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Luis Fernando Gamboa

Luis Fernando Gamboa
Consultor privado

PhD

About

92
Publications
22,117
Reads
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528
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2003 - May 2004
University Carlos III de Madrid
Position
  • Research Assistant
September 1997 - present
Universidad del Rosario
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
February 1997 - August 1997
Pontificia Universidad Javeriana
Position
  • Research Assistant

Publications

Publications (92)
Article
Full-text available
This study applies a propensity score matching model to quantify the significance of preschool education in short-and medium-term academic results in several Latin American countries, using data from the Third Regional Comparative and Explanatory Study (TERCE) conducted among third and sixth grade pupils. The results vary by country and grade, with...
Article
Full-text available
Resumen En este estudio se utiliza un modelo de emparejamiento por puntaje de propensión (propensity score matching) para cuantificar la importancia que tiene la educación preescolar en los resultados académicos en el corto y mediano plazo en varios países de América Latina, utilizando la información proveniente de Tercer Estudio Regional Comparati...
Article
We estimated the impact of the Zika virus outbreak on birth rates and demand for health care services in Colombia. Our analysis exploits the variation in the level of natural protection against mosquito-transmitted diseases across the country. This characteristic induced exogenous variation in Zika incidence, which allows us to construct a control...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper provides an estimation of the effect of a very particular type of higher education graduate program available in Colombia, known as specializations, on labor earnings. This program is, by far, the most important type of graduate alternatives available to Colombian undergraduates (75% of graduate degrees awarded corresponded to this type...
Article
Full-text available
We analysed the academic expectations and earning expectations of a nationally representative sample of Colombian students who were finishing their upper-secondary education (high school) and considering three potential scenarios: whether to finish their studies, enrol in a vocational career, or pursue a college degree. We found that these students...
Preprint
Full-text available
Individuals react differently to the presence of external shocks according to their degree of risk aversion. Reaction to the threat of new viruses is an example of this because of unknown pathologies, complex diagnosis, and costs. Responses of policy makers to outbreaks may be determined by the present and future costs of a disease. Therefore, publ...
Preprint
Full-text available
El documento estima el efecto en el mediano plazo de cursar diferentes niveles de educación preescolar sobre el rendimiento en una prueba estandarizada de matemáticas al final de educación media. Utilizando un modelo de variables instrumentales sobre una muestra de más de 150 mil estudiantes que auto-reportan su asistencia a preescolar en la prueba...
Article
Epidemics tend to have a debilitating influence on the lives of directly afflicted families. However, the presence of an epidemic can also change the behaviour and outcomes of those not directly affected. This paper makes use of a short, sharp, unexpected epidemic to examine the behavioural response of the public to a sudden shift in the perceived...
Article
Full-text available
This document aims to provide evidence on the association between economic conditions and household fertility decisions related to birth spacing by using a Cox proportional hazards model. The contribution of the paper is twofold: first, it adds to the scarce existing literature on this topic for Latin America by offering evidence for Colombia; seco...
Article
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This article provides evidence regarding differences in the performance on academic tests in secondary school between students who had attended preschool and those who had not. A non-parametric method based on the generation of counterfactuals to decompose gaps between observable and unobservable factors is used to analyse data gathered by the Prog...
Article
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En este artículo se provee de evidencia sobre la existencia de diferencias en el rendimiento en pruebas académicas en la enseñanza media entre quienes asistieron al nivel inicial y quienes no lo hicieron. A partir de datos del Programa para la Evaluación Interna cional de Alumnos (pisa) de 2009 a 2012 respecto de varios países latinoamericanos, se...
Article
Measuring the distance between countries and the goal of equality of opportunity in education has been the focus of recent contributions in the economic literature, which have concentrated either on intergroup gaps in access to a given level of studies or on intergroup gaps in educational achievement. We argue that both aspects are important and in...
Article
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El objetivo de este documento es proveer evidencia sobre la existencia de diferentes patrones de igualdad de oportunidades en el logro académico durante los últimos quince años en Colombia. Las variables seleccionadas para esta medición son los puntajes de matemáticas y lectura de la prueba nacional Saber 11. Se encuentra que la desigualdad ha crec...
Article
Full-text available
The empirical literature on the impact of violent conflicts on educational outcomes has focused on the impact of violence on human capital accumulation, neglecting other relevant outcomes such as educational equity. Using the empirical implementation of Ferreira and Gignoux (2011) of Roemer (1998)'s conceptual framework of equality of opportunities...
