Lucja Biel

Lucja Biel
University of Warsaw | UW · Institute of Applied Linguistics

prof. ucz. dr hab. (Linguistics)

About

97
Publications
90,645
Reads
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977
Citations
Citations since 2017
45 Research Items
847 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
Introduction
Translation scholar and corpus linguists working on legal language and legal translation, in particular EU translation and eurolects
Additional affiliations
January 2019 - present
The Journal of Specialised Translation
Position
  • Editor
Description
  • www.jostrans.org
October 2013 - present
University of Warsaw
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
December 2009 - December 2013
City, University of London
Position
  • Visiting Lecturer
Education
October 2005 - June 2007
University of Cambridge
Field of study
  • Law
October 1998 - June 2004
University of Gdansk
Field of study
  • Linguistics
October 1993 - July 1998
Jagiellonian University
Field of study
  • English Studies / Translation

Publications

Publications (97)
Article
Full-text available
Streszczenie: Dynamiczny rozwój tłumaczeń maszynowych w ostatnich latach, a zwłasz-cza pojawienie się neuronowych tłumaczeń maszynowych, zmienia branżę usług języ-kowych. Z punktu widzenia automatyzacji można wyróżnić tłumaczenia wykonywane przez człowieka od podstaw i wspomagane komputerowo; tłumaczenia wspomagane maszynowo; tłumaczenia maszynowe...
Article
Chapter 19 maps the field of legal translation practice, research and training, beginning with an overview of the history of legal translation and its reorientation from literalness towards functional, receiver-oriented approaches which ensure equivalent effects and perceive legal translation as an act of legal communication. The chapter identifies...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this paper is to investigate the evolution of the Polish Eurolect, a supranational translator-mediated variety of legal Polish by: (1) analysing circumstances in which it emerged and took shape; and (2) tracking its development from the formative pre-accession to mature post-accession stage. The first part documents challenges face...
Article
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The objective of this paper is to analyse how European Union (EU) supra-national terms related to consumer protection transfer into domestic legal systems of three English-language jurisdictions (the UK, Ireland and Malta) during the transposition of EU directives. Transposition is a process of incorporating EU directives into national law and capt...
Chapter
Full-text available
The objective of this chapter is to approach the topic of translation quality through the lens of corrigenda, an instrument which formally rectifies errors in EU legal acts. This instrument is part of the European Commission's ex-post quality monitoring metrics included in the correction rate. Corrigenda have been rarely studied despite their poten...
Article
Full-text available
Terminological variation, i.e. synonymy at the term level, is regarded as a recurrent problem in EU law. Working with a parallel-comparable corpus of EU English-Polish legislation, soft law and judgments in the area of competition, this study explores how source-language synonymy is handled in translation across institutional genres. The findings s...
Chapter
In the European Union, legal discourses involve an unprecedented degree of mediation by translators and filtering through 24 official languages. Combined with a complex array of institutional, political, procedural and supranational factors, it results in an emergence of “Europeanized” parallel varieties of national legal languages—hybrids known as...
Article
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This paper explores the formulaicity of EU translations into Polish across four institutional genres (legislation, judgments, reports, websites) with reference to the corresponding EU English corpora in order to understand how the degree of formulaicity is affected by the variable of genre. Formulaicity is operationalised as lexical bundles – high-...
Book
The field of legal translation and interpreting has strongly expanded over recent years. As it has developed into an independent branch of Translation Studies, this book advocates for a substantiated discussion of methods and methodology, as well as knowledge about the variety of approaches actually applied in the field. It is argued that, complex...
Conference Paper
Panel at the 13 th EST Congress in Stellenbosch, South Africa 9-13 September 2019 What does quality mean in legal translation and interpreting, and why does it matter? What is required of academic programmes, trainees and trainers in order to ensure effective legal translator training? What are the latest professional developments and limitations i...
Chapter
Full-text available
The present chapter has a twofold aim: first, it reports on the panel EU Legal Culture and Translation at the ILLA (International Law and Language Association) relaunch conference, focusing on the main topics which emerged from the contributions — most notably, the hybridity of translator-mediated EU legal culture; second, it explores EU hybridity...
Chapter
Full-text available
The chapter explores the Polish Eurolect, the largest Slavonic language in the EU. In respect of EU-rooted phenomena, the Polish Eurolect shows a high frequency of semantic Europeisms and a low overlap of lexical bundles. As regards contact-induced features, the Eurolect is subject to strong interference from EU English in the form of borrowings an...
Chapter
The objective of this chapter is, first, to identify key terms in EU Competition Law in English and, secondly, to identify and examine their collocational environment via the corpus methodology. The first part of the chapter presents a theoretical background on EU English as a supranational variety of English due to the increased mediation of conte...
Chapter
Full-text available
Biel, Łucja. 2018. “Corpora in Institutional Legal Translation: Small Steps and the Big Picture.” In Institutional Translation for International Governance: Enhancing Quality in Multilingual Legal Communication, edited by Fernando Prieto Ramos, 25-36. London: Bloomsbury. https://www.bloomsburycollections.com/book/institutional-translation-for-inter...
Chapter
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Article
