Luc J C van Loon

Luc J C van Loon
Maastricht University | UM · M3-research unit at the Department of Human Biology & Movement Sciences School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences

MSc PhD

About

628
Publications
247,512
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
31,365
Citations
Introduction
Luc van Loon is a Professor of Physiology of Exercise at the Department of Human Biology and Movement Sciences at Maastricht University Medical Centre. He has an international research standing in the area of skeletal muscle metabolism. Current research in his laboratory focuses on the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise, and the impact of nutritional and pharmacological interventions to modulate muscle metabolism in health and disease. The main research interests of his laboratory include exercise metabolism, sports nutrition, adaptation to endurance and resistance type exercise, and the use of physical activity and/or dietary interventions to improve health in chronic metabolic disease and with ageing.
Additional affiliations
December 2014 - January 2017
The HAN University of Applied Sciences
Position
  • Interim Lector Sport and Nutrition
January 2010 - present
Maastricht University
Position
  • Professor
December 2006 - December 2010
Maastricht University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Education
October 1996 - December 2000
Maastricht University, Department of Human Biology
Field of study
  • The effects of exercise and nutrition on muscle fuel selection
January 1990 - January 1995
Maastricht University, Faculty of Health Sciences
Field of study
  • Department of Movement Sciences

Publications

Publications (628)
Article
Background Egg protein is ingested during recovery from exercise to facilitate the post-exercise increase in muscle protein synthesis rates and, as such, to support the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training. The impact of cooking egg protein on post-exercise muscle protein synthesis is unknown. Objectives To compare the impact of...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: Many critically ill patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 have been submitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). Patients with a SARS-CoV-2 infection that survive critical illness are confronted with months of physical impairments. To maximize recovery, it is important to understand the musculoskeletal involvement in critically ill patients inf...
Article
Rapid oscillations in cytosolic calcium (Ca ²⁺ ) coordinate muscle contraction, relaxation, and physical movement. Intriguingly, dietary nitrate decreases ATP cost of contraction, increases force production, and increases cytosolic Ca ²⁺ ; which would seemingly necessitate a greater demand for sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca ²⁺ ATPase (SERCA) to sequeste...
Conference Paper
Objectives To determine the effects of dietary sugar or carbohydrate restriction on physical activity energy expenditure, energy intake, and physiological outcomes across 24 hours. Methods In a randomised, open-label crossover design, twenty-five healthy men (n = 10) and women (n = 15) consumed three diets over a 24-hour period: moderate carbohydr...
Poster
Full-text available
PURPOSE: Establish the time-course of changes in oxygen consumption, substrate metabolism, and heart rate during treadmill walking upon commencing a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet. METHODS: In a randomized, parallel group design, 53 healthy men and women (mean±SD, age: 35±16 years, body mass index: 24±3 kg/m2) were allocated to either a moderate...
Article
Maintaining good glycemic control to prevent complications is crucial in people with type 2 diabetes and in people with prediabetes and in the general population. Different strategies to improve glycemic control involve the prescription of blood glucose‐lowering drugs and the modulation of physical activity and diet. Interestingly, lifestyle interv...
Article
Rationale Dietary protein may attenuate the muscle atrophy experienced by patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), yet protein handling is poorly understood. Objective To quantify protein digestion and amino acid absorption, and fasting and postprandial myofibrillar protein synthesis during critical illness. Methods Fifteen mechanically ventilate...
Article
Full-text available
Cachexia is a prevalent muscle wasting syndrome among people with advanced cancer that profoundly impacts patient quality of life (QoL) and physical function. Exercise can improve QoL, physical function, and overall health in people with cancer and may be an important addition to treatment approaches for cancer cachexia. Greater understanding of pa...
Article
Full-text available
The molecular responses to acute resistance exercise are well characterized. However, how cellular signals change over time to modulate chronic adaptations to more prolonged exercise training is less well understood. We investigated anabolic signaling and muscle protein synthesis rates at several time points after acute and chronic eccentric loadin...
Article
Full-text available
Collagen is the central structural component of extracellular connective tissue, which provides elastic qualities to tissues. For skeletal muscle, extracellular connective tissue transmits contractile force to the tendons and bones. Connective tissue proteins are in a constant state of remodeling and have been shown to express a high level of plast...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Plant-derived proteins have received considerable attention as an alternative to animal based proteins and are now frequently used in both plant-based diets and sports nutrition products. However, little information is available on the anabolic properties of potato-derived protein. This study compares muscle protein synthesis rates f...
