Louis Renoult

Louis Renoult
University of East Anglia | UEA · School of Psychology

About

52
Publications
8,246
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848
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2005 - June 2010
McGill University
Position
  • PhD

Publications

Publications (52)
Article
Full-text available
Declarative memory is usually described as consisting of two systems: semantic and episodic memory. Between these two poles, however, may lie a third entity: personal semantics (PS). PS concerns knowledge of one's past. Although typically assumed to be an aspect of semantic memory, it is essentially absent from existing models of knowledge. Further...
Article
The distinction between episodic and semantic memory was first proposed in 1972 by Endel Tulving and is still of central importance in cognitive neuroscience. However, data obtained over the past 30 years or so support the idea that the frontiers between perception and knowledge and between episodic and semantic memory are not as clear cut as previ...
Preprint
One of the most common distinctions in long-term memory is that between semantic (i.e., one’s general knowledge of the world) and episodic (i.e., recollection of contextually-specific events from one’s personal past). However, emerging cognitive neuroscience data suggest a surprisingly large overlap between the neural correlates of semantic and epi...
Article
Full-text available
Detection of incipient cognitive impairment and dementia pathophysiology is critical to identify preclinical populations and target potentially disease modifying interventions towards them. There are currently concerted efforts for such detection for Alzheimer's disease (AD). By contrast, the examination of cognitive markers and their relationship...
Article
Full-text available
Self-knowledge is a type of personal semantic knowledge that concerns one’s self-image and personal identity. It has most often been operationalized as the summary of one’s personality traits (“I am a stubborn person”). Interestingly, recent studies have revealed that the neural correlates of self-knowledge can be dissociated from those of general...
Preprint
Full-text available
Scene meaning is processed rapidly, with 'gist' extracted even when presentation duration spans a few dozen milliseconds. This has led some to suggest a primacy of bottom-up information. However, gist research has typically relied on showing successions of unrelated scene images, contrary to our everyday experience in which the world unfolds around...
Article
Within autobiographical knowledge, semantic and episodic memory are traditionally considered separate, but newer models place them along a continuum, which raises the possibility of an intermediate form of knowledge - personal semantics. This study tested how different types of semantics – general semantics and two forms of personal semantics – imp...
Article
The Autobiographical Interview (AI) separates internal (episodic) and external (non-episodic) details from transcribed protocols using an exhaustive and reliable scoring system. While the details comprising the internal composite are centered on elements of episodic memory, external details are more heterogeneous as they are meant to capture a vari...
Article
Full-text available
To facilitate social interactions, humans need to process the responses that other people make to their actions, including eye movements that could establish joint attention. Here we investigated the neurophysiological correlates of the processing of observed gaze responses following the participants' own eye movement. These observed gaze responses...
Article
Knowledge about the future self may engage cognitive processes typically ascribed to episodic memory, such as awareness of the future self as an extension of the current self (i.e., autonoetic consciousness) and the construction of future events. In a prior study (Tanguay et al., 2018), temporal orientation influenced the Late Positive Component (L...
Preprint
The Autobiographical Interview (AI) separates internal (episodic) and external (non-episodic) details from transcribed protocols using an exhaustive and reliable scoring system. While the details comprising the internal composite are centered on elements of episodic memory, external details are more heterogeneous as they are meant to capture a vari...
Article
The distinction between episodic and semantic memory, proposed by Endel Tulving in 1972, remains a key concept in contemporary Cognitive Neuroscience. Here we review how this distinction evolved in Tulving's writings over the years. Crucially, from 1972 onward, he argued that the two forms of memory were inter-dependent and that their interaction w...
Article
Repeated study typically improves episodic memory performance. Two different types of explanations of this phenomenon have been put forward: (1) reactivating the same representations strengthens and stabilizes memories, or (2) greater encoding variability benefits memory by promoting richer traces. The present experiment directly compared these pre...
Preprint
The distinction between episodic and semantic memory, proposed by Endel Tulving in 1972, remains a key concept in contemporary Cognitive Neuroscience. Here we review how this dichotomy evolved in Tulving`s writings over the years. Crucially, from 1972 onward, he argued that the two forms of memory were inter-dependent and that their interaction was...
Article
