Luisa Frati

Luisa Frati
Terradata Environmetrics

PhD

About

59
Publications
19,130
Reads
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1,354
Citations
Additional affiliations
April 2006 - present
Terradata Environmetrics · Spin Off company of the University of Siena
Position
  • project manager of applied and research projects in the field of environmental monitoring and assessment
January 2000 - April 2006
Università degli Studi di Siena
Position
  • Bioindication and bioaccumulation of trace elements in lichens
Education
October 2002 - October 2005
Università degli Studi di Siena
Field of study
  • Environmental Science and Technology
October 1994 - June 2000
Università degli Studi di Siena
Field of study
  • Natural Science

Publications

Publications (59)
Article
Full-text available
Microclimatic conditions are important in determining lichen distribution at small scale, and may determine whether the species persist when the surrounding environmental conditions have drastically changed. This is the case with forest management, since a sudden variation of microclimatic conditions (increase of solar radiation, temperature, wind...
Article
Full-text available
1) Research Highlights: The work studied the beta diversity patterns of epiphytic lichens as a function of their reproductive strategies in old-growth and non-old growth forests from the Mediterranean area. (2) Background and Objectives: The reproductive strategies of lichens can drive the dispersal and distribution of species assemblages in forest...
Article
Full-text available
Although coppice forests represent a significant part of the European forest area, especially across southern Countries, they received little attention within the Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) processes and scenarios, whose guidelines have been mainly designed to high forests and national scale. In order to obtain “tailored” information on th...
Article
Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) indicators consider the main ecological and socioeconomic functions of forests but do not currently include some key groups widely adopted to assess the effects of forest management, such as herbaceous vascular plants, epiphytic lichens, and wood-decay fungi. Moreover, they are shaped into high forests while in t...
Article
Full-text available
Climate and weather fluctuations and changes are the most important environmental driver of tree canopy defoliation, an indicator of forest health. We examined the relationship between tree defoliation and Basal Area Increment (BAI), a dimension of tree growth related to wood biomass increment, carbon sequestration and therefore to the climate chan...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the patterns of biodiversity and their relationship with environmental gradients is a key issue in ecological research and conservation in forests [...]
Article
Full-text available
Forest logging can be detrimental for non-vascular epiphytes, determining the loss of key components for ecosystem functioning. Legal logging in a Mediterranean mixed oak forest (Tuscany, Central Italy) in 2016 heavily impacted sensitive non-vascular epiphytes, including a large population of the threatened forest lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hof...
Article
Epiphytic lichens represent one of the most suitable indicators of forest continuity and management, especially in the context of ancient and old-growth forests. Nevertheless, they have not yet been included among Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) indicators to which Pan-European forest policy and governance refer. In addition, currently adopted...
Technical Report
These guidelines are based on the review of best practices and results of recent methodological and applicative studies. The guidelines address the use of epiphytic lichens (bioaccumulation by native lichens and lichen transplants) to monitor spatial and temporal trends of element concentrations (macro-elements and trace elements) related to atmosp...
Article
Full-text available
Lichen biomonitoring programs focus on temporal variations in epiphytic lichen communities in relation to the effects of atmospheric pollution. As repeated surveys are planned at medium to long term intervals, the alternation of different operators is often possible. This involves the need to consider the effect of non-sampling errors (e.g., observ...
Article
Full-text available
The interpretation of lichen bioaccumulation data is of paramount importance in environmental forensics and decision-making processes. By implementing basic ideas underlying previous interpretative scales, new dimensionless, species-independent “bioaccumulation scales” for native and transplanted lichens are proposed. Methodologically consistent el...
Book
Full-text available
Tree health monitoring provides important information for conservation, management and improvement of forest resources. Such monitoring began in Europe in the '80s, as part of the pan-European ICP-Forests program, to respond to the concerns arising from the impact of pollutants and atmospheric depositions. Currently, forest monitoring has seen its...
Article
Currently, change in lichen community structure depends on a combination of several pollutants instead of just one. Consequently, alpha lichen diversity no longer represents an effective response variable for assessing trends in atmospheric pollutants over time. Here we investigated the value of the relationship between alpha diversity and differen...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the significance of tropospheric ozone as a factor explaining recent tree health (in terms of defoliation) and productivity (in terms of Basal Area Increment, BAI) in 15 ICP Forests Level I and one Level II plots in Alpine forests in Trentino (N. Italy). Mean daily ozone summer concentrations varied between 30-72 parts per billion (...
Article
We tested the hypothesis that structural variables related to old-growth features affect the distribution of Lobaria pulmonaria in a Mediterranean National Park of Italy. A total of 36 plots, with old-growth characteristics and representing overall three forest types (beech- oak- and mixed- forests) were studied. The lichen was absent in about half...
Article
