Luigi Trojano

Luigi Trojano
Università degli Studi della Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli" · Dept. of Psychology

MD

About

390
Publications
89,935
Reads
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8,259
Citations
Additional affiliations
November 2016 - present
Università degli Studi della Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli
Position
  • Professor (Full)
October 2002 - October 2016
Università degli Studi della Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
July 1990 - October 2002
Istituti Clinici Scientifici Maugeri IRCCS
Position
  • Assistant Neurologist

Publications

Publications (390)
Article
Background: Cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a monogenic small-vessel disease that is characterized by a wide range of neurologic and neuropsychological impairments. Constructional impairments have been reported in some cases but have never been assessed systematically. Object...
Article
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In two studies, we used the Gottschaldt’s Hidden Figure Test (GHFT) for assessing figure disembedding ability in children aged 7–11. Study 1 demonstrated in a large sample of typically developing children that GHFT accuracy and time scores differed across age groups, without sex and socioeconomic differences. Thus, we provided normative data only t...
Article
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Atypical Parkinsonism (AP) syndromes are characterized by a wide spectrum of non-motor symptoms including prominent attentional and executive deficits. However, the cognitive profile of AP and its differences and similarities with that of Parkinson’s Disease (PD) are still a matter of debate. The present meta-analysis aimed at identifying patterns...
Article
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The concept of Cognitive Reserve (CR) refers to the individual differences allowing some people to cope better with brain pathology. The aim of the present review was to explore the relationship between CR and cognition in adulthood. This association has been addressed in several neuro(psycho)logical disorders and in healthy elderly people. However...
Article
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Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder with progressive loss of upper and lower motor neurons. Non-motor-symptoms, such as cognitive, emotional, autonomic, and somatosensory alterations, have been also described. Interoception represents the link between the body and brain, since it refers to the ability to...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic and the measures to avert contagion heavily impacted individuals' mental health. In the present cross-sectional study, we investigate the relationship between cognitive reserve, coping modalities and the perceived stress during a chronic stage of COVID-19 pandemic by online administration of three standardized questionnaires i...
Article
Background: Although disabling fatigue is common in Parkinson's disease (PD), available consensus-based diagnostic criteria have not yet been empirically validated. The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinimetric properties of the criteria. Methods: A sample of outpatients with PD was evaluated for demographic, clinical, behavioural, and co...
Article
Background . Cognitive dysfunctions are highly prevalent in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and negatively impact occupational and social functioning. Objective . In the present longitudinal study, we aimed at modeling cognitive changes and at assessing whether apathy could be a predictor of cognitive decline in MS. Methods . We assessed 67 people with M...
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Background: Cognitive impairment has been reported in the aftermath of severe acute respiratory syndrome due to coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We investigated the possible association between cognitive impairment and the main clinical and functional status variables in a cohort of convalescent COVID-19 patients without premorbid diseases po...
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Growing evidence suggests that empathy is a relevant psychological trait to face the challenges imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic, but at the present very little is known on whether this multi-dimensional construct has been affected by the pandemic outbreak differently in its separate components. Here, we aimed at filling this gap by capitalizing on...
Article
We describe a patient who developed bilateral temporal lesions due to a haemorrhagic stroke. One year after onset, he showed marked apperceptive prosopagnosia and could not name people from their voices, although he had spared semantic knowledge about people he could not name and could access this knowledge from people’s voice. Importantly, the pat...
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Drawing is a multi-component process requiring a wide range of cognitive abilities. Several studies on patients with focal brain lesions and functional neuroimaging studies on healthy individuals demonstrated that drawing is associated with a wide brain network. However, the neural structures specifically related to drawing remain to be better comp...
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A relationship between sleep disorders and cognitive dysfunctions was reported in Parkinson’s Disease (PD), however, some studies did not confirm the link. A meta-analytic study was performed to investigate the relationship between sleep disorders and cognitive dysfunctions, and to clarify the evolution of cognitive status in PD patients with sleep...
