Luis de Sousa

Luis de Sousa
University of Lisbon | UL · Institute of Social Sciences

Phd in Political and Social Sciences

About

54
Publications
19,970
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804
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2013 - September 2018
University of Aveiro
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)

Publications

Publications (54)
Article
Studies on perceptions of corruption have grown in recent years but are still struggling with several conceptual and measurement issues. This scoping review provides an analysis of the peer-reviewed literature on perception-based corruption. From a total of 1,374 articles surveyed, ninety ultimately met inclusion criteria. We found two main quantif...
Article
This article introduces the new Party Ethics Self-Regulation database, covering 21 indicators on ethics self-regulation organised into three categories (norms, oversight and enforcement) across 200 political parties of 25 countries available in 2020. Internal self-regulatory efforts developed by political parties have been insufficiently addressed...
Preprint
Full-text available
We study how political elites and voters respond to intra-party reforms to promote transparency and ethical conduct. Evidence from a paired conjoint analysis from politicians and voters in Portugal and Spain.
Article
This is an edited and revised version of an interview recorded in September 2021, which served as closing remarks for the 3rd edition of the Research Methods School on Corruption and Anti-Corruption Analysis (CORAN), Institute of Social Sciences, University of Lisbon (Portugal), 27-30 September 2021. The event was organized jointly with the Centre...
Article
Much of the literature on quality of democracy is case study-oriented and focused on nation states. Theoretical work and, in particular, comparative empirical research on the quality of local democracy are less advanced. This paper contributes to our understanding of how democracy works from below. It develops a conceptual framing and employs a mul...
Article
This is an edited and revised version of an interview recorded in September 2021, which served as closing remarks for the 3rd edition of the Research Methods School on Corruption and Anti-Corruption Analysis (CORAN), Institute of Social Sciences, University of Lisbon (Portugal), 27-30 September 2021. The event was organized jointly with the Centre...
Article
Purpose This article presents focus groups as a method to enhance questionnaire design to frame and test items for a mass survey on corruption and austerity in democracy. Such methodology lacks systematization when it comes to the description of implementation procedures and the discussion of effective contribution to the development of survey ques...
Article
Full-text available
This article seeks to assess whether populist incumbents affect their country’s perceived political stability and business climate. Existing evidence contends that populist governments in European democracies produce more moderate policy outcomes than their agendas would suggest. However, populist parties are still regarded as disruptive, as they a...
Article
Purpose The two main objectives of this project were to advance knowledge about the way corruption and related offences are structured and operate in society and to draw inferences on the efficiency and efficacy of the judicial authorities in handling reported offences with the ultimate goal of improving and effecting control policies. Design/meth...
Data
The available file presents only basic information about the database. To request access to the database, please go to <http://hdl.handle.net/10400.20/2084> Esta base de dados resulta de uma primeira fase do projecto EPOCA, com o intuito de caracterizar os grupos focais no âmbito da percepção da corrupção por parte dos universitários residentes em...
Data
The available file presents only basic information about the database. To request access to the database, please go to <http://hdl.handle.net/10400.20/2086>. Database on corruption surveys has a completed collection and systematisation of all major survey questionnaires related to corruption and integrity available online. This DB has 3050 entries...
Article
Full-text available
The Portuguese legal system establishes in its constitution and through a dedicated ordinary law, the right of opposition (Law 24/98, of May 26). The application of this regime, in particular to local politics where the tensions between Government and Opposition are felt more acutely, has not received sufficient attention both in normative and empi...
Book
Full-text available
Quais são os fatores que determinam a qualidade da governação local e como medi-los? Este estudo propõe-se avaliar a qualidade da governação local nos 308 municípios portugueses, através de um índice multidimensional, composto por 22 indicadores identificados e ponderados por um grupo de peritos e perceber quem são e como interagem os principais at...
Article
Full-text available
Two developments have marked EU democracies, with different levels of incidence and intensity, during the past two decades: the decline in support for democracy and the spread of corruption. Most individual-level analyses have identified the incumbent’s economic performance or government effectiveness as sufficient explanations of citizens’ growing...
Book
Full-text available