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This article introduces the special issue of JLL on EU legal culture and translation. The introduction gives an overview of the papers comprised in the special issue and provides the theoretical background to set the scene for the discussion in the papers. The special issue is a follow up on the panel organised at the Language and Law in a World of...
Chapter
This chapter presents the glossary of collocations of key terms identified in the EU English Competition Corpus for the purposes of the analysis presented in previous chapter. The aim of compiling a glossary of collocations and other phrasemes was to assist legal practitioners and other professionals who are non-native speakers of English in the re...
Book
The book provides an overview of EU competition law with a focus on the main developments in Italy, Spain, Greece, Poland and Croatia and offers an in-depth analysis of the role of language, translation and multilingualism in its implementation and interpretation. The first part of the book focuses on the main developments in EU competition law in...
Chapter
Full-text available
Eurolekt jest nową „europejską” hybrydową odmianą języka polskiego, stosowaną w kontekście unijnym, będącą wynikiem komunikacji odbywającej się za pośrednictwem tłumaczy. Wykształcenie się nowej odmiany jest konsekwencją pełnienia przez język polski roli jednego z 24 języków urzędowych Unii Europejskiej (UE). Hybrydowość eurolektu wiąże się z wielo...
Chapter
Full-text available
http://langsci-press.org/catalog/view/181/953/928-1
Article
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The objective of the paper is to propose a multi-perspective and mixed-method research framework for legal translation by modelling key dimensions and factors applicable to legal translation. As a result of the ongoing expansion of Legal Translation Studies, the field is experiencing a methodological development, which extends our perspective on le...
Book
The book is one of the few in-depth investigations into the nature of EU legal translation and its impact on national legal languages. It is also the first attempt to characterise EU Polish, a language of supranational law and a hybrid variant of legal Polish emerging via translation. The book applies Chesterman's concept of textual fit, that is ho...
Chapter
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Article
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The objective of this paper is to demonstrate how comparable corpora may be used in the classroom to increase the communicative dimension of legal translations, an aspect which tends to be neglected in training. The perspective is that of an English-Polish translator trainer in the Master’s translation programme. The author proposes two complementa...
Article
Full-text available
Although central in translation practice, and increasing in volume as well as impact due to the growing globalisation and explosion of financial transactions and increasing business activity, economic translation –including business and financial translation – has been little researched and discussed over the years. Yet it constitutes a fascinating...
Book
Full-text available
The purpose of this volume is to explore key issues, approaches and challenges to quality in institutional translation by confronting academics’ and practitioners’ perspectives. What the reader will find in this book is an interplay of two approaches: academic contributions providing the conceptual and theoretical background for discussing quality...
Article
Full-text available
The sworn translator examination versus the reality of professional practice: a critical voice in connection with the verification of sworn translator candidates’ competences Summary The paper attempts to critically evaluate the sworn translator examination in the light of the reality of professional practice. The analysis will cover the following...
Chapter
Full-text available
The chapter investigates the behavior of multi-word patterns in legal translation. Its objective is to explore the patterning of translator-mediated multilingual legislation with a view to gaining a better understanding of how the translation process and multilingualism constraints affect the formulaicity of legal language and examining to what ext...
Chapter
Full-text available
Mixed corpus design for researching the Eurolect: a genre-based comparable-parallel corpus in the PL EUROLECT project Mieszana struktura korpusu do badania eurolektu – gatunkowy korpus porównawczo-równoległy w ramach projektu PL EUROLECT Streszczenie W artykule opisano mieszaną strukturę gatunkowego kor-pusu porównawczo-równoległego budowanego w ra...
Article
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Translation of EU law versus the central concepts of Translation Studies The objective of the paper was: (1) to analyse EU translation in light of central concepts of Translation Studies, and (2) to attempt a synthesis of numerous studies on EU translation to describe its distinctive features. EU law is adopted in 24 official languages and is appl...
Chapter
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Celem artykułu jest zbadanie w sposób empiryczny dystrybucji i funkcji wyrażeń przyimkowych zawierających przyimki proste i wtórne w polskim języku prawnym, zarówno w jego odmianie krajowej, jak i unijnej, oraz na tle ogólnego języka polskiego. Na podstawie wcześniejszych badań nad polskim językiem prawnym w ramach projektu Eurofog przyjęto hipotez...
Article
Full-text available
The paper explores the hypothesis that a large proportion of non-terminological word combinations in legislation is built around complex prepositions, which significantly contribute to phraseological profiles of legislative genres. The paper analyses the distribution and functions of complex prepositions in multilingual EU law and national law, on...
Article
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Zarys treści: Celem artykułu jest omówienie założeń translatoryki korpusowej jako nowej metodologii badań nad przekładem. Artykuł pozycjonuje translatorykę korpusową na tle najnowszych kierunków badań nad przekładem (" zwrot technologiczny ") i omawia jej teoretyczne podstawy wywodzące się z ję-zykoznawstwa korpusowego i opisowych badań nad przekła...
Article
Full-text available
This paper discusses the textual fit of translated EU law – that is, how its language differs from that of nontranslated Polish law – at the level of deontic modality patterns. The study is part of a larger three-year project and was conducted on the following multilingual comparative corpora: (1) The Polish Translation JRC Acquis Corpus, a corpus...
Article
Full-text available