We tested the hypothesis that structural variables related to old-growth features affect the distribution of Lobaria pulmonaria in a Mediterranean National Park of Italy. A total of 36 plots, with old-growth characteristics and representing overall three forest types (beech- oak- and mixed- forests) were studied. The lichen was absent in about half...
Chapter
The old-growth forests play a vital role in the conservation of biodiversity and mostly of rare and endangered species. Their structural characteristics (presence of deadwood, habitat and substrate continuity) ensure the growth and dispersal of species particularly sensitive to forest management. The distribution and ecology of indicator species of...
Article
Context. Traditionally, forest monitoring networks have been designed to assess status and trends of forest condition. We argue that they can help providing answers to a much broader range of questions for science, policy and society. Here we concentrate on the example of ground level ozone pollution. Aims. To demonstrate the value of present fores...
Article
We investigated the bioaccumulation of selected trace elements in samples of the lichen Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. transplanted across two seasons in the urban area of Genoa (NW Italy), which is heavily affected by traffic and industrial pollution. Total concentration of most elements did not exhibit differences between seasons, exceptions being A...
Article
Full-text available
Biological monitoring by means of lichens as accumulators of trace elements is a very suitable tool to assess and monitor air pollution and it has been adopted in several surveys in Italy in the last 30 years. In this paper, we try to make a critical analysis of this topic in order to understand the state of research and applications in this field....
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigated the effect of forest type on epiphytic lichen communities and selected indicator species, useful for long-term monitoring programs in Mediterranean forests. The results showed that only few species are common to many plots while others are locally rare. Epiphytic lichen diversity and communities were significantly inf...
Article
The variability of biological data is a main constraint affecting the quality and reliability of lichen biomonitoring surveys for estimation of the effects of atmospheric pollution. Although most epiphytic lichen bioindication surveys focus on between-site differences at the landscape level, associated with the large scale effects of atmospheric po...
Article
Epiphytic lichens have long been used as ecological indicators. Lichen biomonitoring surveys were carried out by five experienced teams and the results compared across the entire process, from sampling design planning to species counting. The five teams received the same background information and worked in parallel but independently in the same ar...
Article
Full-text available
The results of two biomonitoring surveys of air quality by means of epiphytic lichens in the area of the geothermal fields of Larderello and Travale Radicondoli (Metalliferous Hills, Tuscany, central Italy) are reported. In particular, the Index of Lichen Biodiversity (IBL) was detected for 24 stations in the surroundings of Sasso Pisano and for 22...
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigated a fragmented Mediterranean oak forest to evaluate so called edge effect on species richness and composition of epiphytic lichen communities colonizing tree trunks. The results showed that in Mediterranean oak forest patches, epiphytic lichen diversity and communities are significantly influenced by microlimatic variab...
Article
Full-text available
The results of a survey aimed at testing the hypothesis that the lichen Evernia prunastri, when transplanted in an agricultural area with high atmospheric NH(3) concentrations, would respond to NH(3) air pollution accumulating nitrogen in its thalli and showing changes in the concentration of assimilation pigments are presented. The results confirm...
Article
Full-text available
Aim of the Important Plant Area (IPA) program - integral part of the CBD Global Strategy for Plant Conservation - is the constitution of a network of the most important natural or semi-natural sites for wild plant and fungi conservation. Giving lower plants and fungi the same importance as vascular plants, the program provides to individual countri...
Article
Full-text available
This study is focused on the selection of variables affecting lichen and bryophyte diversity in Mediterranean deciduous forests. Plots representing two forest types (Fagus sylvatica and Quercus cerrisforests) and two forest continuity categories (old-growth (OG) and non-OG forests) were selected in the Cilento and Vallo di Diano National Park (Ital...
Article
In Italy, many lichen species rare at the national level share their ecological requirements with Lobaria pulmonaria. The aim of this work is to test this lichen as a potential indicator for assessing forest sites which are worthy of conservation for lichens in Italy. The hypothesis to be tested is that stands hosting large and viable populations o...
Chapter
Full-text available
Lichens have been widely used as biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution, because these organisms respond to phytotoxic gases (especially SO2 and NOx) at cellular, individual and community level. Nevertheless, due to the biological and ecological variability of the organisms, scientists often find difficult to discern the effects of pollution agains...
Article
Rapid Biodiversity Assessments (RBAs) of lichen communities, obtained by means of simplified sampling lists based on morphospecies, showed good correlations with Lichen Diversity Values (LDVs), based on the complete identification of lichen species only when performed by operators with high levels of taxonomic knowledge. Furthermore, the use of hig...
Article
Full-text available
A survey, based on the use of vascular plants to describe the distribution of selected elements (21 in total) was performed in 11 sites in the area of Castelfiorentino (Tuscany, Central Italy) differing for land use, from urban to industrial and rural areas. Lettuce plants grown under standardized conditions were positively used as biodeposimeters...
Article
The effects of reduced nitrogen compounds on epiphytic lichen vegetation have been largely investigated in northern Europe. This paper reports for the first time results of a study carried out on pine trees in the Mediterranean basin. Contrary to the usual acidophytic lichen colonization of pine bark, in this case a nitrophytic lichen vegetation wa...
