# Louis LamarcheÉcole de Technologie Supérieure · Mechanical Engineering

Louis Lamarche

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Introduction

**Skills and Expertise**

## Publications

Publications (96)

The previous chapters gave an introduction of the basic tools often used in the ground-source heat pump analysis. Some more advanced sections (*) were sometimes provided as additional information. This chapter presents some more advanced material for those who like to be introduced in some recent research topics in ground-source heat pump systems.

The book covers mainly ground source heat pumps using a secondary fluid in vertical boreholes. Horizontal layouts are also possible. They are often less expensive but require a large field footprint which is not always possible. Horizontal systems share some common aspects with vertical configurations but have also some specific characteristics whi...

The two previous chapters dealt with the heat transfer between the ground and the heat pump. The present chapter uses the previous analysis to present how the ground heat exchanger size can be estimated to achieve a given performance. Two approaches are presented: the classical ASHRAE method and the one based on the monthly loads proposed initially...

The knowledge of the thermal properties of the ground is very important for ground heat exchanger design. A bad knowledge of these properties may lead to oversized or undersized system. This subject is an active area of research in geothermal systems. Only the more classical approaches are discussed in this chapter. The measurement of the ground co...

This chapter begins the heart of the subject associated with borehole heat exchangers. Although different approaches can be taken, the one chosen in this book follows the most classical one, where heat transfer into the ground is separated to heat transfer inside the borehole. This chapter covers the first part where only the heat transfer outside...

Ground source heat pumps are, in principle, more efficient than air source heat pumps since they exchange heat with the ground which is at a higher temperature level in winter and lower in summer. However, a secondary fluid ground heat exchanger needs a pump to circulate the heat transfer fluid in the ground loop which is not the case for ASHP. If...

The study of ground-source heat pumps requires a broad range of disciplines from earth sciences to building simulations. Without going in details for all of them, a good background on heat transfer is necessary. In this chapter, a quick review on heat transfer modes, such as conduction, convection, and radiation, is given, as well as heat exchanger...

This chapter is the complement of the previous one where, knowing the thermal response outside the borehole, the heat transfer between the ground and the calorimetric fluid is presented. The configuration of the borehole is then important, and the classical layouts are analyzed: single U-tube double U-tubes and coaxial heat exchangers. The concept...

Ground-source heat pumps are a very efficient technology but the installation cost is important. The economic profitability of the installation is a concern. Life cycle analysis is often the preferred tool to estimate the feasibility of the project. Different economic metrics like the net present value and the internal rate of return are presented...

In residential or small commercial installations, the head losses are mostly associated with the losses in the ground. In commercial applications, the interior layout influences also the pumping energy especially when many heat pumps share the same pipe network. In this chapter, some possible configurations are presented, and the possible impact on...

The two main elements of a ground-source heat pump are the ground and the heat pump itself. This book covers mainly the interaction with the ground, but a minimum knowledge of heat pumps is mandatory. The first part of this chapter deals with the classical thermodynamics of heat pumps, which most engineers would probably know, and the second parts...

This chapter gives an overview of geothermal energy: its different applications and its place in the energy market. Although the book is focused on heat pumps applications, the broader area of geothermal practices is given. Electricity generation as well as direct utilization is briefly discussed.

Groundwater flow can have a significant impact on the thermal response of ground heat exchangers. The moving infinite line source model is thus widely used in practice as it considers both conductive and advective heat transfert processes. Solution of this model involves a relatively heavy numerical quadrature. Contrarily to the infinite line sourc...

Groundwater flow can have a significant impact on the thermal response of ground heat exchangers. The moving infinite line source model is thus widely used in practice as it considers both conductive and advective heat transfert processes. Solution of this model involves a relatively heavy numerical quadrature. Contrarily to the infinite line sourc...

This paper presents a coupled Wellbore-Reservoir-Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) power plant model for sustainable and efficient use of multiple-fractures Enhanced Geothermal System with simulations conducted over 40 years of operation time. A multi-objective optimization of the ORC under off-design conditions was conducted using constrained NSGA-II te...

Ground heat exchangers (GHE) have been extensively studied in the past decades in order to optimize the heat exchange with the ground in particular when they are coupled with a building equipped with heat pumps. Ground heat exchangers can be categorized in several ways: vertical, horizontal or even pile heat exchangers. In the special case of verti...

The major challenge in Enhanced Geothermal System is to circulate the injected fluid in most part of the reservoir. One solution to this problem is to create artificial fractures in the reservoir and optimally position multiple injection wells and multiple production wells. The wells layout plays a crucial role and requires investigation. This is t...

Two methods are currently available to estimate in a relatively short time span the subsurface heat capacity: (1) laboratory analysis of rock/soil samples; (2) measure the heat diffusion with temperature sensors in an observation well. Since the first may not be representative of in-situ conditions, and the second imply economical and logistical is...

Electricity production from Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) is faced with premature thermal breakthrough due to the preferential flow path of the geofluid which is the consequence of the reservoir heterogeneity. Heat extraction investigation has been performed with assumptions of no water losses, isotropic and homogeneous reservoir. However, EGS r...

This paper is about modelling in dynamic operation the heat exchanger system using as condenser in one dimension characterized by two coaxial tubes with ribbed inner tube by using the equations of mass, momentum and energy conservation. The Comsol PDE interface is used to simulate the monophasic and biphasic flows of refrigerant. Heat transfer in w...

Thermal potential for cooling and heating can be achieved by new configuration of earth–air heat exchanger (EAHE). This paper presents a numerical investigation of thermal performance of a spiral-shaped configuration of EAHE intended for the summer cooling in hot and arid regions of Algeria. A commercial finite volume software (ANSYS FLUENT) has be...

