# Luca HeltaiScuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati di Trieste | SISSA · Applied Mathematics Group

Luca Heltai

Associate Professor

## About

93

Publications

13,540

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2,364

Citations

Citations since 2017

Introduction

Additional affiliations

October 2007 - present

## Publications

Publications (93)

Many physical problems involving heterogeneous spatial scales, such as the flow through fractured porous media, the study of fiber-reinforced materials, or the modeling of the small circulation in living tissues -- just to mention a few examples -- can be described as coupled partial differential equations defined in domains of heterogeneous dimens...

In this work we propose a weighted hybridizable discontinuous Galerkin method (W-HDG) for drift-diffusion problems. By using specific exponential weights when computing the $L^2$ product in each cell of the discretization, we are able to replicate the behavior of the Slotboom change of variables, and eliminate the drift term from the local matrix c...

We present a Scharfetter-Gummel (SG) stabilization scheme for high-order Hybrid Discontinuous Galerkin (HDG) approximations of convection-diffusion problems. The scheme is based on a careful choice of the stabilization parameters used to define the numerical flux in the HDG method. We show that, in one dimension, the SG-HDG scheme is equivalent to...

The inflation of hyperelastic thin shells is an important and highly nonlinear problem that arises in multiple engineering applications involving severe kinematic and constitutive nonlinearities in addition to various instabilities. We present an isogeometric approach to compute the inflation of hyperelastic thin shells, following the Kirchhoff-Lov...

The non-destructive estimation of doping concentrations in semiconductor devices is of paramount importance for many applications ranging from crystal growth, the recent redefinition of the 1kg to defect and inhomogeneity detection. A number of technologies (such as LBIC, EBIC and LPS) have been developed which allow the detection of doping variati...

This paper provides an overview of the new features of the finite element library deal.II, version 9.4.

We present a mathematical and numerical framework for thin-film fluid flows over planar surfaces including dynamic contact angles. In particular, we provide algorithmic details and an implementation of higher-order spatial and temporal discretisation of the underlying free boundary problem using the finite element method. The corresponding partial...

An isogeometric Galerkin approach for analysing the free vibrations of piezoelectric shells is presented. The shell kinematics is specialised to infinitesimal deformations and follow the Kirchhoff‐Love hypothesis. Both the geometry and physical fields are discretised using Catmull‐Clark subdivision bases. This provides the required C1‐continuous di...

We present a framework to systematically derive variational formulations for fluid–structure interaction problems based on thermodynamical driving functionals and geometric structures in different coordinate systems by suitable transformations within this formulation. Our approach provides a promising basis to construct structure-preserving discret...

The traditional workflow in continuum mechanics simulations is that a geometry description —for example obtained using Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) or Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools—forms the input for a mesh generator. The mesh is then used as the sole input for the finite element, finite volume, and finite difference solver, which at this...

We propose an adaptive finite element algorithm to approximate solutions of elliptic problems whose forcing data is locally defined and is approximated by regularization (or mollification). We show that the energy error decay is quasi-optimal in two dimensional space and sub-optimal in three dimensional space. Numerical simulations are provided to...

We present a mathematical and numerical framework for thin-film fluid flows over planar surfaces including dynamic contact angles. In particular, we provide algorithmic details and an implementation of higher-order spatial and temporal discretisation of the underlying free boundary problem using the finite element method. The corresponding partial...

This paper provides an overview of the new features of the finite element library deal.II, version 9.3.

We present a computational multiscale model for the efficient simulation of vascularized tissues, composed of an elastic three-dimensional matrix and a vascular network. The effect of blood vessel pressure on the elastic tissue is surrogated via hyper-singular forcing terms in the elasticity equations, which depend on the fluid pressure. In turn, t...

We propose a new algorithm for adaptive finite element methods (AFEMs) based on smoothing iterations (S-AFEM), for linear, second-order, elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs). The algorithm is inspired by the ascending phase of the V-cycle multigrid method: we replace accurate algebraic solutions in intermediate cycles of the classical AFE...

We present a perturbed subspace iteration algorithm to approximate the lowermost eigenvalue cluster of an elliptic eigenvalue problem. As a prototype, we consider the Laplace eigenvalue problem posed in a polygonal domain. The algorithm is motivated by the analysis of inexact (perturbed) inverse iteration algorithms in numerical linear algebra. We...

We present a perturbed subspace iteration algorithm to approximate the lowermost eigenvalue cluster of an elliptic eigenvalue problem. As a prototype, we consider the Laplace eigenvalue problem posed in a polygonal domain. The algorithm is motivated by the analysis of inexact (perturbed) inverse iteration algorithms in numerical linear algebra. We...

