Luigi Barazzetti

Luigi Barazzetti
Politecnico di Milano | Polimi · Department of Architecture, Built Environment and Construction Engineering

28.92
 · 
PhD Geomatics and Infrastructures

About

156
Publications
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Publications

Publications (156)
Article
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The identification of deterioration mechanisms and their monitoring over time is an essential phase for conservation. This work aimed at developing a novel approach for deterioration mapping and monitoring based on 360° images, which allows for simple and rapid data collection. The opportunity to capture the whole scene around a 360° camera reduces...
Chapter
Full-text available
The era of big data requires increasing automation for the analysis of huge information in a short time and this need becomes critical when dealing with geoinformation. This chapter describes the automatic geocoding of digital images based on high-end Photogrammetric and Remote Sensing methods. In particular, the so-called Structure-from-Motion (Sf...
Chapter
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Surveying a historic building means to measure, to detect and to analyse its geometries, its structural elements, the connections still existing between the different parts, in order to define its state of conservation, to make structural analysis and finally to plan a proper project of conservation, consolidation and reuse. The survey represents t...
Article
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Recording the physical characteristics of historic structures and landscapes is a cornerstone of preventive maintenance, monitoring and conservation. The information produced by such workflows guides decision-making by property owners, site managers, public officials, and conservators. Rigorous documentation may also serve a broader purpose: over t...
Article
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A cornerstone of the management and conservation of archaeological sites is recording their physical characteristics. Documenting and describing the site is an essential step that allows for delineating the components of the site and for collecting and synthesizing information and documentation (Demas, 2012). The information produced by such work a...
Chapter
Earth observation technologies are becoming increasingly important not only in monitoring practice in environmental domain, but also for detecting changes in urban areas caused by natural hazards such as earthquakes, floods or landslides. A range of high- and very high-resolution sensors useful for this purpose have been implemented as equipment of...
Article
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This paper presents the survey of the Baptistery of the Collegiata Museum (Castiglione Olona - Italy), painted by Masolino da Panicale in 1435. Surveying activity was carries out throughout the use of combined digital techniques of documentation (topographic measurements, laser scanning, digital photogrammetry, thermal imaging, digital photography)...
Article
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Informative models are not limited only to new construction or existing building but can also be used (also been used) for large infrastructure management like bridges. The adoption of informative content models for structural health monitoring (SHM) of such infrastructures poses some issues that need to be solved in order to develop smooth managem...
Article
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The paper aims at investigating results, research perspectives, and limitations emerging from the synergy between geomatics and conservation. Recent didactic experiences carried out in restoration laboratories at Politecnico di Milano are illustrated and discussed. The authors tested innovative techniques for surveying with particular attention to...
Article
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GAMHer (Geomatics data Acquisition and Management for landscape and built Heritage in a European perspective) is a three-year research project financed under the Italian PRIN 2015 framework (Progetti di Ricerca di Rilevante Interesse Nazionale). The project, started in February 2017 under the University of Bologna coordination, links other 5 Italia...
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This paper presents a strategy to measure verticality deviations (i.e. inclination) of tall chimneys. The method uses laser scanning point clouds acquired around the chimney to estimate vertical deviations with millimeter-level precision. Horizontal slices derived from the point cloud allows us to inspect the geometry of the chimney at different he...
Article
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Metric documentation of buildings requires the connection of different spaces, such as rooms, corridors, floors, and interior and exterior spaces. Images and laser scans have to be oriented and registered to obtain accurate metric data about different areas and the related metric information (e.g., wall thickness). A robust registration can be obta...
Article
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Nowadays, the digital reconstruction of vaults is carried out using photogrammetric and laser scanning techniques able to capture the visible surface with dense point clouds. Then, different modeling strategies allow the generation of 3D models in various formats, such as meshes that interpolates the acquired point cloud, NURBS-based reconstruction...
Article
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Automated identification of high-level structures in unorganized point cloud of indoor spaces Indoor space is an important aspect of scene analysis that provides essential information for many applications, such as building digitization, indoor navigation and evacuation route planning. In addition, detection of repetition and regularities in the or...
