Lucy Alice Hawkes

Lucy Alice Hawkes
University of Exeter | UoE · College of Life and Environmental Sciences

PhD Biological Sciences

About

108
Publications
55,076
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
4,425
Citations
Introduction
Lucy Hawkes is a physiological ecologist, whose work focuses on the costs and drivers of migration in vertebrates using techniques such as satellite telemetry, heart rate recording and metabolic rate measurements. Her work has also investigated the impact of external forcing factors, such as climate change, on migration and breeding ecology.
Additional affiliations
July 2008 - present
Position
  • Understanding the movements of bar-headed geese
July 2008 - December 2013
Bangor University
Position
  • PostDoc Position
August 2007 - June 2008
World Wildlife Fund
Position
  • Marine Turtle and Climate Change Program Coordinator
Description
  • Investigating adaptation options to climate change for marine turtles
Education
September 2002 - October 2007
University of Exeter
Field of study
  • Biological Sciences
September 1997 - June 2001
University of Plymouth
Field of study
  • Marine Biology and Coastal Ecology

Publications

Publications (108)
Article
Full-text available
Marine protected areas (MPAs), particularly large MPAs, are increasing in number and size around the globe in part to facilitate the conservation of marine megafauna under the assumption that large-scale MPAs better align with vagile life histories; however, this alignment is not well established. Using a global tracking dataset from 36 species acr...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Understanding the spatial ecology of animal movements is a critical element in conserving long‐lived, highly mobile marine species. Analyzing networks developed from movements of six sea turtle species reveals marine connectivity and can help prioritize conservation efforts. Location Global. Methods We collated telemetry data from 1235 indivi...
Article
Full-text available
During the breeding season, seabirds are central place foragers and in order to successfully rear chicks they must adjust their foraging behaviours to compensate for extrinsic factors. When foraging, arctic terns Sterna paradisaea are restricted to the first 50 cm of the water column and can only carry a few prey items back to their nests at once....
Article
Full-text available
Over the past decade, Peter Frappell, aka Frapps, has been an integral part of an international group studying birds that migrate or reside at altitude. This research has taken the extended group from Terkhiin Tsagaan Lake on the Mongolian plateau to Chilika Lake in eastern India, Koonthankulum bird sanctuary in southern India, Lake Qinghai in Chin...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Wildlife rescue and rehabilitation is used globally to aid the conservation and welfare of marine species, however, postrelease monitoring is challenging. Here, long-term, regional postrelease monitoring provides feedback for rehabilitation centers for the gray seal (Halichoerus grypus). Data from 1,094 rehabilitated gray seals over 19 yea...
Article
Full-text available
The study presents the first national assessment of a nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum ) population, conducted using a combination of transect surveys and baited remote underwater videos (BRUVs). Density of nurse sharks in Belize was found to be higher in reefs than in lagoons, and in the atolls furthest away from the mainland and human settleme...
Article
The physiological mechanisms by which animals regulate energy expenditure, respond to stimuli and stressors, and maintain homeostasis at the tissue, organ and whole organism levels can be described by ‘physiologging’—that is, the use of onboard miniature electronic devices to record physiological metrics of animals in captivity or free-living in th...
Article
Thus far, ecophysiology research has predominantly been conducted within controlled laboratory-based environments, owing to a mismatch between the recording technologies available for physiological monitoring in wild animals and the suite of behaviours and environments they need to withstand, without unduly affecting subjects. While it is possible...
Article
By describing where animals go, biologging technologies (i.e. animal attached logging of biological variables with small electronic devices) have been used to document the remarkable athletic feats of wild animals since the 1940s. The rapid development and miniaturization of physiologging (i.e. logging of physiological variables such as heart rate,...
Article
Full-text available
While biologging tags have answered a wealth of ecological questions, the drivers and consequences of movement and activity often remain difficult to ascertain, particularly marine vertebrates which are difficult to observe directly. Basking sharks, the second largest shark species in the world, aggregate in the summer in key foraging sites but des...
Article
Full-text available
Ruddy shelduck migrate from wintering grounds in lowland India and Myanmar to breeding grounds in central China and Mongolia, sustaining flight over the Himalayas, where oxygen availability is greatly reduced. We compared phenotypes of the pectoralis muscle and the ventricle of the heart from ruddy shelduck and common shelduck (a closely related lo...
Article
Full-text available
Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABT, Thunnus thynnus; Linneaus, 1758) is an ecologically important apex-predator with high commercial value. They were once common off the coast of the United Kingdom (UK), before disappearing in the 1960s. In regions lacking commercial fisheries for ABT, such as the UK and Ireland, spatial data can be scarce. In these cases,...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change is a threat to marine turtles that is expected to affect all their life stages. To guide future research, we conducted a review of the most recent literature on this topic, highlighting knowledge gains and research gaps since a similar previous review in 2009. We suggest a number of research priorities for an improved understanding o...
Article
Full-text available
