Louise M Burke

Louise M Burke
Australian Catholic University | ACU

Doctor of Philosophy

About

108
Publications
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2,784
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Publications

Publications (108)
Article
Full-text available
Based on a comprehensive review and critical analysis of the literature regarding the effects of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on exercise performance, conducted by experts in the field and selected members of the International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN), the following conclusions represent the official Position of the Society: 1. Sup...
Article
Full-text available
Weight-category sports are defined by the requirement of a weigh-in before competition to provide performance equity and reduced injury risks by eliminating size discrepancies. Athletes in these sports try to gain a theoretical advantage by competing in weight divisions that are lower than their day-to-day body mass (BM), using a combination of chr...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Hot-water immersion (HWI) after training in temperate conditions has been shown to induce thermophysiological adaptations and improve endurance performance in the heat; however, the potential additive effects of HWI and training in hot outdoor conditions remain unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of repeated poste...
Article
Full-text available
The benefits of ingesting exogenous carbohydrate (CHO) during prolonged exercise performance are well established. A recent food technology innovation has seen sodium alginate and pectin included in solutions of multiple transportable CHO, to encapsulate them at pH levels found in the stomach. Marketing claims include enhanced gastric emptying and...
Article
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The ongoing global pandemic brought on by the spread of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is having profound effects on human health and well-being. With no viable vaccine presently available and the virus being rapidly transmitted, governments and national health authorities have acted swiftly, recommending ‘lockdown’ policies and/or various levels...
Article
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The ability of ketogenic low-carbohydrate (CHO) high-fat (K-LCHF) diets to enhance muscle fat oxidation has led to claims that it is the 'future of elite endurance sport'. There is robust evidence that substantial increases in fat oxidation occur, even in elite athletes, within 3-4 weeks and possibly 5-10 days of adherence to a K-LCHF diet. Retooli...
Chapter
Athletes and active individuals have energy and nutrient needs that differ from their sedentary counterparts. These needs will depend on exercise training intensity, duration, frequency, and mode and environmental conditions. Energy intake should be adequate to support exercise performance, prevent injury, and maintain health but will change over t...
Article
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Personalized hydration strategies play a key role in optimizing the performance and safety of athletes during sporting activities. Clinicians should be aware of the many physiological, behavioral, logistical and psychological issues that determine both the athlete’s fluid needs during sport and his/her opportunity to address them; these are often s...
Article
There is an enthusiastic market for the multitude of sports foods and supplements which claim to enhance sports performance. Despite a lengthy history of antipathy towards this industry, many peak sporting bodies and expert groups now support a pragmatic acceptance of the use of products which have passed a risk:benefit analysis of being safe, effe...
Article
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Objectives: This study sought to investigate the perceptions and practices of achieving 'race weight' in a population of trained male cyclists. A secondary focus was to investigate the use of gym-based strength training, a possible attenuator of the side effects associated with weight reduction. Methods: A total of n=97 well-trained cyclists ran...
Chapter
Hypohydration, defined as a deficit in total body water that exceeds normal daily fluid fluctuations, is typically set as a fluid loss equivalent to >2% of body mass. The evaporation of sweat provides the principle means of heat dissipation during exercise in the heat; typical sweat rates of 300–2000 mL/h during sporting activities are generally no...
Article
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Domestic and international travel represents a regular challenge to high-performance track-and-field athletes, particularly when associated with the pressure of competition or the need to support specialized training (e.g., altitude or heat adaptation). Jet lag is a challenge for transmeridian travelers, while fatigue and alterations to gastrointes...
Article
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Athletes should achieve event-specific physiological requirements through careful periodization of training, underpinned by individualized and targeted nutrition strategies. However, evidence of whether, and how, elite endurance athletes periodize nutrition is scarce. Accordingly, elite international female (n = 67) and male (n = 37) middle/long-di...
Article
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Sports periodization has traditionally focused on the exercise aspect of athletic preparation, while neglecting the integration of other elements that can impact an athlete's readiness for peak competition performances. Integrated periodization allows the coordinated inclusion of multiple training components best suited for a given training phase i...
Article