Article
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Ancient graffiti are a valuable and constant historical evidence through the human history, regardless from the geographic area or historical period. They can be found on different kinds of surfaces and in different contexts, such as religious building or civic structures, in public or private environments. Their study and comprehension need to be...
Article
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A critical task in every terrestrial laser scanning project is the transformation (addressed to as registration or alignment) of multiple point clouds into a common reference system. Even though this operation appears to be a solved and well-understood problem, the vast majority of available techniques still lack meaningful quality measures that al...
Chapter
The application of Structure-from-Motion (SfM) Photogrammetry with ground-based and UAV camera stations may be exploited for modelling the topographic surface of Alpine glaciers. Multi-temporal repeated surveys lead to geometric models that may be applied to analyze the glacier retreat under global warming conditions. Thanks to the integration of p...
Article
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The monitoring of hazardous events through change detection has an important role in the emergency management. Such actions can be performed shortly after the hazardous event for first rapid mapping but also over longer periods of time for recovery purposes and risk mapping. The use of medium resolution free-of-charge multi-spectral satellite image...
Article
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This paper describes an automatic multi-image robust alignment (MIRA) procedure able to simultaneously co-register a time series of medium-resolution satellite images in a bundle block adjustment (BBA) fashion. Instead of the direct co-registration of each image with respect to a reference ‘master’ image on the basis of corresponding features, MIRA...
Chapter
In the last years it has been progressively invested many efforts in the cultural heritage digitization: surveying, modeling activities, diagnostic analysis and historic data collection of architectural heritage. Such actions have been mainly acquired for the preservation process, during the restoration and construction site. Unfortunately, many of...
Article
3D scenes reconstructed from point clouds, acquired by either laser scanning or photogrammetry, are subject to data voids generated by occluding objects. Modeling from incomplete data is usually a manual process in which human interpretation plays an essential role. This paper presents a machine learning algorithm based on neural networks capable o...
Article
Direct web-based access to ready-to-use huge archives of satellite images and cloud-based services for planetary-scale data processing (e.g., Google Earth Engine or Amazon S3) is making possible to analyze unprecedented amounts of remotely sensed images simultaneously. Multiple images can be exploited to improve traditional results achieved through...
Article
In December 2012, EniServizi (the Italian multinational energy company), after the Earthquake that occurred at L’Aquila in April 2009, decided to undertake the project “Re-start from Collemaggio”, funding around 14 million Euro to restore the Basilica di Collemaggio. EniServizi, aware of the BIM potential role in the complex building and infrastruc...
Article
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The paper presents the work carried out on the medieval bridge Azzone Visconti in Lecco, Italy. The project required the use of both BIM and GIS technologies to assess the loading capacity of the bridge. First, a detailed geometric survey was carried out with laser scanning and photogrammetric techniques. The aim was the generation of a BIM. Displa...
Article
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The paper presents a workflow for finite element model generation from point clouds acquired via photogrammetry and laser scanning. The case study is a room with an umbrella vault in Castel Masegra, located in Sondrio (Italy). The complexity of the room required an accurate geometric survey from a set of dense point clouds, from which a detailed BI...
Article
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Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry is a flexible and powerful tool to provide 3D point clouds describing the surface of objects. Due to the easy transportability and low-cost of necessary equipment with respect to laser scanning techniques, SfM photogrammetry has great potential to be applied in harsh high-mountain environment. Here point c...
Article
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360 degree cameras capture the whole scene around a photographer in a single shot. Cheap 360 cameras are a new paradigm in photogrammetry. The camera can be pointed to any direction, and the large field of view reduces the number of photographs. This paper aims to show that accurate metric reconstructions can be achieved with affordable sensors (le...
Article
Climate change represents an increasing threat to cultural heritage all around the world. In particular, the consequences of extreme weather events like tornados, heavy rain, and flooding can significantly damage built heritage and archeological sites. To face such issues, an integrated approach for threat assessment and damage identification is of...
Article
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LiDAR is a consolidated technology for topographic mapping and 3D reconstruction, which is implemented in several platforms On the other hand, the exploitation of the geometric information has been coupled by the use of laser intensity, which may provide additional data for multiple purposes. This option has been emphasized by the availability of s...
Chapter
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Nowadays, the increasing computation power of commercial grade processors has actively led to a vast spreading of image-based reconstruction software as well as its application in different disciplines. As a result, new frontiers regarding the use of photogrammetry in a vast range of investigation activities are being explored. This paper investiga...