A ausência de ética na vida pública não é apenas um pro- blema de opções ou convicções individuais, mas sobretudo de organização. Os padrões de comportamento dos agentes públi- cos, administrativos ou eleitos, resulta em grande medida da forma como o poder está organizado e é exercido. Por regra, a maior apropriação de padrões de ética por parte do...
Chapter
Full-text available
A confrontação de diferentes valores e perspectivas é a essência de qualquer sociedade moderna e a gestão desses conflitos compete à política. Esta diversidade vem-se tornando mais volátil, por vezes diminuindo o espaço de diálogo e conciliação, criando dilemas éticos de difícil resolução no plano político. «Qual a melhor decisão a tomar?» Não há...
Article
In recent years, lobbying has taken up an important space in national and international agendas for political reform. Portugal has recently attempted to pass a law regulating lobbying at the executive level, but the legislative process was brought to a halt as it failed to mobilize sufficient support across the political spectrum. There are still a...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the importance of government transparency to promote accountability and prevent maladministration, empirical research has failed to produce proper tools to assess and compare government transparency practices. Most contributions to the topic do not address it from a stakeholder’s perspective, particularly in selecting the indicators to incl...
Article
Full-text available
Corruption is deviant behaviour from legal and social norms, observable in both dictatorships and democracies, and salient in different periods of the history of mankind. Studying corruption in dictatorships is particularly challenging due to the fact that freedom of expression is censored and there is little (if any) reliable information about the...
Book
A reforma da Poder Local tem vindo a ser anunciada ao longo dos vários programas de governo, incluindo o recente Livro Verde para a Reforma da Administração Local, mas tem caído no esquecimento, em grande parte devido à ausência de um debate sistematizado e fundamentado sobre as várias dimensões do problema. Esta publicação vem colmatar essa lacuna...
Article
International economic crises are critical periods for any political regime. The 2008 global financial crisis brought to the surface several weak spots in the institutional performance of various southern European democracies. Portugal was no exception. Government attempts to tackle its negative externalities through a series of austerity measures...
Article
After a decade of successive changes to its political financing regulatory framework, and a cumbersome dual monitoring system, Portugal has decided to adopt a single supervisory body – the Entity for Accounts and Political Financing (EAPF). Notwithstanding these improvements, the diffused perception of the existing political financing regulatory an...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Relatorio para Portugal do Global Corruption Barometer, realizado pela equipa de investigação da Transparencia e Integridade (TIAC).
Article
Full-text available
One of the intriguing phenomena in democracy is the fact that politicians involved in, accused of or condemned for corruption in a court of law get re-elected by their constituents. In some cases, corruption does not seem to negatively affect the development of political careers. In this introductory article, we try to develop a multidimensional fr...
Book
Full-text available
Sabemos, de muitos estudos anteriores, que os portugueses não estão particularmente satisfeitos com a maneira como funciona a nossa democracia. Mas «democracia» é um conceito e uma realidade multidimensional. Dela esperamos que represente a diversidade de preferências das pessoas, que faça cumprir as leis e dê acesso à justiça, que responsabilize q...
Article
Full-text available
This article introduces a discussion on defining, measuring, and assessing the quality of democracy. Providing a short overview of the papers of the Symposium, it places them within a broader context of current academic debate on various methodological, theoretical, and policy outreach dimensions of the topic.
Article
Full-text available
European Studies (ES), the academic field that deals with European issues in general and European integration in particular, is controversial by nature. For some, European integration is but an ideology. Others believe it to be an ‘n’ of 1 that cannot be compared or imitated. For the majority, European integration is a moving target and an unfinish...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this book is to understand the rise, future and implications of two important new kinds of "integrity warriors" - official anti-corruption agencies (ACAs) and anti-corruption NGOs - and to locate them in a wider context and history of anti-corruption activity.
Article
European integration has had a dual impact on border regions. On the one hand, borders were physically dismantled across most of the EU's internal territory. On the other hand, they have become a fertile ground for territorial co-operation and institutional innovation. The degree of cross-border co-operation and organization achieved varies conside...
Article