Article
Full-text available
Addressing skeletal muscle mass loss is an important focus in oncology research to improve clinical outcomes, including cancer treatment tolerability and survival. Exercise is likely a necessary component of muscle-mass-preserving interventions for people with cancer. However, randomized controlled trials with exercise that include people with canc...
Article
Background Handheld dynamometry (HHD) is a practical alternative to traditional testing of lower extremity strength. However, its reliability and validity across different populations and settings are not clear. Hypothesis We hypothesize that HHD is a valid and reliable device to assess lower extremity strength in a population of older adults. St...
Article
Consumers are increasingly encouraged to consume more plant-based foods and lower their consumption of foods from animal origin. Concurrently, older adults are recommended to consume an adequate amount of high-quality dietary protein for the prevention of age-related muscle loss. In the current perspective, we discuss why it may not be preferred to...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The rate of protein digestion and amino acid absorption determines the postprandial rise in circulating amino acids and modulates postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates. Objective: We sought to compare protein digestion, amino acid absorption kinetics, and the postprandial muscle protein synthetic response following ingestion of...
Article
Background Protein ingestion increases muscle protein synthesis rates. The food matrix in which protein is provided can strongly modulate the postprandial muscle protein synthetic response. So far, the muscle protein synthetic response to the ingestion of whole foods remains largely unexplored. Objectives To compare the impact of ingesting 30g pro...
Article
Full-text available
Background Magnesium plays a key role in bone health and may, therefore, represent an interesting nutrient for the prevention of bone loss and osteoporosis. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the impact of magnesium intake from any source on bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), bone turnover ma...
Article
Plant-based proteins are considered to be less effective in their capacity to stimulate muscle protein synthesis when compared with animal-based protein sources, likely due to differences in amino acid contents. We compared the postprandial muscle protein synthetic response following the ingestion of a lysine-enriched plant-based protein product wi...
Article
Full-text available
A correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-021-01489-8
Article
Full-text available
Background Metabolic reprogramming is a common phenomenon in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Amino acids are important mediators in cancer metabolism, and their kinetics in tumor tissue are far from being understood completely. Mass spectrometry imaging is capable to spatiotemporally trace important endogenous metabolites in biological tissue...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of Review Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common forms of arthritis in the general population, accounting for more pain and functional disability than any other musculoskeletal disease. There are currently no approved disease modifying drugs for OA. In the absence of effective pharmacotherapy, many patients with OA turn to nutritional suppl...
Article
Full-text available
Dietary interventions to delay carbohydrate digestion or absorption can effectively prevent hyperglycemia in the early postprandial phase. L-arabinose can specifically inhibit sucrase. It remains to be assessed whether co-ingestion of L-arabinose with sucrose delays sucrose digestion, attenuates subsequent glucose absorption, and impacts hepatic gl...
Article
Full-text available
Individuals with hepatic steatosis often display several metabolic abnormalities including insulin resistance and muscle atrophy. Previously, we found that hepatic steatosis results in an altered hepatokine secretion profile, thereby inducing skeletal muscle insulin resistance via inter-organ crosstalk. In this study, we aimed to investigate whethe...
Article
Full-text available
Background Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing hemodialysis experience a rapid decline in skeletal muscle mass and strength. Hemodialysis removes amino acids (AAs) from the circulation, thereby lowering plasma AA concentrations and stimulating proteolysis. Objectives In the present study, we evaluate the impact of intradialytic...
Article
Full-text available
There is a global trend of an increased interest in plant-based diets. This includes an increase in the consumption of plant-based proteins at the expense of animal-based proteins. Plant-derived proteins are now also frequently applied in sports nutrition. So far, we have learned that the ingestion of plant-derived proteins, such as soy and wheat p...
Conference Paper
PURPOSE: Hemodialysis (HD) is a life-saving treatment for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. However, it removes amino acids (AAs) from the circulation, thereby lowering plasma AA concentrations and stimulating muscle catabolism. To prevent deterioration in the nutritional status of HD patients, protein ingestion and exercise during HD are in...
Article
Previous studies have used supplements to increase dietary nitrate intake in clinical populations. Little is known about whether effects can also be induced through vegetable consumption. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the impact of dietary nitrate, through nitrate-rich vegetables (NRV) and beetroot juice (BRJ) supplementation, on p...