Article
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Clinical diagnosis of patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness is very challenging. As spontaneous eye blink rate (EBR) is reliably correlated with cognitive activity in healthy individuals, we investigated whether EBR could serve as a marker of patients' level of consciousness. We assessed ten patients in prolonged Vegetative State/Unres...
Article
Prism Adaptation (PA) is a non-invasive method to investigate visuomotor control. Recent neurostimulation studies have proposed an interpretation of the mechanisms underlying PA based on functioning of brain networks, instead of focusing on single brain areas. To test the functioning of the network during a classical PA procedure, here we used for...
Article
Background. Patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness (pDoC) have a high mortality rate due to medical complications. Since an accurate prognosis is essential for decision-making on patients’ management, we analysed data from an international multicentre prospective cohort study to evaluate two-year mortality rate and bedside predictors of...
Article
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Background Subjective complaints of cognitive deficits are not necessarily consistent with objective evidence of cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Here we examined the factors associated with the objective-subjective cognitive discrepancy. Methods We consecutively enrolled 90 non-demented patients with PD who completed the Parkinso...
Article
Introduction Psychological factors can underlie fatigue in neurological disorders, but its relationship to fatigue in Parkinson’s disease (PD) has not been explored. We assessed the association between maladaptive metacognitive beliefs and presence of fatigue in PD. Methods Ninety-eight consecutive outpatients with PD (61% male; median age: 66.50...
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The processing of health-related stimuli can be biased by health anxiety and anxiety sensitivity but, at the moment, it is far from clear whether health-related stimuli can affect motor readiness or the ability to inhibit action. In this preliminary study, we assessed whether different levels of health anxiety and anxiety sensitivity affect disposi...
Article
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People can decide whether the image of a hand represents a left or a right one. The laterality judgment mainly implies mentally imaging own hand movement (motor simulation) if the stimulus represents a palm, or analysing visual cues, as hand asymmetry, if the stimulus reproduces a dorsum. Here, by capitalizing on evidence underscoring the key role...
Article
Objective: For the first time, we administered reversing prism exposure to treat optic ataxia in a single patient with Balint-Holmes Syndrome (BHS), who also underwent specific trainings for simultanagnosia and ocular apraxia. Method and Results: By an introduction and withdrawal experimental design, we observed that the active treatment periods im...
Article
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The Corsi Block-Tapping test (CBT) is a measure of spatial working memory (WM) in clinical practice, requiring an examinee to reproduce sequences of cubes tapped by an examiner. CBT implies complementary behaviors in the examiners and the examinees, as they have to attend a precise turn taking. Previous studies demonstrated that the Prefrontal Cort...
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Objective The quarantine/self-isolation measures implemented to retard the spread of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) may negatively affect the mental health of the population. The present study aimed to explore the impact of the psychological symptoms on the occurrence of cognitive failures in a large sample of home-dwelling Italian individ...
Article
Aims: to assess occurrence and clinical correlates of neurogenic heterotopic ossifications (NHO) in patients with prolonged disorder of consciousness (DoC). Design: multi-center cross-sectional observational study. Setting: 23 intensive neurorehabilitation units. Subjects: 287 patients with prolonged disorder of consciousness (DoC; 150 in vegetativ...
Chapter
Subjective memory complaints are defined as concerns about one's own memory (or other cognitive) abilities that may or may not be associated with actual impairment on objective testing. They are often reported in elderly individuals, with a prevalence ranging from approximately 25%–50%. Because of their possible relationships with increased risk fo...
Chapter
Subjective memory complaints are often reported in the elderly (but also in middle-aged) adults. In some cases, they can be part of neurocognitive disorders such as mild cognitive impairment. Several studies investigated the association between subjective memory abilities and objective memory functioning in older age showing that negative perceptio...
