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Luisa N. Borrell

Luisa N. Borrell
CUNY Graduate School of Public Health and Health Policy · Epidemiology & Biostatistics

DDS PhD

About

244
Publications
16,231
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Introduction
My research interest is on race and ethnicity, socioeconomic position, and neighborhood effects as social determinants of health.

Publications

Publications (244)
Article
Full-text available
Introduction DNA methylation studies have associated methylation levels at different CpG sites or genomic regions with lung function. Moreover, genetic ancestry has been associated with lung function in Latinos. However, no epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of lung function has been performed in this population. Here, we aimed to identify DNA...
Article
We provide a brief description of the demographics of the Hispanic or Latino population in the United States; point out the origin of the term Hispanic or Latino as standardized terminology in general including public health research; discuss the use of Latinx among the Hispanic or Latino population; and suggest recommendations for the use of Latin...
Article
Purpose: We aimed to quantify general and specific contextual effects associated with Caesarean delivery at New York City (NYC) hospitals, overall and by maternal race/ethnicity. Methods: Among 127,449 singleton, nulliparous births at NYC hospitals from 2015 to 2017, we used multilevel logistic regression to examine the association of hospital c...
Preprint
Importance Routine case surveillance data for SARS-CoV-2 are incomplete, biased, missing key variables of interest, and may be unreliable for both timely surge detection and understanding the burden of infection. Objective To determine the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection during the Omicron BA.2/BA.2.12.1 surge in relation to official case count...
Article
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This study examined the migratory status/ethnic inequities in dental caries in school children aged 4–9 years (n = 1388) and the impact of the Children’s Oral Health Program in the Municipality of Bilbao in the Basque Country Region, Spain. Using the 2017 Children’s Oral Health Survey, log binomial regression was used to quantify the association of...
Article
The perverseness of racial and ethnic inequities in the U.S. continues to implore the investigation of their causes. While there have been improvements in the health of the U.S. population, these improvements have not been equally distributed. To commemorate the 100th anniversary of the American Journal of Epidemiology (AJE), in this commentary, we...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has decreased uptake of pediatric preventive care, including immunizations. We estimate the prevalence of missed pediatric routine medical visits and vaccinations over the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted a cross-sectional online survey of 2074 US parents of children ≤12 years in March 2021 to measure the prop...
Article
Purpose To examine the association of experiencing bullying within the past year with the prevalence of lifetime childhood asthma in US children and adolescents; and whether this associations vary with sex of the child and select socioeconomic indicators. Methods We performed secondary analysis of data from the 2018 National Survey of Children's H...
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While racial/ethnic oral health inequities have been documented for many years in the United States, the potential role of racism has not been examined until recently. In fact, the common practice has been to attribute racial/ethnic disparities in oral health to low socioeconomic position and/or the lack of access to care. In contrast, racism is co...
Article
Objectives Testing remains critical for identifying pediatric cases of COVID-19 and as a public health intervention to contain infections. We surveyed US parents to measure the proportion of children tested for COVID-19 since the start of the pandemic, preferred testing venues for children, and acceptability of school-based COVID-19 testing. Metho...
Article
BACKGROUND Variation in genetic ancestry among genetically admixed racial/ethnic groups may influence the fit of guideline-recommended spirometry reference equations, which rely on self-identified race/ethnicity. RESEARCH QUESTION What is the influence of genetic ancestry on the fit of racial/ethnic-based spirometry reference equations in populati...
Article
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While the association of periodontitis with Type II diabetes (T2DM) is well-established, the causal relationship remains uncertain. We examined the causal association of periodontitis with glycemic traits (HbA1c, fasting glucose, and fasting insulin) and T2DM using Mendelian randomization (MR) taking advantage of large genome-wide association studi...
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Background: Asthma is a heterogenous disease. Clinical blood parameters differ by race/ethnicity and are used to distinguish asthma subtypes and inform therapies. Differences in subtypes may explain population-specific trends in asthma outcomes. However, these differences in racial/ethnic minority pediatric populations are unclear. Objective: In...
