Ludovic Ferrand

Ludovic Ferrand
CNRS and Université Clermont Auvergne · LAPSCO Cognitive Psychology-Cognitive Science

PhD

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190
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Publications (190)
Chapter
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An emerging research trend associating social robotics and social-cognitive psychology offers preliminary evidence that the mere presence of humanoid robots may have the same effects as human presence on human performance, provided the robots are anthropomorphized to some extent (attribution to mental states to the robot being present). However, wh...
Preprint
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In recent years, a new interest for the use of graph-theory based networks has emerged within the field of cognitive science. This has played a key role in mining the large amount of data generated by word association norms. In the present work, we applied semantic network analyses to explore norms of French word associations for concrete and abstr...
Article
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Previous studies (Augustinova et al., Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 25(2), 767-774, 2018; Li & Bosman, Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 3(4), 272-284, 1996) have shown that the larger Stroop effects reported in older adults is specifically due to age-related differences in the magnitude of response – and not semantic – conflict, both of whic...
Article
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This research addressed current controversies concerning the contribution of semantic conflict to the Stroop interference effect and its reduction by single-letter coloring and cueing-procedure (SLCC). On the first issue it provides, for the first time, unambiguous evidence for a contribution of semantic conflict to the (overall) Stroop interferenc...
Article
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Despite instructions to ignore the irrelevant word in the Stroop task, it robustly influences the time it takes to identify the color, leading to performance decrements (interference) or enhancements (facilitation). The present review addresses two questions: (1) What levels of processing contribute to Stroop effects; and (2) Where does attentional...
Article
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The representation of abstract concepts remains a challenge, justifying the need for further experimental investigation. To that end, we introduce a normative database for 630 semantically similar French word pairs and associated levels of abstractness for 1260 isolated words based on data from 900 subjects. The semantic similarity and abstractness...
Article
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Over the last decade, hypotheses ranging from linguistic symbol processing to embodiment have been formulated to account for the content and mechanisms responsible for the representation of abstract concepts. Results of recent studies have suggested that abstract concepts, just like concrete ones, can benefit from knowledge of real-world situationa...
Article
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Previous work investigating the effect of rTMS of left Dorso-Lateral Prefrontal Cortex (DLPFC) on Stroop task performance reports no changes to the Stroop effect but reduced reaction times on both congruent and incongruent trials relative to sham stimulation; an effect attributed to an enhanced attentional (or task) set for colour classification. T...
Article
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Many studies focused on the letter and sound co-occurrences to account for the well-documented syllable-based effects in French in visual (pseudo)word processing. Although these language-specific statistical properties are crucial, recent data suggest that studies that go all-in on phonological and orthographic regularities may be misguided in inte...
Article
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There is evidence that selective attention mechanisms in humans can be impacted in performance contexts involving the presence of robotic agents compared to contexts in which they are alone. However, the question of whether this process is due to anthropomorphism attribution, potentially explaining why robots trigger the same effect as humans, rema...
Article
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Only one previous developmental study of Stroop task performance (Schiller, 1966) has controlled for differences in processing speed that exist both within and between age‐groups. Therefore, the question of whether the early developmental change in the magnitude of Stroop interference actually persists after controlling for processing speed needs f...
Article
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We provide normative data for a new set of 313 colourised line drawings. The drawings were standardised on name agreement (N = 60 participants), image agreement (N = 34), conceptual familiarity (N = 36), age of acquisition (N = 35), and imageability (N = 35). Objective visual complexity measures are given for the pictures, and objective word freque...
Article
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Despite the many reports that consider statistical distribution to be vitally important in visual identification tasks in children, some recent studies suggest that children do not always rely on statistical properties to help them locate syllable boundaries. Indeed, sonority – a universal phonological element – might be a reliable source for sylla...
Article
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An enduring question in selective attention research is whether we can successfully ignore an irrelevant stimulus and at what point in the stream of processing we are able to select the appropriate source of information. Using methods informed by recent research on the varieties of conflict in the Stroop task the present study provides evidence for...