Approximations of the Dirac delta distribution are commonly used to create sequences of smooth functions approximating nonsmooth (generalized) functions, via convolution. In this work we show a-priori rates of convergence of this approximation process in standard Sobolev norms, with minimal regularity assumptions on the approximation of the Dirac d...

Fiber reinforced materials (FRMs) can be modeled as bi-phasic materials, where different constitutive behaviors are associated with different phases. The numerical study of FRMs through a full geometrical resolution of the two phases is often computationally infeasible, and therefore most works on the subject resort to homogenization theory, and ex...

This paper provides an overview of the new features of the finite element library deal.II, version 9.2.

We present a numerical implementation of a model of quasi-static crack growth in linearly elastic-perfectly plastic materials. We assume that the displacement is antiplane, and that the cracks and the plastic slips are localized on a prescribed path. We provide numerical evidence of the fact that the crack growth is intermittent, with jump characte...

deal.II is a state-of-the-art finite element library focused on generality, dimension-independent programming, parallelism, and extensibility. Herein, we outline its primary design considerations and its sophisticated features such as distributed meshes, hp-adaptivity, support for complex geometries, and matrix-free algorithms. But deal.II is more...

When solving elliptic partial differential equations in a region containing immersed interfaces (possibly evolving in time), it is often desirable to approximate the problem using an independent background discretisation, not aligned with the interface itself. Optimal convergence rates are possible if the discretisation scheme is enriched by allowi...

Approximations of the Dirac delta distribution are commonly used to create sequences of smooth functions approximating nonsmooth (generalized) functions, via convolution. In this work, we show a priori rates of convergence of this approximation process in standard Sobolev norms, with minimal regularity assumptions on the approximation of the Dirac...

deal.II is a state-of-the-art finite element library focused on generality, dimension-independent programming, parallelism, and extensibility. Herein, we outline its primary design considerations and its sophisticated features such as distributed meshes, $hp$-adaptivity, support for complex geometries, and matrix-free algorithms. But deal.II is mor...

The traditional workflow in continuum mechanics simulations is that a geometry description -- obtained using Constructive Solid Geometry or Computer Aided Design tools -- forms the input for a mesh generator. The mesh is then used as the sole input for the finite element, finite volume, and finite difference solver, which at this point no longer ha...

We consider a multiscale approach based on immersed methods for the efficient computational modeling of tissues composed of an elastic matrix (in two or threedimensions) and a thin vascular structure (treated as a co‐dimension two manifold) at a given pressure. We derive different variational formulations of the coupled problem, in which the effect...

We consider a multiscale approach based on immersed methods for the efficient computational modeling of tissues composed of an elastic matrix (in two or three-dimensions) and a thin vascular structure (treated as a co-dimension two manifold) at a given pressure. We derive different variational formulations of the coupled problem, in which the effec...

This paper provides an overview of the new features of the finite element library deal.II, version 9.1.

Fiber reinforced materials (FRMs) can be modeled as bi-phasic materials, where different constitutive behaviors are associated with different phases. The numerical study of FRMs through a full geometrical resolution of the two phases is often computationally infeasible, and therefore most works on the subject resort to homogenization theory, and ex...

When solving elliptic partial differential equations in a region containing immersed interfaces (possibly evolving in time), it is often desirable to approximate the problem using an independent background discretisation, not aligned with the interface itself. Optimal convergence rates are possible if the discretisation scheme is enriched by allowi...

We propose a new algorithm for Adaptive Finite Element Methods based on Smoothing iterations (S-AFEM). The algorithm is inspired by the ascending phase of the V-cycle multigrid method: we replace accurate algebraic solutions in intermediate cycles of the classical AFEM with the application of a prolongation step, followed by a fixed number of smoot...

We present a distributed Lagrange multiplier formulation of the Finite Element Immersed Boundary Method to couple incompressible fluids with compressible solids. This is a generalization of the formulation presented in Heltai and Costanzo (Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng. 229/232:110–127, 2012), that offers a cleaner variational formulation, thanks...

The discretization of convection–diffusion equations by implicit or semi‐implicit methods leads to a sequence of linear systems usually solved by iterative linear solvers such as the generalized minimal residual method. Many techniques bearing the name of recycling Krylov space methods have been proposed to speed up the convergence rate after resta...

The discretization of convection-diffusion equations by implicit or semi-implicit methods leads to a sequence of linear systems usually solved by iterative linear solvers such as GMRES. Many techniques bearing the name of \emph{recycling Krylov space methods} have been proposed to speed up the convergence rate after restarting, usually based on the...

