Ludovic Calandreau

Ludovic Calandreau
French National Institute for Agriculture, Food, and Environment (INRAE) | INRAE · Physiologie de la Reproduction et des Comportements (PRC)

Senior scientist/ DR2 INRAE

About

116
Publications
16,418
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1,452
Citations
Introduction
Ludovic Calandreau currently works at the Physiologie de la Reproduction et des Comportements (PRC), French National Institute for Agricultural Research. Ludovic does research in Neuroscience, Physiology and Behavioural Science. He investigates cognition (e.g. learning and memory abilities) and their underlying brain mechanisms in birds and mammals. https://twitter.com/EquipeCEB https://www6.val-de-loire.inrae.fr/umrprc-ethologie-cognition
Additional affiliations
November 2008 - present
University of Tours
Position
  • Researcher
October 2008 - present
French National Institute for Agriculture, Food, and Environment (INRAE)
Position
  • Researcher
October 2008 - present

Publications

Publications (116)
Article
Full-text available
Although there is evidence to suggest that animal domestication acts as a modulator of spatial orientation, little is known on how domesticated animals, compared to their wild counterparts, orientate themselves when confronted to different environmental cues. Here, using domesticated White Leghorn chicks, and their ancestor, the Red Junglefowl (Gal...
Article
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The structural connectivity of animal brains can be revealed using post-mortem diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Despite the existence of several structural atlases of avian brains, few of them address the bird’s structural connectivity. In this study, a novel atlas of the structural connectivity is proposed for the male Japanese...
Article
A population average MRI brain template computed from 20 male Japanese Quails and a manually segmented atlas containing 194 regions. In this Version 2: the nomenclature in the file siwiaszczyk_LUT-ITK-SNAP_v2.txt was updated one slice of one region was completed in the file siwiaszczyk_atlas_v2.nii.gz. This project was supported by the APR Neur...
Preprint
Full-text available
Occupational enrichment emerges as a promising strategy for improving the welfare of farmed animals. This form of enrichment aims to stimulate cognitive abilities of animals by providing them with more opportunities to interact with and control their environment. Predictability ( i.e. , having information about the regularity of salient daily event...
Article
Full-text available
In a recent experiment, we showed that horses are sensitive to pet-directed speech (PDS), a kind of speech used to talk to companion animals that is characterized by high pitch and wide pitch variations. When talked to in PDS rather than adult-directed speech (ADS), horses reacted more favorably during grooming and in a pointing task. However, the...
Article
As the sensory systems of vertebrates develop prenatally, embryos perceive many environmental stimuli that can influence the ontogeny of their behaviour. Whether the nature and intensity of prenatal stimuli affect differently this ontogeny remains to be investigated. In this context, this study aimed to analyse the effects of prenatal auditory stim...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research on free-range chickens shows that individual behavioral differences may link to range use. However, most of these studies explored individual behavioral differences only at one time point or during a short time window, assessed differences when animals were out of their social group and home environment (barn and range), and in spec...
Article
Prenatal maternal stress (PMS) influences many facets of offspring’s’ phenotype including morphology, behaviour and cognitive abilities. Recent research suggested that PMS also induced epigenetic modifications. In the present study, we analysed, in the Japanese quail, the effects of PMS on the emotional reactivity and cognitive abilities of the F1...
Article
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Chronic stress and the gut microbiota appear to comprise a feed-forward loop, which contributes to the development of depressive disorders. Evidence suggests that memory can also be impaired by either chronic stress or microbiota imbalance. However, it remains to be established whether these could be a part of an integrated loop model and be respon...
Article
Full-text available
Pet-directed speech (PDS) is a type of speech humans spontaneously use with their companion animals. It is very similar to speech commonly used when talking to babies. A survey on social media showed that 92.7% of the respondents used PDS with their horse, but only 44.4% thought that their horse was sensitive to it, and the others did not know or d...
Preprint
Full-text available
Chronic stress and the gut microbiota appear to comprise a feed-forward loop, which contributes to the development of depressive disorders. Evidence suggests that memory can also be impaired by either chronic stress or microbiota imbalance. However, it remains to be established whether these could be a part of an integrated loop model and be respon...