Chapter
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with a high prevalence of emotional and mood disorders. Emotional disorders may worsen during illness progression and affect the quality of life of patients and their families. MS is often associated with depression, with an increased risk of suicide, poor adherence to treatment, decreased functional status, an...
Article
During prism adaptation (PA), active exposure to an optical shift results in sustained modifications of the sensorimotor system, which have been shown to expand to the cognitive level and serve as a rehabilitation technique for spatial cognition disorders. Several models based on evidence from clinical and neuroimaging studies offered a description...
Article
Several studies investigated the neuropsychological bases of spatial con- struction in developmental samples. However, no study directly tested whether the pattern of the neuropsychological processes implied in spatial construction changed depending on whether a block building or a figure drawing task is considered. Here, we used the path analysis...
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Classical neurophysiological studies demonstrated that the monkey brain is equipped with neurons selectively representing the visual shape of the primate hand. Neuroimaging in humans provided data suggesting that a similar representation can be found in humans. Here, we investigated the selectivity of hand representation in humans by means of the v...
Article
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Background: Spatial analysis encompasses the ability to perceive the visual world by arranging the local elements ("the trees") into a coherent global configuration ("the forest"). During childhood, this ability gradually switches from a local to a global precedence, which contributes to changes in children's spatial construction abilities, such a...
Article
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Assistive Ambient Living (AAL) in ageing refers to any device used to support ageing related psychological and physical changes aimed at improving seniors’ quality of life and reducing caregivers’ burdens. The diffusion of these devices opens the ethical issues related to their use in the human personal space. This is particularly relevant when AAL...
Article
Previous imaging studies suggested that impairments of prefrontal-striatal and limbic circuits are correlated to excessive gambling. However, the neural underpinnings of gambling disorder (GD) continue to be the topic of debate. The present study aimed to identify structural changes in GD and differentiate the specific brain activity patterns assoc...
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Background. Progressive increase of an aging population in Western countries will result in a growth of stroke prevalence. As many stroke survivors chronically show severe disability, increase in economic, social, and medical burden could be expected in the future. Objective and subjective measures of poststroke recovery are necessary to obtain pre...
Preprint
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In the present case report we describe the clinical features of a patient showing Balint-Holmes’ syndrome following bilateral parieto-occipital damage due to a stroke after SARS-CoV-2 infection. During neuropsychological assessment, the patient demonstrated severe optic ataxia, simulatanagnosia and gaze apraxia, which represent pathognomonic signs...
Article
Previous studies demonstrated that observation of facial expressions can modulate threat detection while looking at neutral or emotion-related scenes. Similarly, stimuli presented outside conscious awareness could influence social judgments of neutral novel stimuli. The two-fold aim of this study was: i) to evaluate whether observation of seen emot...
Article
Introduction: Common assessment tools for aphasia evaluate single language impairments but not their functional impact on patient's communication skills in daily life. The lack of tools focused on ecological aspects might affect the choice of rehabilitative trainings. The Communicative Effectiveness Index (CETI) represents an attempt to assess the...
Article
Previous evidence suggests that changes in spontaneous eye blink rate (EBR) in human adults might reflect the amount of attentional demand (i.e. cognitive load) during cognitive tasks. However, the actual direction of this relation is uncertain, since most studies investigated the role of cognitive load on EBR by employing visual tasks only. Here w...
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Background: Recent evidence has converged in showing that the lateral occipitotemporal cortex is over-recruited during implicit motor imagery in elderly and in patients with neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease. These data suggest that when automatically imaging movements, individuals exploit neural resources in the visual area...
Article
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Fatigue is a common and disabling nonmotor manifestation in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), and the supplementary motor area (SMA) has been implicated in its pathophysiology. SMA is usually divided in its rostro-caudal axis, with the rostral (pre-) SMA playing a major role in motor planning, and the caudal (proper) SMA related to movement e...
Article
Introduction Fatigue is one of the most common and disabling nonmotor symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of the present study was to investigate the 1-year course of fatigue in a consecutive sample of de novo drug-naïve patients with PD, and at systematically searching for baseline motor and nonmotor predictors associated with fatigue sev...
