Luciano Floridi

Luciano Floridi
University of Oxford - University of Bologna

find all my publications open access at https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/cf_dev/AbsByAuth.cfm?per_id=2644503

About

597
Publications
359,592
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
21,056
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2008 - present
University of Hertfordshire
January 2005 - present
Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro
January 2001 - present
University of Oxford
Education
September 1991 - July 1995
University of Oxford
Field of study
  • Philosophy
September 1989 - July 1991
The University of Warwick
Field of study
  • Philosophy
September 1988 - July 1989
The University of Warwick
Field of study
  • Philosophy

Publications

Publications (597)
Article
Full-text available
On the whole, the US Algorithmic Accountability Act of 2022 (US AAA) is a pragmatic approach to balancing the benefits and risks of automated decision systems. Yet there is still room for improvement. This commentary highlights how the US AAA can both inform and learn from the European Artificial Intelligence Act (EU AIA).
Article
China is pushing ahead of the European Union and the United States with its new synthetic content regulations. New draft provisions would place more responsibility on platforms to preserve social stability, with potential costs for online freedoms. They show that the Chinese Communist Party is prepared to protect itself against the unique threats o...
Article
Full-text available
As China and the United States strive to be the primary global leader in AI, their visions are coming into conflict. This is frequently painted as a fundamental clash of civilisations, with evidence based primarily around each country’s current political system and present geopolitical tensions. However, such a narrow view claims to extrapolate int...
Article
Full-text available
The proposed European Artificial Intelligence Act (AIA) is the first attempt to elaborate a general legal framework for AI carried out by any major global economy. As such, the AIA is likely to become a point of reference in the larger discourse on how AI systems can (and should) be regulated. In this article, we describe and discuss the two primar...
Article
Full-text available
Ethics-based auditing (EBA) is a structured process whereby an entity’s past or present behaviour is assessed for consistency with moral principles or norms. Recently, EBA has attracted much attention as a governance mechanism that may help to bridge the gap between principles and practice in AI ethics. However, important aspects of EBA—such as the...
Technical Report
Full-text available
capAI provides an ethics-based audit of AI systems to meet the conformity assessment mandate under the proposed EU Artificial Intelligence Act.
Article
Full-text available
Research on the ethics of algorithms has grown substantially over the past decade. Alongside the exponential development and application of machine learning algorithms, new ethical problems and solutions relating to their ubiquitous use in society have been proposed. This article builds on a review of the ethics of algorithms published in 2016 (Mit...
Article
Full-text available
Necessity and sufficiency are the building blocks of all successful explanations. Yet despite their importance, these notions have been conceptually underdeveloped and inconsistently applied in explainable artificial intelligence (XAI), a fast-growing research area that is so far lacking in firm theoretical foundations. In this article, an expanded...
Chapter
The second edition of this definitive text gives a comprehensive overview of all aspects of the subject, bringing it up to date with analysis of the changes in the information environment, now largely digital, and their implication for the discipline and professions. Its approach is rooted in the philosophical, theoretical, and conceptual foundatio...
Chapter
Artificial intelligence (AI) is already having a major impact on society. In this chapter, the authors report the results of a fine‐grained analysis of several of the highest‐profile sets of ethical principles for AI. They assess whether these principles are convergent, with a set of agreed‐upon principles, or divergent, with significant disagreeme...
Article
You can find it here: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=4121411
Article
Full-text available
Over the past few years, there has been a proliferation of artificial intelligence (AI) strategies, released by governments around the world, that seek to maximise the benefits of AI and minimise potential harms. This article provides a comparative analysis of the European Union (EU) and the United States’ (US) AI strategies and considers (i) the v...
Article
Full-text available
By mid-2019 there were more than 80 AI ethics guides available in the public domain. Despite this, 2020 saw numerous news stories break related to ethically questionable uses of AI. In part, this is because AI ethics theory remains highly abstract, and of limited practical applicability to those actually responsible for designing algorithms and AI...
Preprint
Full-text available
The proposed European Artificial Intelligence Act (AIA) is the first attempt to elaborate a general legal framework for AI carried out by any major global economy. As such, the AIA is likely to become a point of reference in the larger discourse on how AI systems can (and should) be regulated. In this article, we describe and discuss the two primar...