Article
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In the context of economic growth and recovering socio-economic conditions, many Latin American countries have implemented deep educational reforms since the beginning of the century. This paper aims to analyse whether these changes have promoted equality of educational opportunities in the region. Both the access and knowledge and skills dimens...
Article
Full-text available
We analyze the determinants of subjective returns of higher education in Colombia. The information on expectations has been collected in categories, motivating the use of interval regression and an ordered probit approaches for modeling the relationship between beliefs and measures of ability, conditioning on individual, school and regional covaria...
Article
To examine the effect of prenatal care (PNC) on the level and distribution of child stunting in three Andean countries-Bolivia, Colombia, and Peru-where expanding access to such care has been an explicit policy intervention to tackle child malnutrition in utero and during early childhood. An econometric analysis of cross-sectional Demographic and H...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to provide an estimation and decomposition of the motherhood wage penalty in Colombia. Our empirical strategy is based on the matching procedure designed by Ñopo (2008) for the case of gender wage gaps. This is an alternative procedure to the well-known Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method. The cross-section data of the Colo...
Article
Full-text available
Resumen: Este documento presenta nueva evidencia sobre el efecto de la motivación de los estudiantes en el rendimiento académico. Utilizando la información del examen realizado por el Programa para la Evaluación Internacional de Alumnos de la OCDE en 2006 (PISA 2006), se encuentra que la motivación tiene un efecto positivo sobre el rendimiento de l...
Article
Full-text available
This document provides recent evidence about the persistency of wage gaps between formal and informal workers in Colombia by using a non-parametric method proposed by Ñopo (2008a). Over a rich dataset at a household level during 2008-2012, it is found that formal workers earn between 30 to 60 percent more, on average, than informal workers. Despite...
Article
We assess inequality of opportunity in educational achievement in six Latin American countries, employing two waves of PISA data (2006 and 2009). By means of a non-parametric approach using a decomposable inequality index, GE(0), we rank countries according to their degree of inequality of opportunity. We work with alternative characterizations of...
Article
Full-text available
This paper assesses the standard of living using health-relatedoutcomes instead of income-based measures. We use the Body Mass Index(BMI) as a categorical variable to take into account how far people are froma normal range associated to a desirable quality of life. This is a proxy of theStandard of Living Index for the Colombian case. An OrderedPro...
Article
Full-text available
The importance of ever-earlier interventions to help children reach their physical and cognitive potential is increasingly being recognized. In part, as a result of this, in developing countries, antenatal care is becoming an important element of strategies to prevent child stunting in utero and later. Notwithstanding their policy relevance and sub...
Article
Full-text available
This document examines the time-series properties of the wage differentials that arise between the public and private sector in Colombia during the sample period 1984 to 2005. We find conflicting results in unit-root and stationarity tests when looking at wage differentials at an aggregate level (such as for men, women or both). However, when we an...
Article
Full-text available
We assess inequality of educational achievement in six Latin American countries taking John Roemer's (1998) equality of opportunities approach (EOp) and Checchi and Peragine (2010) as the main conceptual and empirical frameworks, respectively. Pupil's test scores from PISA 2006 and 2009 exams (reading, mathematics and sciences) are employed in our...
Article
The authors examine the determinants of information and communications technology (ICT) usage among low-income people in three developing countries: Colombia, Mexico, and Peru. Using two composite indicators, they focus on cross-country differences and similarities in ICT usage across gender, age, education, and income levels. The authors’ analysis...
Article
In recent years in Colombia, the informal resale of mobile telephone minutes as an alternative means of access to mobile telephony has allowed access for many low-income people not financially eligible for mobile plans. With data from a 2007 survey of low-income households in Colombia, we analyzed the main factors that determine the use of this kin...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to verify whether school resource factors have an impact on the quality of education. This latter is measured with the help of a unique database on student scores in international skills tests. The general difficulties inherent in this type of study are the possibility of endogeneity bias and measurement errors. After estim...
Article
Full-text available
This paper studies the determinants of the use of different strategies by mobile-users for reducing their spending. This empirical exercise is done with a special survey focused in lowincome people from developing countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru. Our methodology is the following. First, we evaluate the determinants o...