Article
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A long-standing debate in the Stroop literature concerns whether the way we respond to the color dimension determines how we process the irrelevant dimension, or whether word processing is purely stimulus driven. Models and findings in the Stroop literature differ in their predictions about how response modes (e.g., responding manually vs. vocally)...
Article
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Several accounts of the Stroop task assume that the Stroop interference effect has several distinct loci (as opposed to a single response locus). The present study was designed to explore whether this is the case with both manual and vocal responses. To this end, we used an extended form of the Stroop paradigm (Augustinova et al., 2018b) that succe...
Article
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There is evidence that attentional control mechanisms in humans can be boosted in performance contexts involving the presence of other human agents, compared with isolation. This phenomenon was investigated here with the presence of artificial agents, that is, humanoid robots in the context of the well-known Stroop task requiring attentional contro...
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In the near future, the human social environment worldwide might be populated by humanoid robots. The way we perceive these new social agents could depend on basic social psycholog-ical processes such as social categorization. Recent results indicate that humans can make use of social stereotypes when faced with robots based on their characterizati...
Article
Full-text available
There is evidence that attentional control mechanisms in humans can be boosted in performance contexts involving the presence of other human agents, compared with isolation. This phenomenon was investigated here with the presence of artificial agents, that is, humanoid robots in the context of the well-known Stroop task requiring attentional contro...
Article
Full-text available
Common processes underlying the effects of exposure to unattainable beauty standards and their regulation are currently poorly understood. The present study therefore investigates the impact of this exposure on executive inhibitory control. Between two blocks of a semantic Stroop task, seventy-two healthy young women were exposed to pictures of a t...
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Using the megastudy approach, we report a new database (MEGALEX) of visual and auditory lexical decision times and accuracy rates for tens of thousands of words. We collected visual lexical decision data for 28,466 French words and the same number of pseudowords, and auditory lexical decision data for 17,876 French words and the same number of pseu...
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“Bad” humanoid robots just paying attention to human performance may energize attentional control—as does human presence.
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A mental metaphor is a strategy that consists of completing the representation of a concept with structural components of a correlating concept. Three issues were addressed here to deepen our understanding of this mechanism: the use of mental metaphors between abstract concepts, the simultaneous activation of multiple mental metaphors and the impor...
Book
Cet ouvrage explique les mécanismes cognitifs liés aux principaux apprentissages qu'un individu doit parvenir à acquérir au cours de sa vie. Les apprentissages sont abordés ici chez l'enfant d'âge scolaire avec les apprentissages dits initiaux ou fondamentaux (lire, écrire, compter, dessiner). Apprendre les mots écrits. Apprendre à lire. Apprendre...
Article
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Both the locus and processes underlying the age-related differences in Stroop interference are usually inferred from changes in magnitudes of standard (i.e., overall) Stroop interference. Therefore, this study addressed these still-open issues directly. To this end, a sample of younger (18–26 years old) and healthy older (72–97 years old) was admin...
Article
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Numerous studies indicate that lexical decision is a dynamic process in which various sources of information (e.g., orthographic, phonological, lexical) need to be integrated over time and that mismatches between these sources produce uncertainty during decision-making. However, the specific contribution of these different sources of information to...
Article
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The aim of this paper is to extend the so-called semantic Stroop paradigm (Neely & Kahan, 2001) – which already successfully distinguishes between the contribution of the semantic vs. response conflict to Stroop interference – so that it can take account of and capture the separate contribution of task conflict. In line with this idea, the Stroop i...
Article
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This paper highlights the fact that numerous ways of implementing what is commonly referred to as the Stroop task in both psychological research and practice are based on obsolete methodological and theoretical knowledge. As a consequence, the Stroop interference brought about by these implementations is a) often over estimated and b) does not allo...
Article
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This paper highlights the fact that numerous ways of implementing what is commonly referred to as the Stroop task in both psychological research and practice are based on obsolete methodological and theoretical knowledge. As a consequence, the Stroop interference brought about by these implementations is a) often over estimated and b) does not allo...
