulated PCMs result particularly suitable fo...
Article
A proper management of thermal energy storage (TES) charging and discharging processes allows the final users to optimize the performance of TES systems. In this paper, an experimental research is carried out to study how the percentage of charge in a latent heat TES system (partial load operating conditions) influences the discharge process. Sever...
Article
Full-text available
The improvement of thermal energy storage systems implemented in solar technologies increases not only their performance but also their dispatchability and competitiveness in the energy market. Latent heat thermal energy storage systems are one of those storing methods. Therefore, the need of finding the best materials for each application becomes...
Article
Full-text available
This review focus on LCC Assessment (LCCA) and the adoption of this methodology for the economic pillar evaluation of the Sustainability Life Cycle in the Solar Energy sector. Research showed the effectiveness of this methodology as the main component for assessing sustainability in the economic domain, and the relationship with the primary methods...
Chapter
Reflections This chapter provides an overview to the ability of vertical greening systems to provide acoustic insulation at building scale and to reduce the urban noise in the built environment. The main influencing aspects for acoustic insulation and noise reduction, i.e., the differences between the current constructive systems (basically green f...
Chapter
Reflections This chapter provides a state of the art concerning the environmental assessment studies about roof construction systems that use vegetation to provide multiple benefits at social, economic, and environmental levels. More specifically, the most representative studies that perform life cycle assessment of green roof systems are selected...
Chapter
Reflections This chapter provides an overview to the ability of vertical greening systems to provide passive energy savings at building scale and to reduce the urban heat island effect in the built environment. The main influencing aspects for energy performances and outdoor comfort, i.e., the differences between the current constructive systems (b...
Chapter
Reflections This chapter introduces the passive energy savings capacity of green roofs in reducing the heating and cooling demand, and in improving the urban heat island effect when implemented on building envelopes. The advantages or disadvantages between the different types of green roofs (extensive, semi-intensive and intensive) and the most imp...
Article
Energy performance in buildings and integrated systems represents a key aspect influencing anthropogenic emissions worldwide. Therefore, novel multifunctional materials for improving envelope thermo-energy efficiency through passive techniques are presently attracting notable researchers’ effort. In this view, the integration of phase change materi...
Article
A387 Gr 91 Cr-Mo alloy corrosion compatibility with LiOH-KOH mixture was evaluated at 315 °C (Test#1) and 360 °C (Test#2). This alloy is studied for a techno-economical optimization of a steam-PCM heat exchanger proposed in the thermal energy storage (TES) system of a direct steam generation (DSG) facility. The corrosion damage was analyzed with vi...
Article
This paper describes a building prototype experimental set-up used for testing active and passive systems for energy savings, presenting the used methodology, reviewing the main experimental results and identifying limitations. The test facility is located in Puigverd de Lleida (Spain) and has been experimentally evaluating different materials, tec...
Article
Cooling in the industry sector contributes significantly to the peak demand placed on an electrical utility grid. New electricity tariff structures include high charges for electricity consumption in peak hours which leads to elevated annual electricity costs for high-demanding consumers. Demand side management (DSM) is a promising solution to incr...
Article
Phase change materials (PCM) can provide high thermal energy storage capacities in narrow temperature ranges around their phase change temperature. The expectable maximum storage capacity of a PCM in a defined temperature range is equal to the enthalpy change in that range and can be determined via calorimetric measurements such as differential sca...
Article
In this study, an inorganic mixture of 40 wt% MgCl2·6H2O and 60 wt% Mg(NO3)2·6H2O was impregnated into two types of the expanded graphite (EG): EG flakes and EG matrix. Different methods of preparation usually used in the organic composite preparation, such as direct blending, vacuum impregnation, ultrasonic impregnation and immersion were applied...
Article
Renewable energies are main players to ensure the long-term energy supply. Solar power plants with thermal energy storage (TES) are one of the available renewable technologies which have more potential. Nowadays, there are still several aspects in the design and operation of these power plants which need to be improved, such as the correct operatio...
Article
The main drawbacks faced by researchers to successfully implement organic-PCM as materials to improve the thermal performance of building systems are their low thermal conductivity, their high flammability, and their low thermal cycling stability. In the present work, authors present a new enhanced PCM formulations aimed to solve the stated disadva...
Conference Paper
For the energy balance analysis, the definition of the systems establishing their physical frontiers and the time frame can bring the most different and in some cases controversial results. With this consideration, the zero-energy balance, applied for buildings can be achieved by the tuning of the energy efficiency of their most energy consuming sy...
Conference Paper
Building energy consumption associated to heating and cooling has a significant contribution to greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental loads. Decreasing the energy consumption by thicker insulation decreases the pollution associated with the operation phase, but increases environmental impact associated with the construction and disposal...
Article
Full-text available
The implementation of organic phase change materials (PCMs) in several applications such as heating and cooling or building comfort is an important target in thermal energy storage (TES). However, one of the major drawbacks of organic PCMs implementation is flammability. The addition of flame retardants to PCMs or shape-stabilized PCMs is one of th...
Article
Full-text available
The thermal properties of various alkyl threo-9, 10-dihydroxystearates (DHSEs) prepared from non-edible fat were studied. Non-edible animal fat was hydrolyzed in a 93% yield with R. oryzae resting cells. Crude unsaturated fatty acids were recovered from the matter liquor resulting from a crystallization performed to achieve the saturated fatty acid...