Many physical phenomena can be modelled using boundary integral equations, and discretised using the boundary element method (BEM). Such models only require the discretisation of the boundary of the domain, making the setup of the simulation straightforward and lowering the number of degrees of freedom. However, while many parallel efficient librar...

This paper provides an overview of the new features of the finite element library deal.II version 9.0.

Interest in the design of bioinspired robotic microswimmers is growing rapidly, motivated by the spectacular capabilities of their unicellular biological templates. Predicting the swimming speed and efficiency of such devices in a reliable way is essential for their rational design, and to optimize their performance. The hydrodynamic simulations ne...

Non Uniform Rational B-spline (NURBS) patches are a standard way to describe complex geometries in Computer Aided Design tools, and have gained a lot of popularity in recent years also for the approximation of partial differential equations, via the Isogeometric Analysis (IGA) paradigm. However, spectral accuracy in IGA is limited to relatively sma...

Context . An estimation of the sky signal from streams of time ordered data (TOD) acquired by the cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments is one of the most important steps in the context of CMB data analysis referred to as the map-making problem. The continuously growing CMB data sets render the CMB map-making problem progressively more chal...

We propose a software design for the efficient and flexible handling of the building blocks used in high performance finite element simulations, through the pervasive use of parameters (parsed through parameter files). In the proposed design, all the building blocks of a high performance finite element program are built according to the command and...

We present a distributed Lagrange multiplier formulation of the Finite Element Immersed Boundary Method to couple incompressible fluids with compressible solids. This is a generalization of the formulation presented in Heltai and Costanzo (2012), that offers a cleaner variational formulation, thanks to the introduction of distributed Lagrange multi...

Control and optimization of coaxial electrospinning process is a serious concern due to its multiparameter effectiveness. This study is concerned with modeling and simulation of process by solving the governing equations of electrified jet using FEniCS software packages applying Cahn–Hilliard and Newton solvers for finite element method. Jet diamet...

This paper provides an overview of the new features of the finite element library deal.II version 8.5.

We present a model for the fast evaluation of the total drag of ship hulls operating in both wet and dry transom stern conditions, in calm or wavy water, based on the combination of an unsteady semi-Lagrangian potential flow formulation with fully nonlinear free-surface treatment, experimental correlations, and simplified viscous drag modeling. The...

We present a model for the fast evaluation of the total drag of ship hulls operating in both wet and dry transom stern conditions, in calm or wavy water, based on the combination of an unsteady semi-Lagrangian potential flow formulation with fully nonlinear free-surface treatment, experimental correlations, and simplified viscous drag modeling. The...

In this work we provide a combination of isogeometric analysis with reduced order modelling techniques, based on proper orthogonal decomposition, to guarantee computational reduction for the numerical model, and with free-form deformation, for versatile geometrical parametrization. We apply it to computational fluid dynamics problems considering a...

We present the results of an error analysis of a B-spline based finite-element approximation of the stream-function formulation of the large scale wind-driven ocean circulation. In particular, we derive optimal error estimates for h-refinement using a Nitsche-type variational formulations of the two simplied linear models of the stationary quasigeo...

The interaction between thin structures and incompressible Newtonian fluids is ubiquitous both in nature and in industrial applications. In this paper we present an isogeometric formulation of such problems which exploits a boundary integral formulation of Stokes equations to model the surrounding flow, and a non linear Kirchhoff-Love shell theory...

We present the results of a model for ship fluid-structure interaction simulations based upon the potential flow theory. The govering Laplace equation is complemented by non penetration boundary conditions on
the boat surface and by fully nonlinear kinematic and dynamic water free surface conditions, written in semi-Lagrangian form. The hull is rep...

This paper provides an overview of the new features of the finite element library deal.II version 8.4.

We introduce an expression syntax for the evaluation of matrix–matrix, matrix–vector and vector–vector operations. The implementation is similar to the well-known general concept of expression templates as used, for example, in the C++ linear-algebra libraries Eigen and Blaze. The novelty of the approach that is discussed here lies in the use of ne...

p>This paper provides an overview of the new features of the finite element
library deal.II version 8.3.</p

In finite element formulations, transport dominated problems are often stabilised through the Streamline-Upwind-Petrov–Galerkin (SUPG) method. Its application is straightforward when the problem at hand is solved using Galerkin methods. Applications of boundary integral formulations often resort to collocation techniques which are computationally m...

This paper provides an overview of the new features of the finite element library dealii version 8.2.

We present a model for ship hydrodynamics simulations currently under development at SISSA. The model employs potential flow theory and fully nonlinear free surface boundary conditions. The spatial discretization of the equations is performed by means of a collocation BEM. This gives rise to a Differential Algbraic Equations (DAE) system, solved us...