Legal Translator as a Communicator A review of Borja Albi, Anabel and Fernando Prieto Ramos (eds): Legal Translation in Context. Professional Issues and Prospects: Series New Trends in Translation Studies, 2013, Peter Lang, Oxford, Vol. 4, 315 pp
Book
Full-text available
Łucja Biel (2014) Lost in the Eurofog: The Textual Fit of Translated Law. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.
Book
Full-text available
Chapter 3 of the book Lost in the Eurofog. The Textual Fit of Translated Law
Article
Full-text available
The introduction presents an overview of traditional research methods in Legal Translation Studies and discusses new developments as represented by the papers comprised in the special issue. The predominant methodology is corpus-based; there is a clear shift from qualitative to quantitative methods. Corpus-based methods are applied to the study of...
Article
Full-text available
The introduction presents an overview of traditional research methods in Legal Translation Studies and discusses new developments as represented by the papers comprised in the special issue. The predominant methodology is corpus-based; there is a clear shift from qualitative to quantitative methods. Corpus-based methods are applied to the study of...
Article
Full-text available
LEGAL TEXT AS A HYPERTEXT: INTERTEXTUALITY OF TRANSLATED INTERNATIONAL LAW RELATED TO TRAFFICKING IN HUMAN BEINGS Abstract: The paper examines the intertextuality of translated legislation with a case study of international legal instruments combating trafficking in human beings. The instruments come from three systems (United Nations, Council of...
Article
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Integrative functional approach in legal translation teaching The paper introduces an integrative functional approach to legal translation teaching at translation programmes taught as part of Philology major. The approach is based on functionalism, professional realism of training, and social constructivism. The main objective is to train translat...
Chapter
Full-text available
The paper discusses areas of similarity and difference in the phraseology of key terms in UK and Polish company law. The analysis is based on two comparable corpora of company law legislation. Similarities are motivated by the shared COMPANY-IS-A-PERSON metaphor and related conceptual scenarios, while differences arise from their system-specific in...
Article
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Quality of legal translation in light of EN 15038 standard of translation services and hypotheses of translation universals Summary The paper discusses the quality of legal translation under the EN 15038 standard of translation services and the hypotheses of translation universals. The standard, Translation services ─ Service requirements, offers...
Article
Full-text available
The paper proposes how to integrate professional realism in BA legal translation classes at the level of translation competence and translator competence. The distinction between competences is adopted from Kiraly, where the former means the ability to translate to the required standard while the latter is the ability to function efficiently as a p...
Article
Full-text available
The paper presents an overview of the EN 15038:2006 standard, Translation services— Service requirements, and analyses its implications for the translation industry and specialised translator training in tertiary education institutions. It is the first pan-European standard which addresses the quality of the translation process specifically and est...
Article
Full-text available
Handel ludźmi jest procederem, którym zajmują się najczęściej zorganizowane grupy przestępcze prowadzące działalność o charakterze transgranicznym. Z uwagi na jego międzynarodową specyfikę na różnych etapach procesu karnego angażowani są tłumacze przysięgli. Na mocy porozumień międzynarodowych ofiarom handlu ludźmi należy zapewnić informacje w języ...
Article
Full-text available
The article discusses fundamental terminology and phraseology connected with company representation in Polish law and has two objectives. The first objective is to conduct a detailed analysis of the most salient terms, prokurent, pełnomocnik zgromadzenia, kurator spółki, pełnomocnik do głosowania and przedstawiciel, with a view to determining their...
Chapter
Full-text available
ucja Biel (2010) " Proxemic motivation in language: relational metaphors and registers " ; In: Danuta Stanulewicz, Tadeusz Z. Wolański, Joanna Redzimska (eds) (2010) Lingua Terra Cognita II. A Festschrift for Professor Roman Kalisz, Gdańsk: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego, 183-203. Pre-print version Proxemic motivation in language: relational m...
Article
Artykul omawia specyfike terminow prawniczych i struktury wiedzy aktywowane przez terminy. W analizie zastosowano metodologie jezykoznawstwa kognitywnego. Terminy pelnią role skrotow prowadzących do pojec zakotwiczonych w strukturach wiedzy, jak np.: domeny, scenariusze, modele kognitywne i ramy. Struktury wiedzy są odmiennie zorganizowane w poszcz...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The introduction of electronic corpora to linguistics has been compared to the introduction of telescopes in astronomy (Stubbs 2004: 107). Indeed, the use of computers in language studies was inevitable. Corpus-based and corpus-driven studies of language have become a mainstream methodology used in many branches of linguistics. Since the 1990s they...
Article
Full-text available
The paper examines the organization of background knowledge structures in legal language and related incongruities of legal terms. The cognitive linguistics methodology, in particular its findings on the nature of meaning, is applied. Terms serve as prompts with a semantic potential to activate various levels of knowledge structures, such as domain...
Article
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The article discusses terminology mining on a small scale as used by legal freelance translators in practice, and recent developments in this area. Major properties of legal terms are discussed from the Cognitive Linguistics perspective where terms are seen as prompts that activate background knowledge structures. Next various resources are present...
Chapter
Full-text available
Gdańsk COMMUNICATIVE DISTANCE IN INTERACTION: VERBAL AND NONVERBAL EXPRESSION IN ENGLISH Human relationships are perceived, conceptualised, and expressed, to a large degree, in spatial terms. Being a fundamental dimension of the SPACE domain, distance may be regarded as a primary concept: it is experientially basic, concrete, and well-known. It is...