This study aimed to identify the neural correlates of aggression-related attentional selectivity to angry faces in physical aggression. Physical aggression in a non-clinical sample of young men (N = 36) was measured using an aggression questionnaire. Visual attentional bias to angry faces was assessed using a dot-probe task during which angry and n...
Article
Full-text available
Stimuli of the environment, like objects, systematically activate the actions they are associated to. These activations occur extremely fast. Nevertheless, behavioral data reveal that, in most cases, these activations are then automatically inhibited, around 100 ms after the occurrence of the stimulus. We thus tested whether this early inhibition c...
Preprint
Full-text available
A growing body of evidence suggests that neural pattern reactivation supports successful memory formation across multiple study episodes. Previous studies investigating the beneficial effects of repeated encoding typically presented the same stimuli repeatedly under the same encoding task instructions. In contrast, repeating stimuli in different co...
Preprint
Repeated study typically improves episodic memory performance. Two different types of explanations of this phenomenon have been put forward: 1) reactivating the same representations strengthens and stabilizes memories, or, in contrast, 2) greater encoding variability - through changes in context - benefits memory by promoting richer traces and a la...
Article
This article has been withdrawn at the request of the authors. The authors have opted to update their article and have resubmitted it to the journal as a new submission. The updated article has now been accepted and can be found here: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.146387. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at ht...
Preprint
Full-text available
Stimuli of the environment, like objects, systematically activate the actions they are associated to. These activations occur extremely fast. Nevertheless, behavioural data reveal that, in most cases, these activations are then automatically inhibited, around 100 ms after the occurrence of the stimulus. We thus tested whether this early inhibition...
Article
People underestimate how much their preferences will change in the future, a phenomenon sometimes referred to as a "presentism bias." Recently, we found that this presentism bias is attenuated when thinking about the preferences of other people. The aim of this study was to investigate whether predicting future preferences also differs depending on...
Article
Self-knowledge concerns one's own preferences and personality. It pertains to the self (similar to episodic memory), yet does not concern events. It is factual (like semantic memory), but also idiosyncratic. For these reasons, it is unclear where self-knowledge might fall on a continuum in relation to semantic and episodic memory. In this study, we...
Poster
Full-text available
The present experiment used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate representational similarity patterns across repeated stimulus encoding with stimuli being presented in different modalities. Twenty adult participants performed a categorization task during the encoding phase, followed by an unexpected recognition-source memory task. D...
Article
Full-text available
Semantic richness is a multidimensional construct that can be defined as the amount of semantic information associated with a concept. Objective: To investigate neurophysiological correlates of semantic richness information associated with words and its interaction with task demands. Method: Two different dimensions of semantic richness (number of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Typically, studies of the neural correlates of successful memory encoding presented each to-be-remembered item just once, despite the fact that repeated exposure can aid encoding considerably. We studied the neural correlates of subsequent memory following multiple encoding repetitions using event-related potentials (ERPs). Nineteen adult participa...
Article
Full-text available
It has been argued that adults underestimate the extent to which their preferences will change over time. We sought to determine whether such mispredictions are the result of a difficulty imagining that one's own current and future preferences may differ or whether it also characterizes our predictions about the future preferences of others. We use...
Article
Full-text available
A common assertion is that semantic memory emerges from episodic memory, shedding the distinctive contexts associated with episodes over time and/or repeated instances. Some semantic concepts, however, may retain their episodic origins or acquire episodic information during life experiences. The current study examined this hypothesis by investigati...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the present study was to clarify in which experimental conditions the semantic processing of repeated words is preserved. We contrasted a short (250 ms) and a long (1000 ms) stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) in two different experiments, using a relatively low proportion of related words (30%). One group of participants performed a lex...
Article
Emotional distress and reasoning biases are two factors known to contribute to delusions. As a step towards elucidating mechanisms underlying delusions, the main aim of this study was to evaluate a possible "jumping to new conclusions" reasoning bias in healthy people with delusional ideation and its association with emotions. We surveyed 80 health...
Article
Full-text available