Environmental change and biodiversity loss are but two of the complex challenges facing conservation practitioners and policy makers. Relevant and robust scientific knowledge is critical for providing decision-makers with the actionable evidence needed to inform conservation decisions. In the Anthropocene, science that leads to meaningful improveme...
Article
Full-text available
Basking sharks, the world’s second largest fish, are endangered globally following two centuries of large-scale exploitation for their oily livers. In the northeast Atlantic, they seasonally gather in key sites, including the western Scottish Isles, where they feed on plankton, but their breeding grounds are currently completely unknown. Using high...
Article
The Western Central Atlantic (WCA) hosts a population of manta rays whose dis- tribution and habitat preference is poorly understood. Addressing this lack of knowledge will be essential to aid the effective implementation of targeted conser- vation measures. Here, we use ensemble ecological niche modeling to predict the monthly distribution of mant...
Article
Caribbean whiptail and southern stingrays are large-bodied mesopredators, occupying shallow, nearshore ecosystems of The Bahamas, yet virtually nothing is known of their diet or potential resource competition. We used stomach content analysis via gastric lavage and stable isotope analysis to investigate the diet of 94 Caribbean whiptail rays Styrac...
Article
Full-text available
Background Biologging studies have revealed a wealth of information about the spatio-temporal movements of a wide range of vertebrates large enough to carry electronic tracking tags. Advances in autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs or UAVs) and unmanned aerial vehicles (commonly known as drones), which can carry far larger payloads of sensor techno...
Article
Pop-up archival tags (n = 16) were deployed on Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABT) off the west coast of Ireland in October and November 2016 (199–246 cm curved fork length), yielding 2799 d of location data and 990 and 989 d of depth and temperature time-series data, respectively. Most daily locations (96%, n = 2651) occurred east of 45°W, the current sto...
Article
The establishment of the piscivorous lionfish Pterois spp. in the Western Atlantic and wider Caribbean is a well-documented example of a successful marine invasion. Recently, lionfish have been shown to colonise a wide range of ecosystems and tolerate a wider range of salinities than previously thought. In the present study, lionfish were maintaine...
Article
Full-text available
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change predicts that sea levels will rise by up to 0.82 m in the next 100 years. In natural systems, coastlines would migrate landwards, but because most of the world’s human population occupies the coast, anthropogenic structures (such as sea walls or buildings) have been constructed to defend the shore and p...
Article
Full-text available
Applying physiological tools, knowledge and concepts to understand conservation problems (i.e. conservation physiology) has become commonplace and confers an ability to understand mechanistic processes, develop predictive models and identify cause-and-effect relationships. Conservation physiology is making contributions to conservation solutions; t...
Article
Full-text available
Migratory movements in response to seasonal resources often influence population structure and dynamics. Yet in mobile marine predators, population genetic consequences of such repetitious behaviour remain inaccessible without comprehensive sampling strategies. Temporal genetic sampling of seasonally recurring aggregations of planktivorous basking...
Article
High altitudes are physiologically challenging: the hypobaric hypoxia, cold, and increased ultraviolet radiation mean humans ascending to high altitude faster than they acclimatize risk life-threatening illnesses. Despite such challenges, birds can thrive at high altitudes and some even complete metabolically costly migrations across the world's hi...
Article
Birds migrating through extreme environments can experience a range of challenges while meeting the demands of flight, including highly variable ambient temperatures, humidity and oxygen levels. However, there has been limited research into avian thermoregulation during migration in extreme environments. This study aimed to investigate the effect o...
Article
Full-text available
The distributions of migratory species in the ocean span local, national and international jurisdictions. Across these ecologically interconnected regions, migratory marine species interact with anthropogenic stressors throughout their lives. Migratory connectivity, the geographical linking of individuals and populations throughout their migratory...
Article
Full-text available
Mobile marine species can exhibit vast movements both horizontally and vertically. Spatial analysis of vertical movements may help improve an understanding of the processes that influence space use. Previously, vertical space use of basking sharks (Cetorhinus maximus) in the north-east Atlantic described movements largely within waters of the conti...
Article
Full-text available
The bar-headed goose is famed for migratory flight at extreme altitude. To better understand the physiology underlying this remarkable behavior, we imprinted and trained geese, collecting the first cardiorespiratory measurements of bar-headed geese flying at simulated altitude in a wind tunnel. Metabolic rate during flight increased 16-fold from re...
Article
Despite being a fundamental life-history character, there is a paucity of population-wide, data-driven studies of primary sex ratios for any marine turtle species. The Republic of Cape Verde hosts the third-largest nesting population of loggerhead turtles in the world (hosting up to 15% of global nesting by the species). Weighting for the spatial d...
Article
Full-text available
The basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) is an endangered species in the north-east Atlantic, having been historically over exploited. Whilst near-shore aggregation hotspots in the UK have been identified, robust knowledge on species distribution and abundance outside these areas remains limited. Research techniques, such as habitat modelling, could...
Article
Full-text available