This symposium explores some of the dilemmas of aid funding and the challenges that aid agencies face when defining and implementing aid policies that are mindful of anti-corruption concerns. There are tensions between aid flows, state capacity and development needs that require special attention from donors and raise the ultimate question whether...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we compared and tried to explain deputies' and voters' perceptions about various dimensions of European integration. The general assertion that the political elite's perceptions tend to be more pro-integration finds some support in our analysis, but the results indicate this difference − in the Portuguese case − is smaller than has...
Article
Full-text available
The evolution and development of political science in Europe can best be seen through three dimensions: first , the way in which the subject area has been defined; second, how it has been institutionalized; and third, the way its professional community has taken shape.
Article
Full-text available
The anti-corruption activity of the 1990s is characterized by the rise of new players, such as specialized anti-corruption bodies. Anti-corruption agencies (ACAs) are public bodies of a durable nature, with a specific mission to fight corruption and reducing the opportunity structures propitious for its occurrence in society through preventive and/...
Article
Portugal has often been considered as a case of successful democratic consolidation; and in fact the same ethical standards underpin democratic government and the rule of law – equality, transparency, accountability, impartiality, legality and integrity – as are found in most other mature Western European democracies. However, there is something si...
Article
The post-Cold War political map displays three major developments, which deserve close attention: the global expansion of democracy; the growth and changing nature of nongovernmental organisations (NGOs); and the evolution of corruption and anticorruption from a non-issue into a global concern at all levels of decision-making. Linking all three dev...
Article
The regulation of political financing in Portugal has taken place through successive waves of reform since the adoption of the first decree which gave legal recognition to parties in 1974. The incremental nature of adjustments and the overall inefficacy of instruments adopted, often introduced without a clear understanding of the problems and oppor...
Article
Full-text available
Despite its difficulties and inconsistencies in framing those practices andconducts recently unveiled by the press and judicial investigations whichhave caused considerable public discontent, the penal definition ofcorruption still highlights an interesting conceptual diversity across spaceand time that should not be overlooked. Most official discu...
Article
Portugal is often considered an example of successful democratic consolidation. Yet it has not been exempt from corruption scandals. By the mid‐1990s, transparency and the moralisation of political life had come to dominate parliamentary debates and reforms. The illegality surrounding party life must be seen against the background of dominant ethic...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, governments and legislatures have made an unprecedented effort to improve regulatory systems of political financing which had been perceived by many as fraught with corruption. Some countries have been more sensitive to the problem than others given the nature and extent of occurrences, but the successive waves of reform show how d...
Article
In recent years, the problematic relationship between conflicts of interest and corruption has been a sensitive one to democracy. Although conflicts of interest have not always resulted in corruption, they do constitute an important opportunity structure for such illicit behaviour. The Portuguese attempt at regulating conflicts of interest in parli...

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Projects (2)
Project
Political trust in democracies has dramatically declined to record figures (especially during the last decade). Levels of trust in political parties, national governments, and parliaments have consecutively shown the lowest scores in most citizen-based cross-national surveys carried out over the past two decades. A fall in political trust has coincided with an increase in scandals associated to the financial probity of parties, MPs and cabinet members. Much of this public disquiet is a result of the combination of both perceived poor standards of probity associated to these key institutional actors and a poor record in clarifying what those standards should be and how they ought to be enforced. Given the impact that the perceived decline in ethical standards in politics has on levels of trust and satisfaction with democracy, it becomes necessary to explore in detail where the boundaries of acceptable conduct for MPs, government officials, and parties lie, how the target-actors evaluate the reputational costs associated to their conduct, and how they go about mitigating those costs.
Project
There is a sizeable body of literature analysing the impact of the crisis on political support in democracy. However, the role of corruption and corruption-related attitudes and perceptions as a determinant factor has not been examined, partly because of its conceptual complexity. In this project, we will be inspecting through a multi-methods and interdisciplinary approach how changes in the living conditions of individuals brought by government policies have affected their understanding, interaction with and levels of tolerance towards corruption, and how these changes help to explain levels and gradients of political support in democracy.