Article
A considerable amount of energy is used in the building sector for air conditioning purposes. Additionally, the building sector contributes to the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon which causes temperature rise in urban areas. Cool roof is an emerging passive cooling technology that can contribute to reduce the cooling energy use in buildings and...
Article
Thermal energy storage (TES) in molten salts is the storage dominating technology in solar power applications today. In two-tank molten salt storage systems energy density ranges from 30 to 70 kW h/m³ are achievable. The salt material used is a binary system, composed of 60% NaNO3 and 40% KNO3. In the 8 MWhth pilot plant built and tested by Abengoa...
Article
Existing commercial parabolic trough power plants use thermal oil as a heat transfer fluid, with working temperatures in the region of 400 °C. In order to achieve more efficient generating systems, a second generation of parabolic troughs that operate at temperatures higher than 400 °C is being developed. One possibility Abengoa Solar is assessing...
Chapter
This chapter presents the main results and conclusions obtained during experiments with different phase change materials (PCMs) carried out at the laboratory and pilot plant facilities at the University of Lleida since 2008. Regarding the laboratory analysis, it was observed that the dimension of the sample had a big influence on the range of phase...
Chapter
This chapter provides an environmental approach of the systems currently being developed in the field of thermal energy storage systems. A special emphasis has been put on studies that perform a life cycle assessment (LCA) of high-temperature thermal storage systems using phase change materials. Among the reviewed publications, some studies present...
Chapter
Today the construction sector has a very high impact in the environment, both from the point of view of materials as well as the energy consumed, therefore robust tools must be used to deal with this issue. Applied in the building sector, life cycle assessment is a technique that allows evaluating the impact of the construction process in all its s...
Conference Paper
In the construction industry, the Life Cycle Costing (LCC) is commonly used for the assessment of the economic pillar of sustainability. Integrated with environmental and social assessments, it can be part of a complete Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment. Risk Management (RM) has also a large applicability in projects, promoting analysis of uncer...
Conference Paper
In the construction industry, the Life Cycle Costing (LCC) is commonly used for the assessment of the economic pillar of sustainability. Integrated with environmental and social assessments, it can be part of a complete Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment. Risk Management (RM) has also a large applicability in projects, promoting analysis of uncer...
Article
Storage stability is a very important parameter that has to be considered in the formulation of asphalt emulsions. When monomodal emulsions are formulated, Stokes' law is fulfilled, therefore the higher the viscosity the less sedimentation, or the lower average droplet size the less sedimentation. But when bimodal emulsions are formulated, this rul...
Article
Buildings contribute to climate change by consuming a considerable amount of energy to provide thermal comfort for occupants. Cooling energy demands are expected to increase substantially in the world. On this basis, technologies and techniques providing high energy efficiency in buildings such as passive cooling are highly appreciated. Passive coo...
Conference Paper
The aim of this work is to assess building energy performance optimization potential of cool roof solutions in different climate conditions worldwide through dynamic thermal-energy simulation and optimization analysis. Moreover, given the dependence of roof performance on insulation level, the influence of roof insulation variation on optimum roof...
Article
The use of paraffin, salts and salt hydrates as phase change materials (PCMs) have been researched extensively and used in a number of commercial applications. However, metals and metal alloys, which possess a high storage density on a volume basis as well as a substantially higher thermal conductivity, has received much less attention. This paper...
Article
Since appliances consume a large fraction of the residential final energy consumption, analysing the impact and trends in penetration and ownership of appliances are targets of interest to researchers, companies and policy makers. However, there is a lack of published data based on the study of appliance penetration or ownership comparing different...
Article
Photovoltaic panels (PV) coupled to a heat pump supplying heat to a radiant wall is a system with potential to reduce the imported energy from the grid for heating and cooling of buildings. The radiant wall works as a thermal storage system (TES) allowing storage of the PV output and, thus, peak load shifting. However, the management of these techn...
Article
Industrial waste heat (IWH) is a key strategy to improve energy efficiency and reduce CO2 emissions in the industry. But its potential for different countries remains unclear due to a non-existent or inconsistent data basis. The objective of this paper is to assess the IWH potential of the European non-metallic mineral industry, using databases whi...
Chapter
Identifying building designs with minimum cost and environmental impact is a fundamental topic in the transition towards a more sustainable residential sector. Energy efficiency strategies can reduce energy consumption in buildings, thereby decreasing their environmental impact without compromising comfort. Among these energy efficiency strategies,...
Article
Thermal energy storage (TES) is seen today as a key technology to reduce the existing gap between energy demand and energy supply in many energy systems. There are, currently, three well known methods to store thermal energy and they are: sensible heat storage (SHS), latent heat storage (LHT) and thermochemical heat storage. Every method has its ow...
Article
Using phase change materials (PCM) for Thermal Energy Storage, the most important material property is their heat storage capability, usually given as h(T). Ideally, h(T) changes suddenly at a single temperature. However, many PCM change phase in a temperature range and show hysteresis. In addition, experience shows that even measurements with the...
Article
Renewable energy is a potential alternative energy provider with fewer CO2 emissions. However, the mismatch between energy supply and demand is the main disadvantage. Therefore, thermal energy storage becomes an essential technology for enhancing renewable energy efficiency and providing energy supply to the end user. In solar thermal energy system...
Article
Full-text available
To maintain comfort conditions in residential buildings along a full year period, the use of active systems is generally required to either supply heating or cooling. The heating and cooling demands strongly depend on the climatic conditions, type of building and occupants' behaviour. The overall annual energy consumption of the building can be red...