Chapter
In this chapter I argue that the point is not to decide whether robots will qualify someday as a kind of persons, but to realise that we are stuck within the wrong conceptual framework. The digital is forcing us to rethink new solutions for new forms of agency. We must keep in mind that the debate is not about robots but about us, who will have to...
Chapter
Full-text available
This article reports the findings of AI4People, a year-long initiative designed to lay the foundations for a “Good AI Society”. We introduce the core opportunities and risks of AI for society; present a synthesis of five ethical principles that should undergird its development and adoption; and offer 20 concrete recommendations – to assess, to deve...
Chapter
Full-text available
Mobility is an essential component of life in any society, so a transformation of mobility will affect the foundations of any society, and it is hard to imagine a more profound transformation of mobility than autonomous driving. This is why understanding attitudes towards the benefits and shortcomings of autonomous vehicles means being able to addr...
Chapter
Full-text available
Artificial agents, particularly but not only those in the infosphere Floridi (Information—a very short introduction. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2010a), extend the class of entities that can be involved in moral situations, for they can be correctly interpreted as entities that can perform actions with good or evil impact (moral agents). In th...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter, I argue that the European commission’s report, ‘Ethics guidelines for trustworthy AI’, provides a clear benchmark to evaluate the responsible development of AI systems, and to facilitate international support for AI solutions that are good for humanity and the environment.
Chapter
Full-text available
The idea of Artificial Intelligence for Social Good (henceforth AI4SG) is gaining traction within information societies in general and the AI community in particular. It has the potential to tackle social problems through the development of AI-based solutions. Yet, to date, there is only limited understanding of what makes AI socially good in theor...
Chapter
As cyber attacks continue to escalate in terms of frequency, impact, and level of refinement so do the efforts of state actors to acquire new offensive capabilities to defend, counter or retaliate incoming attacks. Artificial Intelligence (AI) has become a key technology both for attacking and defending in cyberspace. When considered in the current...
Chapter
Applications of artificial intelligence (AI) for cybersecurity tasks are attracting greater attention from the private and the public sectors. Estimates indicate that the market for AI in cybersecurity will grow from US$1 billion in 2016 to a US$34.8 billion net worth by 2025. The latest national cybersecurity and defence strategies of several gove...
Chapter
Full-text available
This is the introduction to the volume. It highlights the various “seasons” through which the development of AI has gone, and how the failures and successes of AI raise ethical questions, and require an ethical approach.
Chapter
Full-text available
The debate about the ethical implications of Artificial Intelligence dates from the 1960s (Samuel in Science, 132(3429):741–742, 1960. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.132.3429.741; Wiener in Cybernetics: or control and communication in the animal and the machine, MIT Press, New York, 1961). However, in recent years symbolic AI has been complemented...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter, I introduce the concept of “digital ectype”. An ectype is a copy that has a special relation with its source (the origin of its creation), the archetype, like the impression left by a seal. It is not the real thing, but it is clearly linked in a significant, authentic way with the real thing itself. I argue that digital technologie...
Chapter
An increasing number of financial services (FS) companies are adopting solutions driven by artificial intelligence (AI) to gain operational efficiencies, derive strategic insights, and improve customer engagement. However, the rate of adoption has been low, in part due to the apprehension around its complexity and self-learning capability, which ma...
Chapter
This article presents a mapping review of the literature concerning the ethics of artificial intelligence (AI) in health care. The goal of this review is to summarise current debates and identify open questions for future research. Five literature databases were searched (Scopus, Google Scholar, Philpapers, Web of Science, Pub Med), in April 2019,...
Chapter
Full-text available
Research on the ethics of algorithms has grown substantially over the past decade. Alongside the exponential development and application of machine learning algorithms, new ethical problems and solutions relating to their ubiquitous use in society have been proposed. This article builds on a review of the ethics of algorithms published in 2016 (Mit...
Chapter
We propose a formal framework for interpretable machine learning. Combining elements from statistical learning, causal interventionism, and decision theory, we design an idealised explanation game in which players collaborate to find the best explanation(s) for a given algorithmic prediction. Through an iterative procedure of questions and answers,...
Chapter
The automation of online social life is an urgent issue for researchers and the public alike. However, one of the most significant uses of such technologies seems to have gone largely unnoticed by the research community: religion. Focusing on Islamic Prayer Apps, which automatically post prayers from its users’ accounts, we show that even one such...