Article
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Geospatial data have a crucial role in several projects related to infrastructures and land management. GIS software are able to perform advanced geospatial analyses, but they lack several instruments and tools for parametric modelling typically available in BIM. At the same time, BIM software designed for buildings have limited tools to handle geo...
Article
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The paper presents the results of an experimental and numerical investigation on Azzone Visconti bridge, a XIV century arch bridge in Lecco (northern Italy). Starting from the historical data and from an extensive mechanical characterization of both the soil constituting the riverbed and of the masonry constituting the piers, the aim of the study i...
Article
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Documentation on archaeological fieldworks needs to be accurate and time-effective. Many features unveiled during excavations can be recorded just once, since the archaeological workflow physically removes most of the stratigraphic elements. Some of them have peculiar characteristics which make them hardly recognizable as objects and prevent a full...
Article
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This paper presents the development of a BIM model for a stratified historic structure characterized by a complex geometry: Filarete’s Ospedale Maggiore ice house, one of the few remaining historic ice houses in Milan (Fig. 1). Filarete, a well-known Renaissance architect and theorist, planned the hospital in the 15th century, but the ice house was...
Article
Full-text available
Documenting the physical characteristics of historic structures is the first step for any preventive maintenance, monitoring, conservation, planning and promotion action. Metric documentation supports informative decision-making process for property owners, site managers, public officials, and conservators. This information serves also a broader pu...
Article
Full-text available
Today, the field of cultural heritage faces many challenges: cultural heritage is always at risk, the large amount of heritage information is often fragmented, climate change impacts cultural heritage and heritage recording can be time-consuming and often results in low accuracy. Four objectives, related to the challenges, were defined during this...
Article
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Currently, the commercial market offers several tools for digital documentation of historic sites and buildings. Photogrammetry and laser scanning play a fundamental role in the acquisition of metric information, which is then processed to generate reliable records particularly useful also in the built heritage conservation field. Although potentia...
Article
Full-text available
In December 2012 ENIservizi (the Italian multi-national energy agency operating in many countries), after the Earthquake that occurred in April 2009, decided to undertake the project ‘Re-start from Collemaggio’ with the aim of giving new hope to the L’Aquila community, funding around 14 million Euro to restore the Basilica di Collemaggio. The Super...
Article
Full-text available
GAMHer is a collaborative project that aims at exploiting and validating Geomatics algorithms, methodologies and procedures in the framework of new European regulations, which require a more extensive and productive use of digital information, as requested by the Digital Agenda for Europe as one of the seven pillars of the Europe 2020 Strategy. To...
Article
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Recent developments in Building Information Modelling (BIM) technologies are facilitating the management of historic complex structures using new applications. This paper proposes a generative method combining the morphological and typological aspects of the historic buildings (H-BIM), with a set of monitoring information. This combination of 3D di...
Chapter
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This chapter presents the latest advances in historic building information modeling (HBIM) that have been transformed into models for mobile apps based on augmented and virtual reality. The chapter aims to demonstrate that a complex model based on HBIM can be used in portable devices to extract useful information not only for specialists in archite...
Article
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Fisheye lenses are becoming more popular in complete image-based modelling projects of small and narrow spaces. The growing interest in fisheye lenses is confirmed by the availability of different commercial software incorporating a fisheye camera model. Such software are now able to carry out the steps of the image processing pipeline in a fully a...
Article
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The Samsung Gear 360 is a consumer grade spherical camera able to capture photos and videos. The aim of this work is to test the metric accuracy and the level of detail achievable with the Samsung Gear 360 coupled with digital modelling techniques based on photogrammetry/computer vision algorithms. Results demonstrate that the direct use of the pro...
Conference Paper
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In this paper, we present a procedure which makes available an accurate historic BIM (HBIM) in the cloud. Data processing is carried out with a NURBS-based strategy to reduce the size of the final HBIM derived from images and laser scans, providing an accurate and reliable 3D model with limited memory occupation. This guarantees a remote access wit...