Article
The results of long-term biomonitoring of nine elements (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, V, Cu, Zn, Fe and Al) with the epiphytic lichen Xanthoria parietina over a seven year time span are reported. A total of 51 sampling stations were monitored in two surveys, obtaining information about heavy metal concentrations in a large area characterized by a high impact of...
Article
A biennial integrated survey, based on the use of vascular plants for the bioindication of the effects of tropospheric ozone together with the use of automatic analysers of ozone, as well as the mapping of lichen biodiversity was performed in the area of Castelfiorentino (Tuscany, central Italy). Photochemically produced ozone proved to be a fundam...
Article
Effects of high ammonia emissions and nitrogen deposition were investigated on lichens around a pig stockfarm (ca. 7,000 animals) in central Italy. Four sites were selected along a transect at 200, 400, 1000 and 2500 m from the stockfarm, the diversity of epiphytic lichens was measured and transplanted thalli of Xanthoria parietina and Flavoparmeli...
Article
Full-text available
200 infrageneric taxa of lichenised and lichenicolous fungi are reported from the Abetone area (Tuscan - Emilian Apennines, Central Italy). Psilolechia clavulifera (Nyl.) Coppins is a new addition to the lichen flora of Italy, other 17 taxa are new to Central Italy, 26 to Tuscany, 2 to Emilia Romagna. The presence of some taxa previously known from...
Article
Full-text available
The results of 2 biomonitoring surveys carried out over a span of 7 years (1996-2003) in the Province of Ancona (central Italy) using the diversity of epiphytic lichens are reported. According to a recent standardisation process, in 2003 a different protocol was adopted, raising the problem of data comparability with the previous study. For this re...
Article
The results of a survey aimed at investigating whether NO2 and NH3 emitted by road traffic can influence lichen diversity, lichen vitality and the accumulation of nitrogen in lichen thalli are reported. For this purpose, distance from a highway in a rural environment of central Italy was regarded as the main parameter to check this hypothesis. The...
Article
Full-text available
The results of a biomonitoring study carried out in the Municipality of Colle di Val d'Elsa (central Italy), using the diversity of epiphytic lichens and the accumulation of selected elements in thalli of the lichen Evernia prunastri transplanted in two urban sites are reported. The results indicate that the survey area suffers from different types...
Article
Full-text available
The results of a transplant experiment with the fruticose lichen Evernia prunastri aimed at monitoring the trends of trace elements deposition in a repeated biomonitoring study are reported. Data comparability between the two surveys and interpretation of the results were addressed in this study. The ratio between the concentration of each element...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT The present paper reports the results of a study designed to check the feasibility of epiphytic lichens as biomonitors of the effects of agriculture in an area of central Italy without heavy industrialization and with an economy mainly based on agricul-ture. The exclusion of nitrophytic species (objectively selected using the on-line check...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports the results of a study using lichens as biomonitors to investigate the environmental distribution of depleted uranium (DU) at selected Kosovo sites as a consequence of the use of DU ordnance during the conflict of 1999. The results suggested that the use of DU ammunitions did not cause a diffuse environmental contamination in suc...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports the results of a study using lichens as biomonitors to investigate the environmental distribution of uranium and other trace elements at selected Kosovo sites. The results suggested that the use of depleted uranium (DU) ammunitions in Kosovo did not cause a diffuse environmental contamination in such a way to have caused a detect...
Article
The results of a biomonitoring survey carried out in the town of Montecatini Terme (central Italy) in the period 1993-2000 using the biodiversity of epiphytic lichens and the accumulation of heavy metals in thalli of Flavoparmelia caperata as indicators of air pollution are reported. From 1993 to 2000, the mean ILD value for the whole study area in...
Article
24 species from Marche and Molise regions (Central-southern Italy), sampled during two biomonitoring surveys, are reported. 7 of these are new to Marche and 13 to Molise. The other species are interesting for their distribution and give useful informations about the climatic conditions of the survey areas. Vengono segnalate 24 specie di licheni, ri...
Article
Seven Neofuscelia species have been identified from Italy. A key to the species is provided and the distinguishing morphological and chemical characters, distribution, ecology, substratum preference and interrelationships of each are discussed. Neofuscelia perrugata is new to Italy. N. pyrenaica is new to Greece and Cyprus. New data on the distribu...
Article
This paper reports the results of a study using lichens as biomonitors to investigate the small-scale environmental distribution of uranium and other trace elements in an area of Kosovo (Djakovica) heavily shelled with depleted uranium (DU) anti-tank ammunition. The results of total uranium concentrations showed great variability and species-specif...
Article
The results of a biomonitoring survey carried out in the geothermal area of Larderello (Tuscany, central Italy) using the biodiversity of epiphytic lichens as an indicator of air pollution are reported. A "lichen desert" was lacking, and stations classified as "altered" were found only in the surroundings of two old power plants that ceased product...
Article
The results of a biomonitoring survey carried out in the geothermal area of Larderello (Tuscany, central Italy) using the biodiversity of epiphytic lichens as an indicator of air pollution are reported. A "lichen desert" was lacking, and stations classified as "altered" were found only in the surroundings of two old power plants that ceased product...