Chapter
Full-text available
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is already having a major impact on society. As a result, many organizations have launched a wide range of initiatives to establish ethical principles for the adoption of socially beneficial AI. Unfortunately, the sheer volume of proposed principles threatens to overwhelm and confuse. How might this problem of ‘principl...
Chapter
In this chapter, I look into the possible developments of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the near future and identify two likely trends: (a) a shift from historical to synthetic data; and (b) a translation of difficult tasks (in terms of abilities) into complex ones (in terms of computation). I then argue that (a) and (b) will be pursued as develo...
Chapter
Full-text available
In July 2017, China’s State Council released the country’s strategy for developing artificial intelligence (AI), entitled ‘New Generation Artificial Intelligence Development Plan’ (新一代人工智能发展规划). This strategy outlined China’s aims to become a world leader in AI by 2030, to monetise AI into a trillion-yuan ($150 billion) industry, and to emerge as t...
Chapter
Full-text available
Artificial Intelligence (AI) research and regulation seek to balance the benefits of innovation against any potential harms and disruption. However, one unintended consequence of the recent surge in AI research is the potential re-orientation of AI technologies to facilitate criminal acts, term in this article AI-Crime (AIC). AIC is theoretically f...
Article
Full-text available
There is growing concern that decision-making informed by machine learning (ML) algorithms may unfairly discriminate based on personal demographic attributes, such as race and gender. Scholars have responded by introducing numerous mathematical definitions of fairness to test the algorithm, many of which are in conflict with one another. However, t...
Chapter
The article has the goal of indicating how to harness the potential for good of artificial intelligence (AI) – defined as a distinct form of autonomous and self- learning agency and thus raises unique ethical challenges – while mitigating its ethical challenges. The analyses focuses first on uses of AI that may lead to undue discrimination, lack of...
Chapter
In this chapter, I argue that in translating ethical principles for digital technologies into ethical practices, even the best efforts may be undermined by some unethical risks. Five of them are already encountered or foreseeable in the international debate about digital ethics: (1) ethics shopping; (2) ethics bluewashing; (3) ethics lobbying; (4)...
Chapter
Full-text available
We propose a formal framework for interpretable machine learning. Combining elements from statistical learning, causal interventionism, and decision theory, we design an idealised explanation game in which players collaborate to find the best explanation(s) for a given algorithmic prediction. Through an iterative procedure of questions and answers,...
Chapter
Full-text available
It has been suggested that to overcome the challenges facing the UK’s National Health Service (NHS) of an ageing population and reduced available funding, the NHS should be transformed into a more informationally mature and heterogeneous organisation, reliant on data-based and algorithmically-driven interactions between human, artificial, and hybri...
Chapter
Full-text available
To address the rising concern that algorithmic decision-making may reinforce discriminatory biases, researchers have proposed many notions of fairness and corresponding mathematical formalizations. Each of these notions is often presented as a one-size-fits-all, absolute condition; however, in reality, the practical and ethical trade-offs are unavo...
Chapter
Full-text available
An increasing number of technology firms are implementing processes to identify and evaluate the ethical risks of their systems and products. A key part of these review processes is to foresee potential impacts of these technologies on different groups of users. In this chapter, we use the expression Ethical Foresight Analysis (EFA) to refer to a v...
Chapter
The World Health Organisation declared COVID-19 a global pandemic on 11th March 2020, recognising that the underlying SARS-CoV-2 has caused the greatest global crisis since World War II. In this chapter, we present a framework to evaluate whether and to what extent the use of digital systems that track and/or trace potentially infected individuals...
Chapter
Full-text available
Artificial Intelligence (AI) research and regulation seek to balance the benefits of innovation against any potential harms and disruption. However, one unintended consequence of the recent surge in AI research is the potential re-orientation of AI technologies to facilitate criminal acts, term in this chapter AI-Crime (AIC). AIC is theoretically f...
Chapter
Full-text available
The prospect of another AI winter means we must think deeply and extensively on what we are doing and planning with AI, argues Luciano Floridi.
Preprint
Full-text available
Important decisions that impact human lives, livelihoods, and the natural environment are increasingly being automated. Delegating tasks to so-called automated decision-making systems (ADMS) can improve efficiency and enable new solutions. However, these benefits are coupled with ethical challenges. For example, ADMS may produce discriminatory outc...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we analyse the role that artificial intelligence (AI) could play, and is playing, to combat global climate change. We identify two crucial opportunities that AI offers in this domain: it can help improve and expand current understanding of climate change, and it can contribute to combatting the climate crisis effectively. However,...