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Projects

Projects (4)
Archived project
The relevance of translation has never been greater. The challenges of the 21st century are truly glocal and societies are required to manage diversities like never before. Cultural and linguistic diversities cut across ideological systems, those carefully crafted to uphold prevailing hierarchies of power, making asymmetries inescapable. Translation and interpreting studies have left behind neutrality and have put forward challenging new approaches that provide a starting point for researching translation as a cultural and historical product in a global and asymmetrical world. This book addresses issues arising from the power vested in and arrogated by translation and interpreting either as instruments of change, or as tools to sustain dominant structures. It presents new perspectives and cutting-edge research findings on how asymmetries are fashioned, woven, upheld, experienced, confronted, resisted, and rewritten through and in translation. This volume is useful for scholars looking for tools to raise awareness as to the challenges posed by the pervasiveness of power relations in mediated communication. It will further help practitioners understand how asymmetries shape their experiences when translating and interpreting.
Project
The project The Eurolect: an EU variant of Polish and its impact on administrative Polish (an abbreviated name: PL Eurolect) investigates the Polish Eurolect, a new hybrid variant of Polish, across four genres — legislation, judgments, reports and websites for citizens. The Polish Eurolect is a translator-mediated variant used in the EU context. EU texts are produced in a multilingual environment of 24 official languages, which implies a constant switching and ‘fusion’ of languages. They are often a result of delicate political compromise between 28 Member States. EU texts are regarded to have developed a specific language; its distinctness is attested by a variety of largely pejorative names assigned to it, such as Eurospeak, Eurojargon, Eurolanguage, Eurolect, EUese, Euro-Legalese, Union legalese, Eurofog. We will analyse how the Eurolect has evolved since late 1990s and how the unprecedented inflow of hybrid legal and semi-legal texts has affected administrative Polish. We will use a mixed-method approach, based largely on corpus linguistics and discourse analysis. The project is funded by the Polish National Science Centre (NCN) with a SONATA BIS 4 grant No. UMO-2014/14/E/HS2/00782 to build a research team in the years 2015-2019. It is a follow-up of the Eurofog project funded by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education in 2010-2012, the results of which were published in the book Lost in the Eurofog. The Textual Fit of Translated Law (2014, Peter Lang). https://eurolekt.ils.uw.edu.pl/
Project
The principal aim is to provide EU judges with the means to overcome the undeniable linguistic barriers that hurdle a better comprehension of EU Law in general, and of Competition Law in particular. In particular, the project wishes to enable national judges to consider two fundamental aspects while implementing competition policies, i.e. the necessity to consult EU Law in languages different from the national one, and the opportunity to read case-law from other Member States.