Nutrition assessment is a necessary first step in advising athletes on dietary strategies that include dietary supplementation, and in evaluating the effectiveness of supplementation regimens. Although dietary assessment is the cornerstone component of the nutrition assessment process, it should be performed within the context of a complete assessm...
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of four key areas in which nutrition can optimize performance in volleyball: achievement of ideal body physique and energy needs, nutritional support for training, strategies for optimizing competition performance, and considered use of sports foods and supplements within a sports nutrition plan. Achieving appropri...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated one week of dietary micro-periodization in elite female (n=23) and male (n=15) runners and race-walkers by examining the frequency of training sessions and recovery periods conducted with recommended carbohydrate (CHO) and protein availability. Food and training diaries were recorded in relation to HARD (intense or >90min sessions;...
Article
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Contemporary nutrition guidelines promote a variety of periodized and time-sensitive recommendations, but current information regarding the knowledge and practice of these strategies among world-class athletes is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate this theme by implementing a questionnaire on dietary periodization practices in nation...
Article
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Current sports nutrition guidelines recommend that athletes only take supplements following an evidence-based analysis of their value in supporting training outcomes or competition performance in their specific event. While there is sound evidence to support the use of a few performance supplements under specific scenarios (creatine, beta-alanine,...
Article
Background Illnesses affect the ability of an athlete to perform. Few studies investigate risk factors in athletes across disciplines. Objective To investigate risk factors for illness in athletes preparing for the Olympic Games. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Australian athletes eligible for selection for the Olympic Games. Participants 317 a...
Article
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Since the pioneering studies conducted in the 1960s in which glycogen status was investigated utilizing the muscle biopsy technique, sports scientists have developed a sophisticated appreciation of the role of glycogen in cellular adaptation and exercise performance, as well as sites of storage of this important metabolic fuel. While sports nutriti...
Conference Paper
Introduction Illness has the potential to ruin Olympic campaigns. There have been many studies examining mechanisms of illness in athletes with emerging evidence indicating an increased risk of illness in some athlete cohorts. Despite this body of research few systematic risk factors have been clearly identified across multiple domains of health or...
Conference Paper
Introduction The amount of energy remaining to support body functions after the kilojoule cost of exercise is subtracted from dietary energy intake is termed “energy availability”. Low energy availability can occur when an athlete restricts their energy intake and/or increases the volume or intensity of training, with the consequence that there is...
Article
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Purpose: Combat sport athletes acutely reduce body mass (BM) prior to weigh-in in an attempt to gain a size/strength advantage over smaller opponents. Few studies have investigated these practices among boxers and none have explored the impact of this practice on competitive success. Methods: One hundred (30♀/70♂) elite boxers participating in t...
Article
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It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Academy), Dietitians of Canada (DC), and the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) that the performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies. These organizations provide guidelines for the appropriate type, amount, and timing of...
Article
Full-text available
It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that the performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies. These organizations provide guidelines for the appropriate type, amount, and timing of intake of food, fluid...
Article
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Despite over 50 years of research, the field of sports nutrition continues to grow at a rapid rate. Whilst the traditional research focus was one that centred on strategies to maximize competition performance, emerging data in the last decade has demonstrated how both macronutrient and micronutrient availability can play a prominent role in regulat...
Article
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Purpose: We investigated the effect of a chronic dietary periodization strategy on endurance performance in trained athletes. Methods: 21 triathletes (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max: 58.7 ± 5.7 mL·min·kg) were divided into 2 groups: a "sleep-low" (SL, n = 11) and a control group (CON, n = 10) consumed the same daily carbohydrate (CHO) intake (6 g·k...
Conference Paper
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We investigated nutrient timing in elite Finnish female (n = 11) and male (n = 7) distance runners by examining the frequency of training sessions and recovery periods done with optimal carbohydrate (CHO) and protein (PRO) availability. Seven-day food and training diaries were recorded during a pre-competition phase examining nutrient timing in rel...
Article