Projects

Projects (3)
Project
Lichens and bryophytes play an important role in forest ecosystem functioning. They have a role in the water cycle and forest food webs, and they increase the canopy interception of precipitations and nutrients. Several species can be considered indicators, being sensitive to air pollutants and climate change and showing an ability to accumulate trace elements. In general terms, we can identify three main reasons to monitor lichen and moss in forest ecosystems: (i) to monitor the effects of atmospheric pollution and climate change, (ii) for conservation studies related to forest management and threatened species, and (iii) to obtain information on ecosystem functioning. In recent decades, the hundreds of scientific studies in this field confirm the interest in using these organisms as biomonitors and the continuous demand for updates on the topic. In this Forests Special Issue, entitled “Biomonitoring with Lichens and Mosses in Forests”, we aim to collect emerging and timely research in this field. We encourage researchers to send contributions (research and review articles) on the following topics: Effects of air pollution on sensitive species or species assemblages; Effects of forest management and fragmentation on indicator species; Modeling functional traits and indicator species; Environmental niche models and species conservation; Viable populations of threatened lichen and bryophyte species; Mapping trace elements; Standard operating procedures and sampling design for biomonitoring programs. More info at: https://www.mdpi.com/journal/forests/special_issues/Biomonitoring_Lichens_Mosses
Project
biodiversity conservation; chlorophyll fluorescence; epiphytic macrolichens; forest management; growth rates; indicator species
Project
Understanding patterns of biodiversity and their relationship with environmental gradients is a key issue in ecological research and conservation in forests. Indeed, several environmental factors are able to influence species distributions in these complex ecosystems. It is therefore essential to distinguish among the effects of natural factors from the anthropogenic ones (e.g., environmental pollution, climate change, forest management) by adopting reliable models able to predict future scenarios of species distribution. In the last 20 years, the use of statistical tools such as species distribution models or ecological niche models has allowed making great strides in the subject, with hundreds of scientific studies in this field. In this Forests Special Issue, entitled “Modeling of Species Distribution and Biodiversity in Forests”, we aim to collect the timely and emerging research in this field. We encourage researchers to send contributions (research and review articles) on the following topics: - Climate change and the distribution of sensitive species or species assemblages; - Modelling the effects of forest fragmentation on biodiversity; - Determining the risk of species invasions by means of modeling approaches; - Modelling functional traits and indicator species; - Environmental niche models and species conservation; - Methodological aspects of species distribution models (SDM); - Recommendations and guidelines to select the most appropriate model; - The drawbacks connected with the issue of species presence-only data and pseudo-absences. More info at: https://www.mdpi.com/journal/forests/special_issues/Model_Species_Distribution_Biodiversity_Forest