Grey seals ( Halichoerus grypus ) of the North-east Atlantic are protected at designated European Marine Sites (Special Areas of Conservation, SACs) typically during their reproductive periods and in the UK at Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI). As a mobile marine species, grey seals spend other parts of their annual life cycle in non-desi...
Article
Full-text available
Satellite tracking of endangered or threatened animals can facilitate informed conservation by revealing priority areas for their protection. Basking sharks Cetorhinus maximus (n = 11) were tagged during the summers of 2013, 2015, 2016 and 2017 in the Isle of Man (IoM; median tracking duration 378 d, range: 89-804 d; median minimum straight-line di...
Article
Full-text available
Few studies have looked into climate change resilience of populations of wild animals. We use a model higher vertebrate, the green sea turtle, as its life history is fundamentally affected by climatic conditions, including temperature‐dependent sex determination and obligate use of beaches subject to sea level rise (SLR). We use empirical data from...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change associated sea level rise (SLR) is expected to have profound impacts on coastal areas, affecting many species including sea turtles which depend on these habitats for egg incubation. Being able to accurately model beach topography using digital terrain models (DTMs) is therefore crucial to project SLR impacts and develop effective co...
Article
Full-text available
Over 25 years ago the first satellite tracking studies of sea turtles were published. The technology and attachment methods have now come of age with long-term tracks over a year being commonplace and the ability to relay high resolution GPS locations via the Argos satellite system along with behavioral (e.g., diving and activity) and environmental...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With a global increase in temperature, which is predicted to rise exponentially (1.8 to 3.4oC by 2090 to 2099), it is important to understand the effects that climate change could potentially have on endangered species’ populations, such as the loggerhead turtle of the North-East Atlantic. Currently the only rookery of this endangered population is...
Article
Wilkes, Matt, Martin J. MacInnis, Lucy A. Hawkes, Heather Massey, Clare Eglin, and Michael J. Tipton. The physiology of paragliding flight at moderate and extreme altitudes. High Alt Med Biol 00:000-000, 2017.-Paragliding is a form of free flight, with extreme-altitude paragliding being an emerging discipline. We aimed to describe the physiological...
Article
Full-text available
Global climate change is expected to have major impacts on biodiversity. Sea turtles have temperature-dependent sex determination, and many populations produce highly femalebiased offspring sex ratios, a skew likely to increase further with global warming. We estimated the primary sex ratio at one of the world's largest green turtle Chelonia mydas...
Article
Full-text available
Synopsis: Exercise at high altitude is extremely challenging, largely due to hypobaric hypoxia (low oxygen levels brought about by low air pressure). In humans, the maximal rate of oxygen consumption decreases with increasing altitude, supporting progressively poorer performance. Bar-headed geese (Anser indicus) are renowned high altitude migrants...
Article
Full-text available
Birds that migrate across high altitude mountain ranges are faced with the challenge of maintaining vigorous exercise in environments with limited oxygen. Ruddy shelducks are known to use wintering grounds south of the Tibetan Plateau at sea level and breeding grounds north of Himalayan mountain range. Therefore, it is likely these shelducks are pr...
Article
Full-text available
There is a growing need to understand the inter-annual movements of mobile marine species of conservation concern to inform the design and placement of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) to maximise their conservation potential. We use satellite telemetry data from 36 basking sharks (Cetorhinus maximus) tracked in 2012, 2013 and 2014 (cumulative total:...
Article
Full-text available
Animal migration is ubiquitous in nature with individuals within a population often exhibiting varying movement strategies. The basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) is the world’s second largest fish species, however, a comprehensive understanding of their long-term wider-ranging movements in the north-east Atlantic is currently lacking. Seventy sate...
Article
Full-text available
The ability of predators to switch between hunting and scavenging (facultative scavenging) carries both short-term survival and long-term fitness advantages. However, the mechanistic basis for facultative scavenging remains poorly understood. The co-occurrence of tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) and green turtles (Chelonia mydas) at Raine Island (A...
Article
Full-text available
Somatic growth dynamics are an integrated response to environmental conditions. Hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) are long-lived, major consumers in coral reef habitats that move over broad geographic areas (hundreds to thousands of kilometers). We evaluated spatio-temporal effects on hawksbill growth dynamics over a 33-yr period and 2...
Article
Effective conservation of threatened or endangered species requires a robust understanding of their spatio-temporal distribution. Although a huge amount is known about the movements of Atlantic adult sea turtles, much less is known about juvenile turtles, and much of the life history model is therefore inferred. We set out to describe the spatio-te...
Article
The ‘‘landscape of fear’’ model has been proposed as a unifying concept in ecology, describing, in part, how animals behave and move about in their environment. The basic model predicts that as an animal’s landscape changes from low to high risk of predation, prey species will alter their behavior to risk avoidance. However, studies investigating a...
Article
Full-text available
Population connectivity is an important consideration in studies of disease transmission and biological conservation, especially with regard to migratory species. Determining how and when different subpopulations intermingle during different phases of the annual cycle can help identify important geographical regions or features as targets for conse...