Conference Paper
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A large development of downstream services is expected to be stimulated starting from earth observations (EO) datasets acquired by Copernicus satellites. An important challenge connected with the availability of downstream services is the possibility for their integration in order to create innovative applications with added values for users of dif...
Conference Paper
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Starting from June 2015, Sentinel-2A is delivering high resolution optical images (ground resolution up to 10 meters) to provide a global coverage of the Earth’s land surface every 10 days. The planned launch of Sentinel-2B along with the integration of Landsat images will provide time series with an unprecedented revisit time indispensable for num...
Article
This paper presents a novel semi-automated method for the generation of 3D parametric as-built models from point clouds. Laser scanning and photogrammetry have a primary role in the survey of existing facilities, especially for the generation of accurate and detailed as-built parametric models that reflect the true condition of a building. Various...
Conference Paper
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This paper describes the use of a new multi-image co-registration method tuned for SAR multi-temporal data collected with different orbits, viewing angles and polarization. Tests were performed using COSMO-SkyMed (X-band) and Sentinel-1 data (C-band) time series imaged in stripmap and spotlight modes. Results shows an overview sub-pixel accuracy al...
Conference Paper
A novel procedure able to align bracketed images acquired with a handheld camera is illustrated and discussed. The method is based on a system of linear equations solved via least squares, which provides the transformation parameters of Low Dynamic Range images acquired for High Dynamic Range photography. The method uses features automatically matc...
Article
Full-text available
Geospatial data are today more and more widespread. Many different institutions, such as Geographical Institutes, Public Administrations, collaborative communities (e.g., OSM) and web companies, make available nowadays a large number of maps. Besides this cartography, projects of digitizing, georeferencing and web publication of historical maps hav...
Article
Full-text available
Geospatial data are today more and more widespread. Many different institutions, such as Geographical Institutes, Public Administrations, collaborative communities (e.g., OSM) and web companies, make available nowadays a large number of maps. Besides this cartography, projects of digitizing, georeferencing and web publication of historical maps hav...
Article
Full-text available
Building Information Modelling is not limited to buildings. BIM technology includes civil infrastructures such as roads, dams, bridges, communications networks, water and wastewater networks and tunnels. This paper describes a novel methodology for the generation of a detailed BIM of a complex medieval bridge. The use of laser scans and images coup...
Article
Full-text available
Building Information Modelling is not limited to buildings. BIM technology includes civil infrastructures such as roads, dams, bridges, communications networks, water and wastewater networks and tunnels. This paper describes a novel methodology for the generation of a detailed BIM of a complex medieval bridge. The use of laser scans and images coup...
Article
Full-text available
The use of rational functions has become a standard for very high-resolution satellite imagery (VHRSI). On the other hand, the overall geolocalization accuracy via direct georeferencing from on board navigation components is much worse than image ground sampling distance (predicted < 3.5 m CE90 for WorldView-3, whereas GSD = 0.31 m for panchromatic...
Article
Full-text available
The use of rational functions has become a standard for very high-resolution satellite imagery (VHRSI). On the other hand, the overall geolocalization accuracy via direct georeferencing from on board navigation components is much worse than image ground sampling distance (predicted < 3.5 m CE90 for WorldView-3, whereas GSD = 0.31 m for panchromatic...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Radiometric image normalization is one of the basic pre-processing methods used in satellite time series analysis. This paper presents a new multi-image approach able to estimate the parameters of relative radiometric normalization through a multiple and simultaneous regression with a dataset of a generic number of images. The method was developed...
Article
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Sediment yield is a key factor in river basins management due to the various and adverse consequences that erosion and sediment transport in rivers may have on the environment. Although various contributions can be found in the literature about sediment yield modeling and bank erosion monitoring, the link between weather conditions, river flow rate...
Article
The FIFA Quality Concept (2012) requires a slope lower than 1% for soccer fields (<0.5% recommended). On the other hand, the use of a single constraint is not sufficient to capture the singularities and local anomalies of the pitch. This paper presents a procedure able to (1) reconstruct the entire pitch surface and (2) analyze its shape. The metho...
Article
This paper presents a novel strategy for object-based change detection using very high spatial resolution (VHR) satellite images captured under variable off-nadir view angles. The variable off-nadir angle, along with weak absolute orientation, generates spurious slivers during the multitemporal comparison of classification results. The proposed sol...