Preprint
Full-text available
We explored the role of genetic ancestry in shaping the genetic architecture of whole blood gene expression using whole genome and RNA sequencing data from 2,733 African American and Hispanic/Latino children. We find that heritability of gene expression significantly increases with greater proportion of genome-wide African ancestry and decreases wi...
Article
Introduction: Population-based disability prevalence estimates are limited for New York City (NYC). We examined the association of several health and health-related measures with disability among NYC residents aged 20-64 years. Methods: We used information from 1,314 adults who participated in the 2013-2014 NYC Health and Nutrition Examination S...
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Introduction: Chronic venous disorder (CVeD) has a high prevalence, being commonly diagnosed by the presence of varicose veins. In fact, the development of varicose veins in lower extremities and/or pelvic venous insufficiency (LEPVI) is frequent. However, its potential impact on fetal health has not been investigated. This study aimed to examine w...
Article
In a national survey of 2,074 US parents of children <12 years old conducted in March 2021, 49.4% reported plans to vaccinate their child for COVID-19 when available. Lower income and less education were associated with greater parental vaccine hesitancy/resistance; safety and lack of need were primary reasons for vaccine hesitancy/resistance.
Article
BACKGROUND : In the presence of non-adherence and lost to follow up, results of an Intention to Treat (ITT) analysis may be biased as it is measuring the effect of assignment rather than the effect of treatment. Given that Marginal Structural Models (MSMs) adjust for such issues, this study examines the use of MSMs to assess the validity of ITT ana...
Article
Once COVID-19 vaccines are approved for children <12 years of age, high pediatric vaccination coverage will be needed to help minimize the public health threat from the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic. We conducted an online survey of 1,119 parents and caregivers of children ≤12 years in New York City from March 9 to April 11, 2021. Among parents surveyed, 61....
Article
Purpose To examined whether there was an association of leucocyte telomere length (LTL) with all-cause, cardiovascular (CVD)- and cancer-specific mortality risks among US adults; and whether these associations vary with race/ethnicity and age. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort using data from the National Health and Nutritional Examinati...
Preprint
Full-text available
BACKGROUND: Variation in genetic ancestry among admixed racial/ethnic groups may influence the fit of guideline-recommended spirometry reference equations, which rely on self-identified race/ethnicity. RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the influence of genetic ancestry on the fit of the guideline-recommended racial/ethnic-based spirometry reference equati...
Preprint
Full-text available
Once COVID-19 vaccines are approved for children <12 years of age, high pediatric vaccination coverage will be needed to help minimize the public health threat from the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic. We conducted an online survey of 1,119 parents and caregivers of children <12 years in New York City from March 9 to April 11, 2021. Among parents surveyed, 61....
Preprint
Full-text available
In a national survey of 2,074 US parents conducted in March 2021, 35.9% reported their youngest child had been tested at least once for COVID-19. Parents' preferred testing venue choice was the pediatrician's office. Only half of parent surveyed (50.6%) reported that they would allow their child to be tested for COVID-19 at school/daycare if it was...
Preprint
Full-text available
In a national online survey of 2,074 US parents conducted in March 2021, 49.4% reported plans to vaccinate their child for COVID-19 when available. Lower income and less education were associated with greater parental vaccine hesitancy/resistance, while safety, effectiveness and lack of need were the primary reasons for vaccine hesitancy/resistance...
Article
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In the United States, race, ancestry, genetics, and medicine are inextricably linked in a complex and fraught history. Medicine is replete with examples of racial injustice inflicted by the use of race and ethnicity as biologic constructs to engender hierarchical discrimination. Race and ethnicity are dynamic, shaped by geographic, cultural, and so...
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Cardiovascular disease (CDV) risk factors are highly prevalent among adults with low social class in Spain. However, little is known on how these factors are distributed in the immigrant population, a socio-economic disadvantaged population. Thus, this study aims to examine inequalities in CVD risk factors among immigrant and native populations. We...
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Race/ethnicity is associated with adverse birth outcomes. However, mostly mother’s race/ethnicity has been considered. We examined the associations of mother’s and parents’ race/ethnicity with low birth weight, small for gestational age, preterm birth and infant mortality among New York City women between 2012 and 2017. We also examined the indepen...