Article
Full-text available
We propose a formal framework for interpretable machine learning. Combining elements from statistical learning, causal interventionism, and decision theory, we design an idealised explanation game in which players collaborate to find the best explanation(s) for a given algorithmic prediction. Through an iterative procedure of questions and answers,...
Article
Full-text available
Article
Full-text available
Important decisions that impact humans lives, livelihoods, and the natural environment are increasingly being automated. Delegating tasks to so-called automated decision-making systems (ADMS) can improve efficiency and enable new solutions. However, these benefits are coupled with ethical challenges. For example, ADMS may produce discriminatory out...
Article
Full-text available
On 21 April 2021, the European Commission published the proposal of the new EU Artificial Intelligence Act (AIA) — one of the most influential steps taken so far to regulate AI internationally. This article highlights some foundational aspects of the Act and analyses the philosophy behind its proposal.
Article
Full-text available
A series of recent developments points towards auditing as a promising mechanism to bridge the gap between principles and practice in AI ethics. Building on ongoing discussions concerning ethics-based auditing, we offer three contributions. First, we argue that ethics-based auditing can improve the quality of decision making, increase user satisfac...
Article
Full-text available
Artificial intelligence (AI) has the potential to play an important role in addressing the climate emergency, but this potential must be set against the environmental costs of developing AI systems. In this commentary, we assess the carbon footprint of AI training processes and offer 14 policy recommendations to reduce it.
Article
Full-text available
As the range of potential uses for Artificial Intelligence (AI), in particular machine learning (ML), has increased, so has awareness of the associated ethical issues. This increased awareness has led to the realisation that existing legislation and regulation provides insufficient protection to individuals, groups, society, and the environment fro...
Article
Full-text available
The gig economy is a phenomenon that is rapidly expanding, redefining the nature of work and contributing to a significant change in how contemporary economies are organised. Its expansion is not unproblematic. This article provides a clear and systematic analysis of the main ethical challenges caused by the gig economy. Following a brief overview...
Preprint
Full-text available
A series of recent developments points towards auditing as a promising mechanism to bridge the gap between principles and practice in AI ethics. Building on ongoing discussions concerning ethics-based auditing, we offer three contributions. First, we argue that ethics-based auditing can improve the quality of decision making, increase user satisfac...
Preprint
Full-text available
The potential presented by Artificial Intelligence (AI) for healthcare has long been recognised by the technical community. More recently, this potential has been recognised by policymakers, resulting in considerable public and private investment in the development of AI for healthcare across the globe. Despite this, excepting limited success stori...
Preprint
Full-text available
Necessity and sufficiency are the building blocks of all successful explanations. Yet despite their importance, these notions have been conceptually underdeveloped and inconsistently applied in explainable artificial intelligence (XAI), a fast-growing research area that is so far lacking in firm theoretical foundations. Building on work in logic, p...
Article
Full-text available
To address the rising concern that algorithmic decision-making may reinforce discriminatory biases, researchers have proposed many notions of fairness and corresponding mathematical formalizations. Each of these notions is often presented as a one-size-fits-all, absolute condition; however, in reality, the practical and ethical trade-offs are unavo...
Article
Full-text available
In July 2017, China’s State Council released the country’s strategy for developing artificial intelligence (AI), entitled ‘New Generation Artificial Intelligence Development Plan’ (新一代人工智能发展规划). This strategy outlined China’s aims to become the world leader in AI by 2030, to monetise AI into a trillion-yuan (ca. 150 billion dollars) industry, and t...
Article
Full-text available
Following the storming of the US Capitol building, Donald Trump became digitally toxic, and was deplatformed from Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and YouTube—as well as a host of other social media networks. Subsequent debate has centred on the questions of whether these companies did the right thing and the possible ramifications of their actions for...
Preprint
Full-text available
As the range of potential uses for Artificial Intelligence (AI), in particular machine learning (ML), has increased, so has awareness of the associated ethical issues. This increased awareness has led to the realisation that existing legislation and regulation provides insufficient protection to individuals, groups, society, and the environment fro...
Article
Full-text available
Initiatives relying on artificial intelligence (AI) to deliver socially beneficial outcomes—AI for social good (AI4SG)—are on the rise. However, existing attempts to understand and foster AI4SG initiatives have so far been limited by the lack of normative analyses and a shortage of empirical evidence. In this Perspective, we address these limitatio...