- University of Granada
- Departamento de Comercialización e Investigación de Mercados
- Luis-Alberto Casado-Aranda
Luis-Alberto Casado-Aranda currently works at the Marketing and Tourism Department, Madrid Open University. His main research topics are consumer neuroscience, consumer behaviour, decision making, advertising, e-commerce and consumer's ethnocentrism. Their current project is 'Neuromarketing.'
Skills and Expertise
Research Items (14)
- Apr 2019
Daily worldwide newspapers print articles exposing government corruption. Yet these messages do not lead to a loss of votes for the corrupt parties. Sympathizers' partisan bias, which respectively minimizes and maximizes corruption and positive messages of their own parties respectively, is widely considered the main cause of the loss of effectiveness of political communications. Despite the well-established existence of such bias when processing political information, little is known as to its psychological origin. Through the use of neuroscience (fMRI), this study explores the underlying brain mechanisms of corruption (negative) and positive political messages related to a conservative and a socialist Spanish political party, as well as the differences between their sympathizers. The findings reveal that negative (vs. positive) political messages exert the greatest neuroimaging impact on the electorate, as shown in aversive, risk and disappointment-related brain regions. Interestingly, we show that there exists a main partisan bias against opposite parties (and not a positive bias toward one's own party) that stems from a higher risk, ambiguity, and disbelief provoked by both positive and negative information about rival parties. Furthermore, this bias was more pronounced among conservative supporters. The current findings provide valuable insights for political parties to improve their communication campaigns.
Despite the enormous growth of e-commerce, consumers still come against risk-related barriers while carrying out online purchases. Specialists of e-commerce have therefore explored the facets of online risk perception with the aim of identifying which has the greatest impact. There is, nonetheless, no consensus as to the facets of risk perception or their relative importance. This is the first study resorting to neurological tools that examines the differences between the three most widespread facets of risk (financial, privacy, and performance) in a low-involvement purchase environment. Contrary to behavioral findings, brain data from neurological analyses identify differences between the three facets of risk. Financial risk conveys the lowest subconscious aversion and negative values. Subconscious privacy risk, in turn, confers ambivalence and uncertainty while performance risk elicits the highest levels of disappointment and distrust. Implications from the current findings, if taken into account by retailers, can greatly improve web contents and purchase processes, and bolster sales.
- Jul 2018
This paper explores neural and self-report responses to gender congruence in product-voice combinations in commercials. An fMRI study was carried out in which participants (n = 30) were presented with gender-targeted pictures of characteristic male or female products accompanied by either gender congruent or incongruent voices. The findings show that attitudes are more positive toward commercials with gender congruent than with gender incongruent product-voice combinations. fMRI analyses revealed that primary visual brain areas, namely calcarine and cuneus, responded stronger to congruent than incongruent combinations suggesting that participants enhanced their endogenous attention toward congruent commercials. Incongruent combinations, by contrast, elicited stronger activation in areas related to the perception of conflicts in information processing and error monitoring, such as the supramarginal, inferior parietal gyri and superior and middle temporal gyri. Interestingly, increased activation in the posterior cingulate cortex (an area related to value encoding) predicted more positive attitudes toward congruent commercials. Together, these results advance our understanding of the neural correlates of processing congruent and incongruent audiovisual stimuli. These findings may advice advertising professionals in designing successful campaigns of everyday products, namely by making use of congruent instead of incongruent product-voice combinations.
Dependable online payment systems (e-payments) are fundamental in promoting future online purchases. Yet little research has focused on either the differences between secure and risky e-payments or consumer reactions to the different systems. This study reverts to neuroscience (fMRI) to i) identify the neural effects pertaining to risky and secure e-payments and ii) reveal the underlying brain mechanisms when confronted with two widespread systems: debit cards and Paypal. Thirty subjects participated in an experiment simulating a low-involvement online purchase. The analysis reveals that perceived risky e-payments activate brain areas linked to negative emotional processing, while areas involved with reward prediction are strongly triggered by secure e-payments. Furthermore, the study not only reveals a greater intention of use toward Paypal, but sees it as more secure, rewarding and affective. Debit card e-payments, by contrast, elicit brain activations associated with negative and risky events. Interestingly, the right cerebellum response (responsible for value encoding) covaried with more positive use intention toward Paypal. These results offer invaluable insight into the unconscious origin of the choice of payment systems among consumers.
- Nov 2017
This article examines the neural and behavioral effects of voice gender and message framing in ecological advertising by means of functional MRI in conjunction with a task presenting persuasive gain-framed (GF) or loss-framed (LF) messages pronounced by male voice (MV) and female voice (FV). Behavioral responses showed more positive attitudes toward ads comprising MVs and GF messages. A whole-brain analysis revealed that visual regions are strongly elicited by LF (vs. GF) messages, whereas an area related to personal value computing, future positive aspirations, and social benefits—namely, the anterior cingulate cortex—is strongly activated by GF (vs. LF) messages. The MV triggered stronger activation in areas related to pitch processing and visual scenes, whereas the FV provoked a higher neural–audiovisual integration. Furthermore, neural activation in the inferior frontal gyrus significantly predicted attitudes toward ads pronounced by the MV, and the activation in the orbitofrontal gyrus predicted attitudes toward ads comprising GF messages. Taken together, this article sheds light on a differential neural processing of gain and loss frames as well as MV and FV. It also suggests that messages expressing social benefits (e.g., environmental) could be processed differently from those reporting individual advantages (e.g., healthy). Finally, it advises managers and associations which market environmentally responsible products and ideas the voice and frame of the message which generate the highest subconscious value.