Article
In this paper, we attempt to analyze the determinants of unintended births among Colombian women aged 40 years old or more using data from the ‘Encuesta Nacional de Demografía y Salud ENDS- 2005”, which is Colombia´s national demographic and health survey. Given the especial characteristics of the variable under analysis, we used count data models...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we attempt to analyze the determinants of unintended births among Colombian women aged 40 years old or more using data from the Encuesta Nacional de Demografía y Salud 2005, which is Colombia's national demographic and health survey. Given the especial characteristics of the variable under analysis, we used count data models in order...
Article
Full-text available
This paper uses Colombian household survey data collected over the 1984-2005 period to estimate Gini coefficients and their corresponding standard errors. We find a statistically significant increase in wage income inequality following the adoption of the liberalization measures during the early 1990s, and mixed evidence from the recovery years tha...
Article
We analyze the Body Mass Index (BMI) in a distinct way of its traditional use and it lets us use it as a proxy of standard of living for the case of Colombia. Our approach is focused on studying how far the people are from the normal range and not on the score of each one and this lets us to treat equally extreme cases as severe thinness and obesit...
Article
This paper examines the diffusion pattern of mobile telephony in Colombia. The empirical modelling approach adopted in the paper starts off by choosing between the two functional forms that are most frequently used in the literature, namely the Gompertz and the Logistic models. After applying a formal statistical test to choose the preferred functi...
Article
This article is an extension of the work of Martin (2003) and it examines whether firms use debt strategically to stop entry of potential rivals in their industry. By using Generalized Method of Moments estimation (GMM), we evaluate the effects of assets, market share and size as proxies for market revenue, and the entry barriers due to indebtednes...
Article
Access to mobile telephony in Colombia exhibits rather interesting features compared to other countries. Colombia witnessed the beginning of a new alternative for communication consisting in the use of informal resale of minutes on the streets and small stores during the first years of this century. In this paper we are interested in analyzing the...
Article
Full-text available
Information about public education in Bogota is used in this article to evaluate the redistributive impact of subsidies using incidence analysis on income and expenditure by levels of strata and localities. Results indicate that education subsidies and new public policies have had strong progressive impacts on the income and expenditure of the poor...
Article
This study examines the determinants of information and communications technology (ICT) use and access of low-income people in three developing countries: Colombia, Mexico and Peru. We focus on cross-country differences and similarities in ICTs use across gender, age, education and income, using two composite indicators of ICT. The main similarity...
Article
We test the existence of changes in the relationship between fertility and schooling in Colombia for women from 30 to 40 years old between 1995 and 2005. For our purpose, we use Poisson Regression Models. Our database is the Demographic and Health Survey from 1995 and 2005. We found a reduction in the fertility during this period and an increase in...
Article
Full-text available
Este artículo es una extensión del trabajo de Martin (2003) que intenta estimar si las empresas emplean, estratégicamente, la deuda para limitar la entrada de potenciales rivales. Usando el Método Generalizado de Momentos (GMM), se evalúa el efecto que tienen los activos específicos, la cuota de mercado, el tamaño (como proxies de las rentas del me...
Article
We employ the measures traditionally used to analyze poverty, for studying the differences in the Body Mass Index (BMI) scores, according to the age and other socioeconomic variables, for people between 20 and 60. We use information from Demographic and Health Survey (DHS, 2005). We find that the participation of population with a BMI out of the no...
Article
Full-text available
En este artículo se usa la información disponible sobre la prestación del servicio educativo en Bogotá para evaluar el impacto redistributivo de los subsidios mediante el análisis de incidencia sobre el ingreso y el gasto por niveles de estratos y localidades de la ciudad. Los resultados indican que los subsidios educativos y las nuevas políticas d...
Article
Full-text available
El trabajo estudia las diferencias en el �ndice de Masa Corporal (IMC) por grupos etarios entre los 20 y 60 a�os teniendo como punto de referencia escalas normativas y relativas mediante el uso de algunos indicadores de pobreza y distribuci�n del ingreso. Se encuentra que la proporci�n de la poblaci�n con IMC fuera del rango establecido como normal...
Article
Applying Benefit Incidence Analysis we assessed the redistributive impact of public policies concerned with education in Bogotá. Though the household choices about public or private schooling are decentralized and respond to market constraints, the public provision policy of education achieves strong progressive impacts on income implying reduction...
Article
Este artículo estima la tasa de retorno de la educación de la población asalariada en Bogotá para 1997 y 2003 teniendo como referencia la teoría del capital humano. Para la estimación se corrige el sesgo de selección por medio de la metodología de Heckman (1979). A diferencia de estudios anteriores, que usan la Encuesta Nacional de Hogares, en éste...