Article
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We aimed to characterize the availability and promotion of alcohol at alcohol outlets in Madrid and to compare them according to type of outlet and area-level socioeconomic status. We used the OHCITIES instrument to characterise the alcohol outlets in 42 census tracts of Madrid in 2016. We specified alcohol availability as the density of alcohol ou...
Article
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Rationale Severe early-life respiratory illnesses, particularly those caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (HRV), are strongly associated with the development of asthma in children. Puerto Rican children in particular have a strikingly high asthma burden. However, prior studies of the potential associations between early...
Article
Full-text available
AimsInequalities in diabetes prevalence among immigrants from Andean countries remain unknown. Andean populations are one of the largest groups of immigrants in Madrid city. We examined the association between country of birth and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) prevalence in Andean immigrant population relative to Spanish-natives; and whether this...
Article
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Non-Hispanic blacks have higher mortality rates than non-Hispanic whites whereas Hispanics have similar or lower mortality rates than non-Hispanic blacks and whites despite Hispanics’ lower education and access to health insurance coverage. This study examines whether allostatic load, a proxy for cumulative biological risk, is associated with all-c...
Article
Health care facility characteristics have been shown to influence intermediary health outcomes among persons with HIV, but few longitudinal studies of suppression have included these characteristics. We studied the association of these characteristics with the achievement and maintenance of HIV viral suppression among New York City (NYC) residents...
Preprint
Rationale: Severe early-life respiratory illnesses, particularly those caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (HRV), are strongly associated with the development of asthma in children. Puerto Rican children in particular have a strikingly high asthma burden, but prior studies of the potential associations between early-lif...
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Full-text available
Across Europe, excess body weight rates are particularly high among children and adolescents living in Southern European contexts. In Spain, current food policies appeal to voluntary self-regulation of the food industry and parents' responsibility. However, there is no research (within Spain) assessing the food environment surrounding schools. We e...
Article
American Thoracic Society guidelines recommend inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) therapy, plus a short‐acting bronchodilator, in patients with persistent asthma. However, few prior studies have examined the efficacy of this combination in children of all racial/ethnic groups. We evaluated the association between ICS use and bronchodilator response (BDR...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Telomere length (TL) can serve as a potential biomarker for conditions associated with chronic oxidative stress and inflammation, such as asthma. Air pollution can induce oxidative stress. Understanding the relationship between TL, asthma, and air pollution is important for identifying risk factors contributing to unhealthy aging in ch...
Article
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This study evaluates inequalities in the use of dental services according to place of birth before and after the economic crisis in Spain. A cross-sectional study was performed in adults aged 18 to 65 years in Spain. We used data from three Spanish National Health Surveys for the years 2006 (before the crisis), 2014, and 2017 (after the crisis). Lo...
Article
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Background Acculturation is an important predictor of asthma in Latino youth, specifically Mexican Americans. Less is known about acculturation and pulmonary function measures. Objective We sought to estimate the association of acculturation measures with asthma and pulmonary function in Latino youth and determine whether this association varies a...
Preprint
Full-text available
This study evaluates inequalities in the use of dental services according to place of birth before and after the economic crisis in Spain. A cross-sectional study was performed in the population aged 18 to 65 years in Spain. We used data from three Spanish National Health Surveys for years 2006 (before the crisis), 2014 and 2017 (after the crisis)....
Article
Social cohesion has varying effects on health. We investigated the association of perceived neighborhood social cohesion with HIV viral suppression using individual-level data from the New York City HIV registry and surveillance-based interviews (n = 92). Suppression was achieved within 12 months of HIV diagnosis by 60 percent of persons perceiving...
Article
Previous studies have examined the built environment mostly focusing on a single exposure construct (e.g. walkability) to examine its association with health outcomes. This study developed a multicomponent Heart Healthy Hoods Index to characterize heart-healthy urban environments and examined its relationship with the prevalence of cardiovascular d...
Article
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With the economic crisis in Spain, austerity measures were applied. However, it is unknown how these measures have affected the pattern of use of health services for the immigrant population. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine the inequalities in access to different levels of health care services according to place of birth. We used d...