Article
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According to the age of acquisition (AoA) hypothesis, words acquired early in life are processed faster and more accurately than words acquired later (see Juhasz, 2005; Johnston & Barry, 2006 for reviews). Connectionist models have begun to explore the influence of the age/order of acquisition of the items (and also their frequency of encounter) (E...
Chapter
Alfred Binet (1857–1911) is arguably France's best known psychologist. The bulk of Binet's work can be divided into three periods. During the first period (1880–90) Binet focused on the study of psychopathology. Interested in unconscious phenomena, he worked on hypnosis and hysteria with Charcot at Salpêtrière hospital. During the second period (18...
Article
Various lines of research have independently reported that different interventions reduce or even eliminate Stroop interference. Because such findings have been interpreted as evidence that word reading can be prevented and/or controlled, these lines of research challenge the widespread automatic view of word reading. This article provides methodol...
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By combining the semantic Stroop paradigm (e.g., Klein in American Journal of Psychology 77:576-588, 1964) with a single-letter coloring (SLC) procedure (e.g., Besner et al. in Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 4:221-225, 1997), this research investigated whether the frequently reported Stroop-related event-related potential (ERP) effect arising about...
Article
We collected sensory experience ratings (SERs) for 1,659 French words in adults. Sensory experience for words is a recently introduced variable that corresponds to the degree to which words elicit sensory and perceptual experiences (Juhasz & Yap Behavior Research Methods, 45, 160-168, 2013; Juhasz, Yap, Dicke, Taylor, & Gullick Quarterly Journal of...
Article
From their finding that the substantial magnitude of the Stroop interference that occurs when a participant's initial fixation is directed at the optimal viewing position is eliminated when the initial fixation is directed at the end of a word, Perret and Ducrot (2010) concluded that initial fixation at the latter position likely prevents reading....
Article
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Recently, Goldfarb, Aisenberg, and Henik (2011) showed that in a manual format of the Stroop task, dyslexia priming eliminates the normal magnitude of the interference-based Stroop-like findings otherwise exhibited by individuals participating in such research. Goldfarb et al. (2011) consequently concluded that the effect of word reading in a Stroo...
Article
According to the age-of-acquisition hypothesis, words acquired early in life are processed faster and more accurately than words acquired later. Connectionist models have begun to explore the influence of the age/order of acquisition of items (and also their frequency of encounter). This study attempts to reconcile two different methodological and...
Article
Several studies have shown that mere social presence reduces Stroop interference but processes underlying such effect are still poorly understood. Given that the standard Stroop task used in those studies confounds semantic and response competition, it remains unclear whether Stroop words are processed normally (Sharma, Booth, Brown, & Huguet, 2010...
Article
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AU /o/ and AN // in French are both complex graphemes, but they vary in their strength of association to their respective sounds. The letter sequence AU is systematically associated to the phoneme /o/, and as such is always parsed as a complex grapheme. However, AN can be associated with either one phoneme (/A)/ in e.g., CRAN /kR/ “notch”) and be p...
Article
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Recent studies have shown that the suggestion for participants to construe words as meaningless symbols reduces, or even eliminates, standard Stroop interference in highly suggestible individuals (Raz, Fan, & Posner, 2005; Raz, Kirsch, Pollard, & Nitkin-Kaner, 2006). In these studies, the researchers consequently concluded that this suggestion de-a...
Article
Pseudo-homophones (i.e., novel letter strings that can be pronounced like real words, i.e., "brane" from "brain") play an important role in psycholinguistic experiments, since they can be used to uncover basic mechanisms associated with the role of phonology in silent reading and reading aloud. We present a database of more than 14,000 French pseud...
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We report performance measures for lexical decision (LD), word naming (NMG), and progressive demasking (PDM) for a large sample of monosyllabic monomorphemic French words (N = 1,482). We compare the tasks and also examine the impact of word length, word frequency, initial phoneme, orthographic and phonological distance to neighbors, age-of-acquisit...