Article
Full-text available
Skeletal muscle mass losses with age are associated with negative health consequences, including an increased risk of developing metabolic disease and the loss of independence. Athletes adopt numerous nutritional strategies to maximize the benefits of exercise training and enhance recovery in pursuit of improving skeletal muscle quality, mass, or f...
Article
Purpose: Dietary nitrate has been shown to enhance muscle contractile function and has, therefore, been linked to increased muscle power and sprint exercise performance. However, the impact of dietary nitrate supplementation on maximal strength, performance and muscular endurance remains to be established. Methods: Fifteen recreationally active mal...
Conference Paper
Objectives It has been reported that plant-based proteins are not as effective as animal-based proteins in their capacity to stimulate muscle protein synthesis rates. This has been attributed to the lower essential amino acid content and the selective deficiency in specific amino acids. It has been hypothesized that a blend of different plant-based...
Article
Full-text available
Background Emerging evidence suggests that increasing dietary nitrate intake may be an effective approach to improve cardiovascular health. However, the effects of a prolonged elevation of nitrate intake through an increase in vegetable consumption are understudied. Objective Our primary aim was to determine the impact of 12 wk of increased daily...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Insects have recently been identified as a more sustainable protein-dense food source and may represent a viable alternative to conventional animal-derived proteins. Objectives: We aimed to compare the impacts of ingesting lesser mealworm- and milk-derived protein on protein digestion and amino acid absorption kinetics, postprandial...
Article
Full-text available
Background: In vivo muscle protein synthesis rates are typically assessed by measuring the incorporation rate of stable isotope labelled amino acids in skeletal muscle tissue collected from vastus lateralis muscle. It remains to be established whether muscle protein synthesis rates in the vastus lateralis are representative of muscle protein synth...
Article
Protein ingestion and exercise stimulate myofibrillar protein synthesis rates. When combined, exercise further increases the postprandial rise in myofibrillar protein synthesis rates. It remains unclear whether protein ingestion with or without exercise also stimulates muscle connective tissue protein synthesis rates. The authors assessed the impac...
Article
The impact of resistance exercise frequency on muscle protein synthesis rates remains unknown. The aim of this study was to compare daily myofibrillar protein synthesis rates over a 7-day period of low-frequency (LF) versus high-frequency (HF) resistance exercise training. Nine young men (21 ± 2 years) completed a 7-day period of habitual physical...
Article
Full-text available
Aim To assess the relation between muscle fibre hypertrophy and myonuclear accretion in relatively small and large muscle fibre size clusters following prolonged resistance exercise training in older adults. Methods Muscle biopsies were collected before and after 12 weeks of resistance exercise training in 40 healthy, older men (70 ± 3 years). All...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Leucine-enriched protein (LEU-PRO) and long-chain (LC) n-3 (ω-3) PUFAs have each been proposed to improve muscle mass and function in older adults, whereas their combination may be more effective than either alone. Objective: The impact of LEU-PRO supplementation alone and combined with LC n-3 PUFAs on appendicular lean mass, strengt...
Article
Background: Short-term (<1 wk) muscle disuse lowers daily myofibrillar protein synthesis (MyoPS) rates resulting in muscle mass loss. The understanding of how daily dietary protein intake influences such muscle deconditioning requires further investigation. Objectives: To assess the influence of graded dietary protein intakes on daily MyoPS rate...
Article
Sports nutrition supplements have previously been reported to contain undeclared doping substances. The use of such supplements can lead to general health risks and may give rise to unintentional doping violations in elite sports. To assess the prevalence of doping substances in a range of high-risk sports nutrition supplements available from Dutch...
Article
Full-text available
Dietary amino acid absorption kinetics are an important determinant of protein quality. The term “amino acid digestibility” is commonly used to refer to the amount of ingested amino acids that become available following absorption. However, one should differentiate between the subsequent processes of converting protein into smaller constituents (pr...
Article
Full-text available
Plant-derived proteins have been suggested to have less anabolic properties when compared with animal-derived proteins. Whether blends of plant- and animal-derived proteins can compensate for their lesser anabolic potential has not been assessed. This study compares post-prandial muscle protein synthesis rates following the ingestion of milk protei...
Article
Objective High levels of physical activity (PA) and optimal nutrition independently improve healthy aging, but few data are available about how PA may influence food preferences in older populations. Therefore, the aim of our study was to establish if there is an association between habitual PA and intake of nutrient-dense foods (i.e. fruits and ve...