- Mar 2019
El sector turístico en España representa el 11,7% del Producto Interior Bruto, siendo referente en la creación de empleo y posicionándose como un sector estratégico para la creación de empresas. El desarrollo de la tecnología asociada al auge de Internet ha propiciado el fomento de empresas que desarrollan su trabajo en el mundo “online”. Así mismo, el turista ha cambiado la forma en la que adquiere sus servicios: participa de lleno en la creación del producto turístico mejorando así su experiencia turística. Tras un análisis de la evolución tecnológica experimentada por el sector turístico, este trabajo se centra en el concepto de boca-oído electrónico como pieza clave para el posicionamiento de empresas/destinos turísticos. Posteriormente, explora cómo la comunidad virtual de viajeros minube, pequeña empresa española que supone una manifestación de ese boca-oído gracias a la Web 2.0, ha mejorado la experiencia turística de los viajeros.
- Dec 2018
El turismo en España representa el principal sector económico del país y se posiciona como un gran impulsor de arrastre de nuestra economía. El auge de las nuevas tecnologías y el proceso de digitalización (conocido como Web 2.0) está teniendo importantes repercusiones en la forma con que las organizaciones turísticas ofrecen sus servicios y los clientes interactúan con ellas. El presente trabajo pretende explorar la importancia de la Web en la generación de una reputación online en las empresas del sector turístico. Concretamente, compara la influencia de dos plataformas de comunidades virtuales de viajeros (Tripadvisor y MiNube) como generadoras de contenido de recomendaciones en la creación de la imagen y reputación de un destino turístico. El usuario como generador de contenido se convierte entonces en una pieza fundamental para dar valor a las empresas del sector. Es aquí donde la sociología del turismo ocupa un papel fundamental en el estudio del nuevo turista en el entorno de la Travel 2.0. Los resultados del estudio corroboran la importancia del contenido web generado por usuarios como factores clave en la reputación del destino turístico y relevancia en la gestión de los viajes.
- Jun 2018
- The Role of Language and Symbols in Promotional Strategies and Marketing Schemes
The pursuit of more persuasive advertising has recently attracted the interest of the scientific community. Yet most of this research resorts to self-report studies that are inaccurate when measuring sensitive information and unconscious reactions. There is therefore a growing interest in applying more objective systems such as tools from the field of neuroscience. This chapter aims to outline the brain mechanisms that underlie consumer processing of words and messages in advertising. Since brain activation can reflect the impact of a specific message on consumer attention and persuasion, the study summarizes the neural effects -as well as the behavioral consequences- of the main types of messages explored in the recent consumer neuroscience research, namely gain/loss-framed, political, deceptive, subliminal and brand-related messages. Based on the results, this study attempts to objectively determine which advertising elements are processed as more persuasive, and therefore which are more useful in the design of successful advertising campaigns.
Ecological information offered to society through advertising enhances awareness of environmental issues, encourages development of sustainable attitudes and intentions, and can even alter behavior. This paper, by means of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and self-reports, explores the underlying mechanisms of processing ecological messages. The study specifically examines brain and behavioral responses to persuasive ecological messages that differ in temporal framing and in the age of the voice pronouncing them. The findings reveal that attitudes are more positive toward future-framed messages presented by young voices. The whole-brain analysis reveals that future-framed (FF) ecological messages trigger activation in brain areas related to imagery, prospective memories and episodic events, thus reflecting the involvement of past behaviors in future ecological actions. Past-framed messages (PF), in turn, elicit brain activations within the episodic system. Young voices (YV), in addition to triggering stronger activation in areas involved with the processing of high-timbre, high-pitched and high-intensity voices, are perceived as more emotional and motivational than old voices (OV) as activations in anterior cingulate cortex and amygdala. Messages expressed by older voices, in turn, exhibit stronger activation in areas formerly linked to low-pitched voices and voice gender perception. Interestingly, a link is identified between neural and self-report responses indicating that certain brain activations in response to future-framed messages and young voices predicted higher attitudes toward future-framed and young voice advertisements, respectively. The results of this study provide invaluable insight into the unconscious origin of attitudes toward environmental messages and indicate which voice and temporal frame of a message generate the greatest subconscious value.
- May 2015
- Direcciónate Estrategias Empresariales
El objetivo del libro es dotar al lector de la capacidad necesaria para comunicarse en inglés con un nivel de usuario independiente. Y hacerlo en un entorno comercial y empresarial.