Article
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Many studies have repeatedly shown an orthographic consistency effect in the auditory lexical decision task. Words with phonological rimes that could be spelled in multiple ways (i.e., inconsistent words) typically produce longer auditory lexical decision latencies and more errors than do words with rimes that could be spelled in only one way (i.e....
Article
Full-text available
Investigating human cognitive faculties such as language, attention, and memory most often relies on testing small and homogeneous groups of volunteers coming to research facilities where they are asked to participate in behavioral experiments. We show that this limitation and sampling bias can be overcome by using smartphone technology to collect...
Article
Full-text available
Cet article présente des normes d’imageabilité (ou valeurs d’imagerie) pour un ensemble de 1493 mots. Des analyses statistiques réalisées sur ces normes révèlent une fidélité élevée. Les scores d’imageabilité se révèlent par ailleurs assez modestement corrélés avec d’autres variables psycholinguistiques (par ex., fréquences lexicales, âge d’acquisi...
Article
In the current paper, imageability norms are described for a set of 1,493 French words. The statistical analyses conducted on imageability norms have revealed a high reliability between the scores. Moreover, imageability scores are moderately correlated with other psycholinguistic variables (e.g. lexical frequencies, age of acquisition). Analyses c...
Article
EnglishThe work of Alfred Binet (1857-1911) in psychology is numerous and a large part of its research remains to be rediscovered. The centenary of its disappearance furnishes us the occasion to present the cognitive psychology of the most famous French psychologist. Founder of the journal L�Annee Psychologique (1894), he must not be reduced to be...
Article
The work of Alfred Billet (1857-1911) in psychology is numerous and a large part of its research remains to be rediscovered. The centenary of its disappearance furnishes us the occasion to present the cognitive psychology of the most famous French psychologist. Founder of the journal L'Annee Psychologique (1894), he must not be reduced to be the in...
Article
Full-text available
Investigating human cognitive faculties such as language, attention, and memory most often relies on testing small and homogeneous groups of volunteers coming to research facilities where they are asked to participate in behavioral experiments. We show that this limitation and sampling bias can be overcome by using smartphone technology to collect...
Article
Full-text available
The automaticity of semantic activation in the Stroop task is still the subject of considerable debate (Augustinova & Ferrand, 2007; Manwell, Roberts, & Besner, 2004). The present experiments were designed to assess whether coloring and cuing a single letter (vs. all letters) in the Stroop task reliably eliminates semantically based Stroop interfer...
Article
We investigated the role of vision in tactile enumeration within and outside the subitizing range. Congenitally blind and sighted (blindfolded) participants were asked to enumerate quickly and accurately the number of fingers stimulated. Both groups of participants enumerated one to three fingers quickly and accurately but were much slower and less...
Article
We report new data on (1) the nature of category-specific deficits, and (2) the transfer of refractory behaviour across languages, in a premorbidly fluent bilingual (English-French) patient. Previous studies (Forde & Humphreys, 1995, in press) have shown that the present patient, JM, shows a category-specific breakdown in auditory written word-matc...
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The French Lexicon Project involved the collection of lexical decision data for 38,840 French words and the same number of nonwords. It was directly inspired by the English Lexicon Project (Balota et al., 2007) and produced very comparable frequency and word length effects. The present article describes the methods used to collect the data, reports...
Article
Cet article présente des normes psycholinguistiques pour un ensemble de 110 clips d’actions. Les analyses statistiques réalisées à partir de ces normes montrent qu’en comparaison des études de Bonin et al. (2004) et de Schwitter et al. (2004), les corrélations entre les différentes variables psycholinguistiques sont généralement les mêmes que celle...
Article
In this paper we describe psycholinguistic norms for a set of 110 video dips of actions. Statistical analyses performed on the norms reveal that, compared to the Bonin et al. (2004) and Schwitter et al. (2004) studies, the correlations between the different psycholinguistic variables are the same as those found for photographs and drawings. However...