Article
A recent definition of animal welfare states that “the welfare of an animal is its positive mental and physical state related to the fulfilment of its physiological and behavioural needs in addition to its expectations. This state can vary depending on the animal’s perception of a given situation’. This definition confirms the importance of taking...
Article
For many fish species, environmental colour may act either as a source of stress or as a stress-buffer, alleviating behavioural and physiological responses after a stressful situation. While much is known on the effects of environmental colour on fish stress parameters, knowledge on the effects of stress on fish colour preferences is still lacking....
Article
Chronic stress profoundly affects forms of declarative memory, such as spatial memory, while it may spare non-declarative memory, such as cue-based memory. It is known, however, that the effects of chronic stress on memory systems may vary according to the level of training of an individual was submitted. Here, we investigated, in birds, how chroni...
Article
Full-text available
When animals prefer to make efforts to obtain food instead of acquiring it from freely available sources, they exhibit what is called contrafreeloading. Recently, individual differences in behavior, such as exploration, were shown to be linked to how prone an individual may be to contrafreeload. In this work, our main objective was to test whether...
Preprint
A recent definition of animal welfare states that "the welfare of an animal is its positive mental and physical state related to the fulfilment of its physiological and behavioural needs in addition to its expectations. This state can vary, depending on the animal's perception of a given situation". This definition confirms the importance of taking...
Preprint
Full-text available
It is now well-accepted that memory is a dynamic process, and that stress and training level may influence which memory system an individual engages when solving a task. In this work, we investigated whether and how chronic stress impacts spatial and cue-based memories according to training level. To that aim, control and chronically stressed Japan...
Article
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Cognitive abilities were studied in rainbow trout, the first continental fish production in Europe. Increasing public concern for the welfare of farmed-fish species highlighted the need for better knowledge of the cognitive status of fish. We trained and tested 15 rainbow trout with an operant conditioning device composed of self-feeders positioned...
Article
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A key question in the field of animal cognition is how animals comprehend their physical world. Object permanence is one of the fundamental features of physical cognition. It is the ability to reason about hidden objects and to mentally reconstruct their invisible displacements. This cognitive skill has been studied in a wide range of species but n...
Article
Full-text available
Chronic stress is a strong modulator of cognitive processes, such as learning and memory. There is, however, great within-individual variation in how an animal perceives and reacts to stressors. These differences in coping with stress modulate the development of stress-induced memory alterations. The present study investigated whether and how chron...
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies have demonstrated that horses can recognize humans based simply on visual information. However, none of these studies have investigated whether this involves the recognition of the face itself, or simply identifying people from non-complex external clues, such as hair color. To go beyond this we wanted to know whether certain feature...
Article
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Animals can indirectly gather meaningful information about other individuals by eavesdropping on their third-party interactions. In particular, eavesdropping can be used to indirectly attribute a negative or positive valence to an individual and to adjust one’s future behavior towards that individual. Few studies have focused on this ability in non...
Article
Full-text available
Animals can navigate an environment relying on different sources of information, such as geometrical or featural cues. The favoring of one type of information over another depends on multiple factors, such as inter-individual differences in behavior and cognition. Free-range chickens present different range use patterns, which may be explained by b...
Article
Free-range broiler chickens usually show an uneven spatial utilization of an outdoor range. Due to behavioral and cognitive between-individual differences, some animals may be driven to associate food and conspecifics more strongly to the barn, causing them to be less prone to explore the range. In this study, we aimed to understand how broiler chi...
Article
Social animals can gain important benefits by inferring the goals behind the behavior of others. However, this ability has only been investigated in a handful of species outside of primates. In this study, we tested for the first time whether domestic horses can interpret human actions as goal directed. We used the classical “unwilling versus unabl...
Article
Full-text available
Horses are capable of identifying individual conspecifics based on olfactory, auditory or visual cues. However, this raises the questions of their ability to recognize human beings and on the basis of what cues. This study investigated whether horses could differentiate between a familiar and unfamiliar human from photographs of faces. Eleven horse...