We determined the effect of suppressing lipolysis via administration of nicotinic acid (NA) on fuel substrate selection and half-marathon running capacity. In a single-blinded Latin square design, 12 competitive runners completed four trials involving treadmill running until volitional fatigue at a pace based on 95% of personal best half-marathon t...
Article
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During the period 1985-2005, studies examined the proposal that adaptation to a low-carbohydrate (<25 % energy), high-fat (>60 % energy) diet (LCHF) to increase muscle fat utilization during exercise could enhance performance in trained individuals by reducing reliance on muscle glycogen. As little as 5 days of training with LCHF retools the muscle...
Article
The use of doping agents are evident within competitive sport in senior and junior age groups, where they are taken by non-elite as well as elite participants. They are also taken in non-sporting contexts by individuals seeking to 'improve' their physique through an increase in muscle and/or decrease in fat mass. Whilst attaining accurate data on t...
Article
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We determined the effects of 'periodized nutrition' on skeletal muscle and whole-body responses to a bout of prolonged exercise the following morning. Seven cyclists completed two trials receiving isoenergetic diets differing in the timing of ingestion: They consumed either 8 g•kg(-1) BM of CHO before undertaking an evening session of high-intensit...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
BACKGROUND: Understanding day to day reliability of techniques used to monitor hydration status is important for interventional studies aimed at manipulating total body water (TBW) and body mass (BM). BM, urine osmolality and TBW (measured via electrical impedance) have all been used to assess hydration status. Multi-frequency bioelectrical impedan...
Chapter
This chapter overviews the key concepts of sports nutrition considering whether the current guidelines are suitable for female athletes and providing special insights into issues that might be different to those of their male counterparts. A variety of nutrition goals can be identified in the training and competition elements of sporting involvemen...
Chapter
Carbohydrate plays a central role in the recognition of sports nutrition, with major breakthroughs in the science and practice of sports nutrition involving activities related to carbohydrate and exercise. This chapter summarizes current guidelines related to the role of carbohydrate in the athlete's everyday diet, and in particular to optimize the...
Conference Paper
Over the past thirty years there has been an increasing emphasis on the food provision and nutrition support for athletes at major competition events such as the Olympic Games. While evaluation of this service has been conducted at previous events 1,2, expert opinion of this process has not been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to...
Article
New research findings are providing guidance on nutritional strategies that will benefit athletes before, during and after exercise.
Article
This review covers the nutritional needs of "rehab" (repair/regeneration from injury) and "prehab" (preventing future injury or reducing atrophy following scheduled surgery). It addresses the challenges of managing energy balance during periods of reduced energy expenditure. It also identifies a large range of issues involved in the optimization of...
Article
Despite the range of physiological challenges and practical considerations that arise between and within sports, there are some common themes shared by all athletes. During training, the athlete needs to eat to achieve an ideal physique for their event, to stay healthy and injury free, and to be able to train hard and recover optimally from each se...
Article
IntroductionEnergy expenditure during physical activityCarbohydrate and performanceFat metabolism and performanceEffect of exercise on protein requirementsPhysique and sports performanceWeight maintenance and other body-weight issuesVitamins and mineralsFluid and electrolyte loss and replacement in exerciseNutritional ergogenicsDietary supplements...
Article
Fasting—the abstention from eating and drinking—is an integral part of all of the world's major cultures and religions, though the pattern of fasting and the rate of adherence both vary widely. Fasting is also practised by many individuals in the belief that health benefits will result. A fast may be total or partial and may be prolonged or intermi...
Article
The eyes of the world were on Beijing at 8 minutes past 8 p.m. on 8/8/08, as the Opening Ceremony for the Olympic Games commenced. Over the next 15 days, spectators and the television audience remained agog at the spectacle created by a country of more than 1 billion people. In the Athletes Village, coaches, athletes, and support staff from 200 cou...
Chapter
Issue 1: How can I lose or gain weight to reach an ideal level for performance?Issue 2: Why am I so tired and unable to train or perform at my best?Issue 3: What can I do to recover between training sessions or repeated competition bouts?Issue 4: What should I eat before and during my event?Issue 5: What supplements and sports foods are effective a...
Chapter
Training dietNutritional strategies before and during competitionRecovery after training and competitionNutritional supplements for runnersNutrition for the travelling runnerConclusions ReferencesRecommended reading
Article
According to the back cover of this booklet, The British Nutrition Foundation promotes the nutritional wellbeing of society by interpreting and disseminating scientifically based knowledge and advice. Here they tackle the science and practice of sports nutrition, acknowledging that although the information is underpinned by rigorous research in exe...