Article
We study the effect of learning another language on the social and individual welfare by a people group who do not know that language. We use network economics approach in order to take into account the externalities of languages. The equilibrium with decentralized choices is not as good as the resulting from centralized choices. El documento estud...
Article
Full-text available
This document, static and dynamically, analyzes the changes in living conditions in Colombia between 1997 and 2003 by means of an alternative index which includes health aspects and the time spent in mobilization. These variables reduce the importance granted to physical capital in other indexes and increase the differences between rural and urban...
Article
Full-text available
This paper estimates the returns to education in Bogotá in 1997 and 2003 by means of Heckman s maximum likelihood methodology. The analytical framework used is Human Capital Theory. Instead of using the Encuesta Nacional de Hogares (National Household Survey), as does current literature, we use the Encuesta de Calidad de Vida (Life Quality Survey)....
Article
Full-text available
We study the effect of learning another language on the social and individual welfare by a people group who do not know that language. We use network economics approach in order to take into account the externalities of languages. The equilibrium with decentralized choices is not as good as the resulting from centralized choices. ******************...
Article
Full-text available
En este trabajo se realiza un an�lisis comparado de los sistemas de rentas m�nimas auton�micas en Espa�a con los programas de garant�a de rentas en los dem�s pa�ses de la Uni�n Europea. Estos programas constituyen, dentro del amplio abanico de gastos sociales, los m�s directamente encaminados a luchar contra la pobreza y la exclusi�n social mediant...
Article
Full-text available
This document offers a theoretical price regulation model for the postal sector to evaluate the existence of cross subsidies between the regulated and competitive parts of the postal sector. It analyzes agents' incentives to use cross subsidization when prices are regulated by the Ramsey prices or by the global price cap. It shows that cross subsid...
Article
Full-text available
This article shows new forms to study the results of students and schools in the ICFES exam. Recognizing the criticisms of different publications where are compared the schools according to their average score, an analysis of aggregate value is proposed, which keeps in mind in an explicit way the differences in the socioeconomic status of the stude...
Article
This document estimates the returns to education in Bogotá in 1997 and 2003 by means of Heckman’s maximum likelihood methodology. We found a reduction in the returns to education and in the impact of experience in Bogotá between these years. Labor income also decreases.(Se estima la tasa de retorno de la educación en Bogotá para 1997 y 2003 por med...
Article
Full-text available
This document offers a theoretical price regulation model for the postal sector to evaluate the existence of cross subsidies between the regulated and competitive parts of the postal sector. It analyzes agents’ incentives to use cross subsidization when prices are regulated by the Ramsey prices or by the global price cap. It shows that cross subsid...
Article
Full-text available
Este trabajo analiza, estática y dinámicamente, los cambios en las condiciones de vida de los hogares en Colombia entre los años 1997 y 2003 mediante un indicador alternativo que incorpora aspectos de salud y el tiempo gastado en desplazamiento. Estas variables reducen la importancia otorgada al capital físico en otros indicadores de calidad de vid...
Article
Este trabajo analiza, estática y dinámicamente, los cambios en las condiciones de vida de los hogares en Colombia entre los años 1997 y 2003. Se propone un indicador alternativo y se contrasta a nivel nacional, regional y de centro poblacional con el Índice de Calidad de Vida (ICV) convencional. El indicador alterno reconoce la importancia que tien...
Article
Full-text available
This document outlines the basic concepts of economic theory that are used to evaluate alternative social states, based on the formulation of a social welfare function that either permits or denies interpersonal comparisons of utility. Specially, it shows different approaches of old and new welfare economics. And concludes that Amartya Sen's contri...
Article
Este trabajo estudia la contribución de las tecnologías de la información y de la comunicación al crecimiento de la industria española, durante el periodo 1990-1999. Se aplica la descomposición del crecimiento de Solow (1957) y para el análisis de productividad se usa la metodología de fronteras estocásticas. Se encuentra que la mayor contribución...
Article
Full-text available
We build a model where a postal incumbent offering single piece, transactional and advertising mail competes with postal entrants and with a firm offering an alternative medium. We solve for the optimal prices under various competition assumptions. We calibrate the model and provide numerical simulations in order to shed light on the impact of thes...
Article
Full-text available
El documento hace una revisi�n de las principales fuentes de protecci�n social que hay en Colombia y las caracter�sticas de los sistemas de protecci�n de otros pa�ses. Se encuentra que gran parte de lo que se conoce como gasto social se destina al tema pensional y que los resultados de los fondos de solidaridad son muy peque�os frente a la autoprot...