Article
Inhibiting impulsive, less flexible behaviours is of utmost importance for individual adaptation in an ever-changing environment. However, problem-solving tasks may be greatly impacted by individual differences in behaviour, since animals with distinct behavioural types perceive and interact with their environment differently, resulting in variable...
Article
Avoidance of novelty, termed neophobia, protects animals from potential dangers but can also impair their adaptation to novel environments or food resources. This behaviour is particularly well described in birds but the neurobiological correlates remain unexplored. Here, we measured neuronal activity in the amygdala and the striatum, two brain reg...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last few years, an increasing number of studies have aimed to gain more insight into the field of animal emotions. In particular, it is of interest to determine whether animals can cross-modally categorize the emotions of others. For domestic animals that share a close relationship with humans, we might wonder whether this cross-modal reco...
Article
Full-text available
The Japanese quail is a powerful model to characterize behavioral, physiological, and neurobiological processes in Galliformes. Behavioral tests have already been adapted for quail to assess memory systems, but despite the pivotal role of the hippocampus in this cognitive process, its involvement in spatial memory has not been demonstrated in this...
Article
Full-text available
Les animaux d'élevage sont confrontés à de multiples contraintes environnementales auxquelles ils doivent s'adapter. De plus en plus d'études s'intéressent à l'impact de l'environnement précoce sur les phénotypes des animaux et leurs capacités à s'adapter aux différents challenges rencontrés ultérieurement. Dans cette revue, nous nous intéresserons...
Article
The interaction between the gut microbiota (GM) and the brain has led to the concept of the microbiota-gut-brain axis but data for birds remain scarce. We tested the hypothesis that colonization of germ-free chicks from a quail line selected for a high emotional reactivity (E+) with GM from a line with low emotional reactivity (E-) would reduce the...
Article
Regular visual presence of humans is known to reduce chickens’ human-generated stress responses. Here we questioned whether, more than mere visual presence, human behaviour affects laying hen behaviour and subsequently their offspring’s behaviour. We hypothesized that human behaviour triggers maternal effects via variations in yolk hormone levels....
Article
Full-text available
Gonadotropin‐inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a neuropeptide first discovered in the quail brain that is involved in the control of reproductive physiology and behaviors, and stress response. GnIH gene encodes a second peptide, GnIH‐related peptide‐2 (RP2), the distribution and function of which remain unknown. We therefore studied GnIH‐RP2 distributio...
Article
Recent studies provided evidence that a personality trait such as a trait for a high or a low emotionality can either promotes or impairs learning and memory performances. This variability can be partly explained because this trait may have opposite effect on memory performances depending on the memory system involved. The present study investigate...
Article
The positive aspect of emotions, like pleasure, remains overlooked in birds. Our aim was to contribute to the exploration of facial indicators of positive emotions. To observe contrasting emotional expressions, we used two lines of Japanese quail divergently selected on their inherent fearfulness: a fearful line (long tonic immobility duration: LTI...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Recent studies have demonstrated an effect of the gut microbiota on brain development and behavior leading to the concept of the microbiota-gut-brain axis. However, its effect on behavior in birds is unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the absence of gut microbiota on emotional reactivity in birds by com...
Article
Emotions are recognized as strong modulators of cognitive capacities. However, studies have mainly focused on the effect of negative emotions, with few investigating positive emotions. Recent studies suggest that traits of personality can modulate the effects of emotion on cognitive performance. This study aimed to assess whether emotional states d...
Article
Full-text available
The infuence of embryonic microclimate on the behavioural development of birds remains unexplored. In this study, we experimentally tested whether chronic exposure to suboptimal temperatures engendered plasticity in the expression of fear-related behaviours and in the expression of the corticotropin-releasing factor in the brains of domestic chicks...
Article
The use of conditioned reinforcers is increasingly promoted in animal training. Surprisingly, the efficiency of their use remains to be demonstrated in horses. This study aimed to determine whether an auditory signal which had previously been associated with a food reward 288 times could be used as a conditioned reinforcer to replace the primary re...