Visual perception is often challenged by various difficulties that act concomitantly and whose respective impacts may therefore be hard to distinguish. We used event-related potentials to dissociate the impact of target saliency, generated by occlusion, from that of interference produced by incongruent nontargets. In one block, the target (a square...
Article
Repetition has often been associated with a reduction or a suppression of semantic effects. However, several studies have reported that semantic processing can still be effective for repeated target stimuli when the context, prime word or sentence frame, changes from trial to trial. This type of context-target designs allows to study semantic assoc...
Article
We examined whether correlations previously found between symptoms of schizophrenia patients and the amplitude of an event-related potential (ERP), the N400, could be also found between schizotypal experiences of healthy subjects and the N400. We chose a semantic categorization task previously used with patients. Schizotypal experiences were measur...
Article
Full-text available
The N400 ERP is an electrophysiological index of semantic processing. Its amplitude varies with the semantic category of words, their concreteness, or whether their meaning matches that of a preceding context. The results of a number of studies suggest that these effects could be markedly reduced or suppressed for stimuli that are repeated. Neverth...
Article
The N400 event-related potential (ERP) is a brain response to any potentially meaningful stimulus. Like reaction time (RT), the amplitude of this ERP is reduced by the prior presentation of a semantically related stimulus. However, results of a few studies suggest that this semantic matching effect could be reduced when using already presented stim...
Article
The publisher regrets that a correction requested by the author at the proof stage was not made in the abstract of the article in the printed issue: In line 15 of the abstract, “poor” and “good” should be switched. The correct sentence should read “The amplitudes of the N400s evoked by distractors were larger in the good than in the poor ignorers.”...
Article
Full-text available
The processing of Kanizsa figures have classically been studied by flashing the full "pacmen" inducers at stimulus onset. A recent study, however, has shown that it is advantageous to present illusory figures in the "notch" mode of presentation, that is by leaving the round inducers on screen at all times and by removing the inward-oriented notches...
Article
Full-text available
We tested whether the N400 event-related potential (ERP) indexes the integration of semantic knowledge in the context or whether it indexes the inhibition of activated, but inappropriate, knowledge. A distractor-prime-target word sequence was presented in each trial. Subjects had to make semantic relatedness judgments on prime-target pairs. In the...
Article
Full-text available
The amplitude of the P300 event-related potential (ERP) has been reported to be reduced over left compared to right temporal sites in schizophrenia patients. This left temporal P300 reduction has been associated with positive symptom severity and gray matter reduction in the left superior temporal gyrus. We investigated a group of patients with a f...
Article
Anticipation of predictable events is crucial for organizing motor performance. Using instructed delay tasks, it has been shown that even when delay duration is kept constant, reaction time fluctuates from trial to trial. As time estimation is at the core of anticipatory behavior, it is reasonable to speculate whether neuronal delay activity correl...
Article
The goal of the present research consisted in trying to understand whether we process the meaning of words similarly when they are repeated or presented for the first time in an experiment. A number of studies have shown that repetition can disrupt the processing of meaning, resulting in a reduction or a suppression of semantic effects. I have inve...

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Projects (4)
Project
The aim of the project is to examine the temporal features of the neural processes underlying size constancy, i.e. the perceptual ability that allows us to perceive an object as being the same despite the fact that its image on the retina changes continuously with viewing distance. By combining EEG and kinematic data, we will unveil when (and where) the human brain achieves size constancy during perceptual and grasping tasks.
Project
To explore potential markers of preclinical vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). The research examines differing ERP and connectivity presentations between middle-age individuals at risk of vascular cognitive impairment compared to healthy age-matched controls using EEG.
Project
Sleep abnormalities are common in neurodegenerative disorders and can be present long before the clinical onset of disease. This is true for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) where the APOE ε4 allele, a genetic predisposing factor for AD, has been recently correlated with impaired sleep in healthy adults. We plan to investigate the impact of the APOE genotype on the circadian system and sleep-wake homeostasis and the way they interact in defining sleep and waking cognition in everyday life and in a sleep laboratory where we will experimentally modulate sleep pressure. This study will improve our understanding of biological mechanisms linking cognitive deficits and sleep impairment in people with a high risk of neurodegeneration, which in turn will pave the way for future intervention studies to improve sleep function and potentially delay disease onset.