Article
This paper examines whether the importance of the school has changed with the introduction of the new ICFES test. It is found that importance of the school, which remained relatively stable between 1997 and 1999 (around 27% and 37%), is reduced considerably with the introduction of the new ICFES examination, to levels between 10% and 27% for the ye...
Article
Full-text available
This work shows if firms use debt strategically in order to stop entry of potential rivals in their industry. Using Generalized Method of Moments estimation (GMM) we evaluate the effect of assets, market share and size as proxies for market revenue, and the entry barriers over indebtedness levels. Our data uses firm level information for Colombia,...
Article
Full-text available
Este trabajo estudia la contribuci�n de las tecnolog�as de la informaci�n y de la comunicaci�n al crecimiento de la industria espa�ola, durante el periodo 1990-1999. Se aplica la descomposici�n del crecimiento de Solow (1957) y para el an�lisis de productividad se usa la metodolog�a de fronteras estoc�sticas. Se encuentra que la mayor contribuci�n...
Article
Full-text available
This document outlines the basic concepts of economic theory that are used to evaluate alternative social states, based on the formulation of a social welfare function that either permits or denies interpersonal comparisons of utility. Specially, it shows different approaches of old and new welfare economics. And concludes that Amartya Sen’s contri...
Article
Full-text available
Este artículo presenta nuevas formas de abordar los resultados de estudiantes y colegios en los exámenes del ICFES.Reconociendo las críticas recibidas por diferentes publicaciones, en donde se comparan los colegios de acuerdocon su puntaje promedio, se propone un análisis de valor agregado, el cual tiene en cuenta explícitamente las diferencias en...
Article
The new index of living conditions is a multivariate standard of living index estimated by qualitative principal components and it includes 15 variables of perception that distinguish it from the ILC estimated for Colombia. These new variables enrich the actual discussion about the relevancy of some social programs, because it has wider dimensions...
Article
Full-text available
El artículo presenta nuevas formas de abordar los resultados de estudiantes y colegios en los exámenes de estado del ICFES. Incorporando las críticas recibidas por diferentes publicaciones, en donde se comparan los colegios de acuerdo al puntaje promedio obtenido por cada uno de ellos, se propone un análisis de valor agregado, el cual tiene en cuen...
Article
Full-text available
The composed index of Standard of Living have the advantage of sort its components by the population's variance. This paper shows the importance of separate the análisis national from the regional one, in order to avoid bias and mistakes in value judges when we want to design social pocily programs. *************************************************...
Article
Full-text available
El art�culo busca entender la manera en que el cambio en la conceptualizaci�n del examen del ICFES, a partir del 2000, afect� la importancia de la escuela en la predicci�n del logro del estudiante. El art�culo muestra que la importancia bruta de la escuela, que entre 1997 y 1999 se situaba en niveles similares (entre el 27% y el 37%), se reduce con...
Article
Full-text available
This document seeks to show the main properties of a standard of living index using the theoretical approach of Amartya Sen. We establish the link among concepts such as: welfare, well-being, agency achievement and standard of living. Optimal scaling methodology was fundamental in order to test the properties on the Colombian case. These properties...
Article
Full-text available
The new index of living conditions is a multivariate standard of living index estimated by qualitative principal components an it includes 15 variables of perception that distringuish it from the ILC estimated for Colombia. these new variables enrich the actual discussion about the relevancy of some social programs, becaus it has wider dimensions t...
Article
Full-text available
La literatura económica ha abordado la discusión sobre el crecimiento y la equidad en distintas líneas. La necesidad de tener una sociedad más equitativa es una de las opciones y este escrito intenta aportar nuevas ideas a la discusión dando prioridad a la equidad. Para este efecto, discute, el espacio en el que se trabajará la desigualdad, las cau...
Article
Full-text available
This document tries to schematize the basic concepts studied in the economic theory to evaluate life conditions of people. We show the different approaches of the old and new welfare economics and we conclude that the economic theory has arrived at a concept of welfare and justice extensively defined that allows to evaluate the agents in a distinct...
Article
Full-text available
El presente documento muestra las dificultades teóricas de la identificación del bienestar individual y las ventajas de interpretar el Índice de Condiciones de Vida (ICV) y el Índice del Sistema de Selección de Beneficiarios (I-sisben) como indicadores de estándar de vida. Se discuten el concepto de bienestar individual, tal como se concibe en la t...