Article
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By anticipating potential rewards, external cues can guide behavior to achieve a goal. Whether the conscious elaboration of these cues is necessary to elicit cue-guided choices is still unknown. The goal of the present study is to test whether the subliminal presentation of a visual cue previously paired with a reward is sufficient to bias response...
Article
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Objective This international multi-center, prospective, observational study aimed at identifying predictors of short-term clinical outcome in patients with prolonged Disorders of Consciousness (DoC) due to acquired severe brain injury. Methods Patients in vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (VS/UWS) or in minimally conscious state (...
Article
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Previous studies showed that motor information related to tool use (i.e., functional actions) could affect processing of objects semantic properties, whereas motor information related to grasping or moving tool (i.e., structural actions) cannot. However, little is known about the neural correlates mediating such interaction between motor and semant...
Article
Objectives Within the large topic of naming disorders, an important and separated chapter belongs to proper names. Defects of proper naming could be a selective linguistic problem. Sometimes, it includes names belonging to various kinds of semantically unique entities, but other times, it has been observed for famous people proper names only. Accor...
Article
Behavioural evidence suggest that males outperform females in mentally transforming objects, whereas whether sex differences exist in mentally transforming body part images (implicit motor imagery) is an open issue. The aim of the present study was to fill this gap testing performance of 360 healthy participants on a classical behavioural measure o...
Article
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Background The MIG-SCOG is a questionnaire to assess self-reported subjective cognitive symptoms during migraine attacks, consisting of 9 items evaluating executive functions and language. The aim of the study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the MIG-SCOG (I-MIG-SCOG) in patients with migraine without aura. Met...
Article
The concept and the term of constructional apraxia have been proposed by Karl Kleist and described in his impressive book “Gehirnpathologie”, published in 1934. However, the first ever paper under the heading of constructional apraxia was written by Hans Strauss, one of Kleist’s pupils, and published in 1924. Nowadays, the term constructional aprax...
Article
Objective: Patients with Huntington's disease (HD) may show impairments of frontal cortical-subcortical circuits with difficulties on cognitive flexibility tasks. One marker of poor flexibility is "perseveration" behavior, which refers to inappropriate and involuntary production of iterative responses not adequate to the current task demands. This...
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Apathy is commonly reported in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), Fronto-Temporal Dementia (FTD) and Parkinson’s Disease (PD). In our meta-analysis we analysed a total of 41 studies to identify brain patterns associated with apathy. For these purposes we used activation likelihood estimation meta-analyses. Our main overall analysis showed that apathy is ass...
Article
Background: Despite the clinical importance of psychological factors in migraine, the relationship between personality traits, depression, and migraine has been poorly investigated. Objective: To delineate the personality profile distinctive for migraineurs and to explore the relationship between personality traits and depression in migraineurs...
Article
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Purpose of Review Diagnostic classification of patients with disorders of consciousness (DoC) is based on clinician’s observation of volitional behaviours. However, patients’ caregivers often report higher levels of responsiveness with respect to those observed during the clinical assessment. Thus, increasing efforts have been aimed at comprehendin...
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Mild cognitive impairment associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) is a risk factor for the development of dementia. Despite the importance of early identification of mild cognitive impairment in PD, its prevalence and clinical correlates are still debated. The present meta‐analysis provides a robust estimate of prevalence rate of mild cognitive im...
Article
Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether different types of visuoconstructional abilities are useful to distinguish individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) from healthy controls (HCs). Method We selected 20 patients with MCI and 14 with AD diagnosis based on standard criteria. The neuropsych...
Article
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Background Prospective memory (PM) deficits are often reported in multiple sclerosis (MS), but their relationship with neuropsychological characteristics and personality traits remains to be explored. Objective To systematically investigate both time-based and event-based PM abilities in a sample of MS without clinically relevant disability or glo...