Article
Full-text available
All human tissues are in a constant state of remodelling, regulated by the balance between tissue protein synthesis and breakdown rates. It has been well-established that protein ingestion stimulates skeletal muscle and whole-body protein synthesis. Stable isotope-labelled amino acid methodologies are commonly applied to assess the various aspects...
Article
Full-text available
All tissues are in a constant state of turnover, with a tightly controlled regulation of protein synthesis and breakdown rates. Due to the relative ease of sampling skeletal muscle tissue, basal muscle protein synthesis rates and the protein synthetic responses to various anabolic stimuli have been well defined in human subjects. In contrast, only...
Article
The current double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial with two parallel groups aimed to assess the impact of whey protein supplementation on recovery of muscle function and muscle soreness following eccentric exercise. During a 9-day period, forty recreationally active males received twice daily supplementation with either whey protein (PR...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of review: Poor nutritional status is prevalent among end-stage renal disease patients undergoing hemodialysis. Chronic hemodiaysis patients show an accelerated decline in skeletal muscle mass and strength, which is associated with higher mortality rates and a reduced quality of life. The current review aims to summarize recent advances re...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Muscle fiber capillarization plays a fundamental role in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass maintenance. However, it remains unclear to what extent capillarization is related to various other skeletal muscle characteristics. In this study we determined whether muscle fiber capillarization is independently associated with measures o...
Article
Full-text available
PRESENT 2020: Texto que desarrolla la lista de verificación para el adecuado informe de la evidencia en ensayos clínicos de deporte y nutrición del ejercicio (Traducción Inglés-Español)
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this current opinion paper is to describe the journey of ingested carbohydrate from 'mouth to mitochondria' culminating in energy production in skeletal muscles during exercise. This journey is conveniently described as primary, secondary, and tertiary events. The primary stage is detection of ingested carbohydrate by receptors in th...
Article
Full-text available
PurposeTo compare endocrine responses to intermittent vs continuous enteral nutrition provision during short-term bed rest.Methods Twenty healthy men underwent 7 days of bed rest, during which they were randomized to receive enteral nutrition (47%E as carbohydrate, 34%E as fat, 16%E as protein and 3%E as fibre) in a continuous (CONTINUOUS; n = 10;...
Article
Full-text available
Micellar casein is characterized as a slowly digestible protein source, and its structure can be modulated by various food processing techniques to modify its functional properties. However, little is known about the impact of such modifications on casein protein digestion and amino acid absorption kinetics and the subsequent post-prandial plasma a...
Article
Key points: Ketone bodies are proposed to represent an alternative fuel source driving energy production, particularly during exercise. Biologically, the extent to which mitochondria utilize ketone bodies compared to other substrates remains unknown. We demonstrate in vitro that maximal mitochondrial respiration supported by ketone bodies is low w...
Conference Paper
Objectives The rate of protein digestion and amino acid absorption determines the postprandial rise in circulating amino acids and, as such, modulates postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates. This study compares protein digestion and amino acid absorption kinetics and the subsequent muscle protein synthetic response following ingestion of intac...
Conference Paper
Objectives The muscle protein synthetic response to the ingestion of animal based proteins has been reported to be superior to the ingestion of plant based proteins. The lesser anabolic properties of plant based compared with animal based proteins has been attributed to differences in essential amino acid (EAA) contents and amino acid composition....
Article
Full-text available
Background Malnutrition is prevalent in hospitalized patients. To support muscle maintenance in older and chronically ill patients, a protein intake of 1.2–1.5 g/kg/d has been recommended during hospitalization. We assessed daily protein intake levels and distribution in older patients at risk for malnutrition during hospitalization. Methods In th...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Protein ingestion increases skeletal muscle protein synthesis rates during recovery from endurance exercise. Objectives: We aimed to determine the effect of graded doses of dietary protein co-ingested with carbohydrate on whole-body protein metabolism, and skeletal muscle myofibrillar (MyoPS) and mitochondrial (MitoPS) protein synthe...
Article
Background Emerging evidence suggests that increasing dietary nitrate intake may be an effective approach to reduce blood pressure. Beetroot juice is often used to supplement dietary nitrate, whereas nitrate intake levels from habitual diet are low. An increase in the habitual intake of nitrate-rich vegetables may represent an alternative to nitrat...