Article
This paper presents the use of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platform for the inspection and documentation of historical buried structures, starting from the landscape scale up to the local and detailed scale. The combined use of RGB and thermal images acquired from this kind of platforms, along with algorithms and procedures for data registrati...
Article
This paper presents an innovative procedure to create parametric building information modelling (BIM) objects from point clouds of complex architectural features. BIM technology requires an advanced parametric representation of the geometry involving spatial relationships, constraints and material properties. The aim of the procedure is a BIM-based...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes a procedure for the generation of a detailed HBIM which is then turned into a model for mobile apps based on augmented and virtual reality. Starting from laser point clouds, photogrammetric data and additional information, a geometric reconstruction with a high level of detail can be carried out by considering the basic require...
Article
Full-text available
Landscapes are dynamic entities, stretching and transforming across space and time, and need to be safeguarded as living places for the future, with interaction of human, social and economic dimensions. To have a comprehensive landscape evaluation several open data are needed, each one characterized by its own protocol, service interface, limiting...
Conference Paper
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This paper wants to explore the application of the theory of reliability, which has become largely popular in the analysis of geodetic and photogrammetric networks, to the multiple co-registration of satellite time-series of images through block adjustment. Indeed the current and future availability of long series of satellite imagery can be exploi...
Article
The complexity of historic constructions, with irregular geometry, inhomogeneous materials, variable morphology, alterations and damages, poses numerous challenges in the digital modeling and simulation of structural performances under different types of actions. Although recent developments in Building Information Modeling have introduced advanced...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The commercial market offers several software packages for the registration of remotely sensed data through standard one-to-one image matching. Although very rapid and simple, this strategy does not take into consideration all the interconnections among the images of a multi-temporal data set. This paper presents a new scientific software, called S...
Article
Remote sensing and space technologies are increasingly called to offer innovative solutions for current challenges induced by climatic and global change. One of the main priorities of the European Space Policy regards the economic independence of the old continent in this sector. In terms of research and innovation this inevitably leads to numerous...
Article
Very high resolution (VHR) satellite images have the potential for revealing changes occurred overtime with a superior level of detail. However, their use for metric purposes requires accurate geo-localization with ancillary DEMs and GCPs to achieve sub-pixel terrain correction, in order to obtain images useful for mapping applications. Change dete...
Article
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Image-based deformation measurement (IBDM) techniques entail the use of image sequences for extracting metric information to be compared over time. Their applications may concern several domains, such as civil and mechanical engineering as well as geosciences. The rationale behind IBDM and the methodological classification are discussed in the pape...
Article
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This paper describes the use of BIM models derived from point clouds for structural simulation based on Finite Element Analysis (FEA). Although BIM interoperability has reached a significant level of maturity, the density of laser point clouds provides very detailed BIM models that cannot directly be used in FEA software. The rationalization of the...
Chapter
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Image-to-image co-registration is one of the preprocessing steps needed for the analysis of satellite time series. This chapter presents a new approach where all the available images are simultaneously co-registered, overcoming the limits of traditional techniques. This method was tested on the flood and landslide that occurred in Valtellina (north...
Chapter
In this chapter, the application of close-range photogrammetry for deformation measurements in the field of landslide investigation and monitoring is discussed. Main advantages of this approach are the non-contact operational capability, the large covered area on the slope to analyze, the high degree of automation, the high acquisition rate, the ch...
Article
Laser trackers are precise and reliable instruments used in industrial applications in which real-time three-dimensional (3-D) metric information is needed. The nominal accuracy of such instruments is so relevant that they also are assuming an increasing importance in the field of civil engineering. In this paper, laser tracking technology is inves...
Article
Scaled-down flume tests are largely used to support investigations for the assessment of hydrogeological risk. Achieved outcomes can be integrated to numerical analyses for the study of unstable slope collapse, debris transport, and hydrological models in general. In the set-up of such simulation platforms, a relevant role has to be given to the Sp...
Conference Paper
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This paper presents a complete methodology for HBIM generation based on NURBS derived from a set of point clouds. NURBS combined with profiles and anchor points allow one to model the shape of complex historical objects surveyed with laser scanning techniques. As NURBS are mathematical functions defined through mathematical vectors, they can be con...