Article
Characteristics of attachment were assessed in peer- and object-reared lambs, and compared to mothered subjects by taking into consideration distress, proximity seeking, and exploration during two separation-reunion tests in both the familiar and a novel environment. Plasma cortisol and oxytocin were assayed as physiological indicators of stress an...
Article
The gut microbiota is involved in host behaviour and memory in mammals. Consequently, it may also influence emotional behaviour and memory in birds. Quail from two genetic lines with different fearfulness (LTI: long tonic immobility, n = 37; STI: short tonic immobility, n = 32) were either or not supplemented with a probiotic (Pediococcus acidilact...
Article
We assessed whether the ratio of dietary n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) during egg formation engenders transgenerational maternal effects in domestic chicks. We analyzed yolk lipid and hormone concentrations, and HPA-axis activity in hens fed a control diet (high n-6/n-3 ratio) or a diet enriched in n-3 PUFAs (low n-6/n-3 ratio) for 6 c...
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between personality and learning abilities has become a growing field of interest. Studies have mainly focused on the relationship with performance, such as the speed of acquisition. In this study, we hypothesised that personality could in part also be related to a certain predisposition of an individual to switch more easily from...
Article
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Ce dossier a préalablement été publié par l’Inra sur son site : http://institut.Inra.fr/Missions/Eclairer-les-decisions/Expertises/Toutes-les-actualites/Conscience-animale
Article
Full-text available
Ce dossier a préalablement été publié par l’Inra sur son site : http://institut.Inra.fr/Missions/Eclairer-les-decisions/Expertises/Toutes-les-actualites/Conscience-animale
Article
La question des émotions des animaux d’élevage s’inscrit dans la volonté d’améliorer les conditions d’élevage en prenant en compte leur bien-être. La genèse des émotions repose sur la capacité cognitive des individus à percevoir, évaluer et réagir à leur environnement. La capacité de perception met en jeu différentes sensorialités et participe à la...
Article
Chronic stress is considered detrimental for an individual as it is a long-lasting negative emotional state, without or with a limited habituation. The reactivity and sensitivity of animals to stressors depend on the animal's organismic characteristics such as sex. In poultry, the studies dealing with chronic stress were mainly performed on females...
Article
Résumé de la communication présentée lors du 42ème Congrès de l'AFSTAL en octobre 2016 à Nantes
Article
Full-text available
In birds there is compelling evidence that the development and expression of behavior is affected by maternal factors, particularly via variation in yolk hormone concentrations of maternal origin. In the present study we tested whether variation in yolk hormone levels lead to variation in the expression of neophobia in young domestic chicks. Unders...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we assessed whether prenatal exposure to elevated yolk steroid hormones can influence in ovo chemosensory learning and the behavior of domestic chicks. We simulated a maternal environmental challenge by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The embryos...
Article
Full-text available
For centuries philosophical and clinical studies have emphasized a fundamental dichotomy between emotion and cognition, as, for instance, between behavioral/emotional memory and explicit/representative memory. However, the last few decades cognitive neuroscience have highlighted data indicating that emotion and cognition, as well as their underlyin...
Article
Full-text available
Background Behavioral traits such as sociability, emotional reactivity and aggressiveness are major factors in animal adaptation to breeding conditions. In order to investigate the genetic control of these traits as well as their relationships with production traits, a study was undertaken on a large second generation cross (F2) between two lines o...
Article
Full-text available
Animals perceiving repeated aversive events can become chronically stressed. Chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can have deleterious consequences on physiological parameters (e.g. BW, blood chemistry) and behaviour (e.g. emotional reactivity, stereotypies, cognition). Environmental enrichment (EE) can be a mean to r...
Conference Paper
Abstract Text: The social behavior of animals, which is partly controlled by genetics, is involved in their adaptation to large breeding groups. Genetic relationships between different social behaviors, fear behaviors and production traits were estimated in a second generation cross of two lines of Quail divergently selected for their social reinst...