Article
Full-text available
Telomere length (TL) is associated with numerous disease states and is affected by genetic and environmental factors. However, TL has been mostly studied in adult populations of European or Asian ancestry. These studies have identified 34 TL-associated genetic variants recently used as genetic proxies for TL. The generalizability of these associati...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Asthma is a common but complex disease with racial/ethnic differences in prevalence, morbidity, and response to therapies. Objective: Perform an analysis of genetic ancestry to identify new loci that contribute to asthma susceptibility. Methods: We leveraged the mixed ancestry of 3,902 Latinos and performed an admixture mapping met...
Article
em>Ethn Dis. 2018;28(Suppl 1):215-218; doi:10.18865/ed.28.S1.215.
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Cities, and therefore neighborhoods, are under constant change. Neighborhood changes may affect residents' health in multiple ways. The Heart Healthy Hoods (HHH) project studies the association between neighborhood and residents' health. Focusing on a middle-low-socioeconomic neighborhood in Madrid (Spain), our aim was to describe qualitatively its...
Article
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This study examined obesity inequalities according to place of birth and educational attainment in men and in women in Spain. A cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the Spanish National Health Survey 2011–2012 and from the European Health Survey in Spain 2014. We used data for 27,720 adults aged 18–64 years of whom 2431 were immigran...
Article
Background: Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposures have been linked to asthma-related outcomes but quantitative dose-responses using biomarkers of exposure have not been widely reported. Objectives: Assess dose-response relationships between plasma cotinine-determined SHS exposure and asthma outcomes in minority children, a vulnerable population expos...
Article
Aim We investigated the cross‐sectional association between diet quality and severe periodontitis in a sample of diverse Hispanics from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. Materials and Methods A total of 13,920 Hispanic/Latinos aged 18‐74 years of different heritages underwent a full‐mouth oral examination and completed two 24hr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Telomere length (TL) is associated with numerous disease states and is affected by genetic and environmental factors. However, TL has been mostly studied in adult populations of European or Asian ancestry. These studies have identified 34 TL-associated genetic variants recently used as genetic proxies for TL. The generalizability of these associati...
Article
Background: Few investigators have explored differences in oral health status between immigrants and natives. To address this gap, the authors used nationally representative data to characterize disparities in oral health among noncitizens, naturalized citizens, and native adults. Methods: The 2013 to 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examinati...
Article
Understanding the relationships among diabetes, teeth present, and dental insurance is essential to improving primary and oral health care. Participants were older adults who attended senior centers in northern Manhattan (New York, N.Y.). Sociodemographic, health, and health care information were obtained via intake interviews, number of teeth pres...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the effect of neighborhood characteristics on achievement and maintenance of HIV viral suppression among New York City (NYC) residents aged 13 years and older diagnosed between 2006 and 2012. Individual records from the NYC HIV surveillance registry (n = 12,547) were linked to U.S. Census and American Community Survey data by census...
Article
Article title and bibliographic information: Socioeconomic position during life and periodontitis in adulthood: a systematic review. Schuch HS, Peres KG, Singh A, Peres MA, Do LG. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2017; 45(3):201-8. Source of funding: Brazilian Government Agency-CAPES: Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel f...
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em>Ethn Dis. 2017;27(Suppl1):273-276; doi:10.18865/ed.27.S1.273.
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As clinical researchers at academic medical institutions across the United States increasingly manage complex clinical databases and registries, they often lack the statistical expertise to utilize the data for research purposes. This statistical inadequacy prevents junior investigators from disseminating clinical findings in peer-reviewed journals...
Article
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Importance: Asthma is a multifactorial disease composed of endotypes with varying risk profiles and outcomes. African Americans experience a high burden of asthma and of psychosocial stress, including racial discrimination. It is unknown which endotypes of asthma are vulnerable to racial/ethnic discrimination. Objective: We examined the associat...
Article
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Background: PAI-1 gain-of-function variants promote airway fibrosis and are associated with asthma and with worse lung function in subjects with asthma. Objective: We sought to determine whether the association of a gain-of-function polymorphism in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) with airway obstruction is modified by asthma status, an...