This work is a preliminary unabridged version of the work published on Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements, Volume 59, October 2015, Pages 8–22, doi:10.1016/j.enganabound.2015.04.006

This paper provides an overview of the new features of the finite element
library deal.II version 8.0.

We present an implementation of a fully variational formulation of an
immersed methods for fluid-structure interaction problems based on the finite
element method. While typical implementation of immersed methods are
characterized by the use of approximate Dirac delta distributions, fully
variational formulations of the method do not require the us...

Euglenids exhibit an unconventional motility strategy amongst
unicellular eukaryotes, consisting of large amplitude highly concerted
deformations of the entire body (euglenoid movement or metaboly). A
plastic cell envelope called pellicle mediates these deformations. We
examine quantitatively video recordings of four euglenids executing such
motion...

Hydrocephalus is a clinical condition characterized by abnormalities in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation resulting in ventricular dilation. Within limits, the dilation of the ventricles can be reversed by either a shunt placement in the brain or by performing a ventriculostomy surgery, resulting in a relief from the symptoms of hydrocephal...

Euglenids exhibit an unconventional motility strategy amongst unicellular eukaryotes, consisting of large-amplitude highly concerted deformations of the entire body (euglenoid movement or metaboly). A plastic cell envelope called pellicle mediates these deformations. Unlike ciliary or flagellar motility, the biophysics of this mode is not well unde...

We present the implementation of a solution scheme for fluid-structure
interaction problems via the finite element software library deal.II. The
solution scheme is an immersed finite element method in which two independent
discretizations are used for the fluid and immersed deformable body. In this
type of formulation the support of the equations o...

We present an innovative numerical discretization of the equations of
inviscid potential flow for the simulation of three dimensional unsteady and
nonlinear water waves generated by a ship hull advancing in water.
The equations of motion are written in a semi-Lagrangian framework, and the
resulting integro-differential equations are discretized in...

We discuss connections between low-Reynolds-number swimming and geometric control theory, and present a general algorithm for the numerical computation of energetically optimal strokes. As an illustration of our approach, we show computed motility maps and optimal strokes for two model swimmers.

Dirac-delta distributions are often crucial components of the solid-fluid
coupling operators in immersed solution methods for fluid-structure interaction
(FSI) problems. This is certainly so for methods like the Immersed Boundary
Method (IBM) or the Immersed Finite Element Method (IFEM), where Dirac-delta
distributions are approximated via smooth f...

Fluid membranes made out of lipid bilayers are the fundamental separation structure in eukaryotic cells. Many physiological processes rely on dramatic shape and topological changes (e.g. fusion, fission) of fluid membrane systems. Fluidity is key to the versatility and constant reorganization of lipid bilayers. Here, we study the role of the membra...

We study self propelled stokesian robots composed of assemblies of balls, in
dimensions 2 and 3, and prove that they are able to control their position and
orientation. This is a result of controllability, and its proof relies on
applying Chow's theorem in an analytic framework, similarly to what has been
done in [3] for an axisymmetric system swim...

Fluid membranes made out of lipid bilayers are the fundamental separation structure in eukaryotic cells. Many physiological processes rely on dramatic shape and topological changes (e.g. fusion, fission) of fluid membrane systems. Fluidity is key to the versatility and constant reorganization of lipid bilayers. Here, we study the role of the membra...

We propose a computational method to solve optimal swimming problems, based on the boundary integral formulation of the hydrodynamic interaction between swimmer and surrounding fluid and direct constrained minimization of the energy consumed by the swimmer.
We apply our method to axisymmetric model examples. We consider a classical model swimmer (t...

The numerical approximation of the dynamic deformation of a solid has been the subject of an ex-tremely vast literature. By far, the most widely used approximation scheme is based on semi-discretization, whereby finite elements are used in space and finite differences are used in time. While conceptually very simple, this approach eliminates the ab...

The immersed boundary (IB) method is both a mathematical formulation and a numerical method for fluid–structure interaction problems, in which immersed incompressible visco-elastic bodies or boundaries interact with an incompressible fluid. Previous formulations of the IB method were not able to treat appropriately immersed materials of finite, non...

The immersed boundary (IB) method is a mathematical formulation for fluid-structure in-teraction problems, where immersed incompressible visco-elastic bodies or boundaries in-teract with an incompressible fluid. The original numerical scheme associated to the IB method requires a smoothed approx-imation of the Dirac delta distribution to link the m...

The immersed boundary method is both a mathematical formulation and a numerical method. In its continuous version it is a fully nonlinearly coupled formulation for the study of fluid structure interactions.
Many numerical methods have been introduced to reduce the difficulties related to the nonlinear coupling between the structure and the fluid ev...