In this investigation, injection and recovery strategies are studied in order to improve the performance of an Enhanced Geothermal System with multiple fractures. The three-dimensional heterogeneous reservoir intercepted by three inclined discrete fractures is modeled under transient conditions with the finite element method. Numerical results show...

Dans ce travail, le réservoir tridimensionnel, hétérogène, poreux, anisotrope en perméabilité avec trois fractures discrètes inclinées est modélisé en régime transitoire avec la méthode des éléments finis. Les résultats numériques montrent que la température de production et la puissance thermique extraite sont affectées, le fluide s’écoule par des...

A field method was developed to assess subsurface thermal conductivity profiles and groundwater fluxes from manual temperature logs using a wired probe lowered into a U-pipe during the recovery period of a thermal response test (TRT). Temperature and depth were recorded with a wired temperature and pressure data logger, which triggers a water level...

This work presents an experimental study of a direct expansion geothermal heat pump in cooling mode. The three geothermal loops are installed in parallel. To improve the system performance, a specific control depending on the discharge pressure was implemented to select the geothermal loops to serve as condensers. The fundamental question is whethe...

Geothermal heat exchangers applied to building air conditioning and heating systems are often categorized as vertical and horizontal configurations. In this article, an analytical model is presented to simulate on an hourly basis, ground heat exchangers having a horizontal configuration. The model is based on a new formalism of the finite line sour...

Several models have been proposed in the literature to simulate and design earth heat exchangers, mostly used in the context of ground-source heat pump systems. Some models were based on numerical approaches and other on analytical solutions. The analytic models are mostly based on a convolution of response factors, with a stepwise function assumin...

This paper presents the monitoring results for the HVAC systems installed in a university building, which prove that oversizing is a real problem with existing systems. In our study, how the zones served by systems are grouped is a major cause of oversizing. This is particularly obvious when monitoring the systems serving the zones on a single faca...

Thermal response tests are used to assess the subsurface thermal conductivity to design ground-coupled heat pump systems. Conventional tests are cumbersome and require a source of high power to heat water circulating in a pilot ground heat exchanger. An alternative test method using heating cable was verified in the field as an option to conduct th...

This paper investigates a new geometry of hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar collector used as an evaporator
in a CO2 transcritical heat pump system. The solar absorber plate embeds monocrystalline silicon PV
cells producing electricity and a stainless steel sheet to improve heat transfer with respect to standard back
sheets. A serpentine sta...

This paper presents a semi-transient model of the thermal stratification in a hot water storage tank used as a gas cooler in a transcritical CO2 heat pump system. It includes two different kinds of coiled heat exchangers. The first heat exchanger model is based on the analytical solution of the 1D flow in a pipe with constant thermodynamic properti...

This project investigates new geometries of hybrid solar collectors to integrate evaporators in CO 2 transcritical heat pump cycles. Three different solar absorber plates are compared: a standard PV plate, a hybrid PV/T plate and a solar thermal absorber plate. The solar absorber plate embeds monocrystalline silicon PV cells. A serpentine stainless...

The main parameters evaluated with a conventional thermal response test (TRT) are the subsurface thermal conductivity surrounding the borehole and the effective borehole thermal resistance, when averaging the inlet and outlet temperature of a ground heat exchanger with the arithmetic mean. This effective resistance depends on two resistances: the 2...

In the context of geothermal applications, the thermal response of the ground is a primary concern. Many models use the concept of g-function introduced by Eskilson in the eighties. These functions were associated with a special field arrangement and libraries of tabulated values were pre-calculated and made available for simulation. In order to in...

Heating buildings in isolated communities of northern Quebec is done by the combustion of fuel oil. Ground-source heat pump is one of the potential technologies to replace oil furnaces but the performance of heat pumps is unknown in arctic to subarctic climate. The ground thermal properties and temperature can have a major impact on the size of the...

This paper presents a genuine 2-D transient numerical model to evaluate the temperature field and the dependent electrical performances of different solar absorber plates. It can readily be adapted for solar thermal absorber plates, standard PV plates or thermally enhanced PV plates that can be used in PV/T solar collectors. The model can also be c...

The increasing in energy demand, the decreasing of energy sources and the pollution of the environment imply developing alternative sources of energy cleaner than fossil and conventional energy sources'. Therefore, renewable energy presents the best solution. Thermal applications are one of numerous renewable energy applications. This work investig...

Geothermal heat pump technology is currently one of the most interesting technologies used to heat buildings. There are two designs used in the industry: geothermal heat pump using a secondary ground loop and Direct Expansion (DX) ground source heat pump. The latter is less used, possibly because less research has been carried out for the design of...

For years, geothermal boreholes have been used to store and extract thermal energy. While analytical and numerical models have long been employed to study the behavior of such systems in a bid to predict borehole behavior, the configurations used have been limited to one inlet and one outlet to bore fields. A general framework for analyzing very co...

This article presents the results obtained from monitoring a VAV system with highly diversified zone occupancy density are presented in the article. The investigated VAV system meets the load for 72 zones (68 perimeters and 4 interiors) consisting of classrooms, offices, conference rooms, etc. with highly diversified occupancy densities from 1.875...

Sharing geothermal borefields is usually done with each borehole having the same inlet conditions (flow rate, temperature and fluid). The objective of this research is to improve the energy efficiency of shared and hybrid geothermal borefields by segregating heat transfer sources. Two models are briefly presented: The first model allows the segrega...

This article presents a building envelope's analysis in order to verify the compliance with mandatory provisions of the Model National Energy Code for Buildings in Canada (MNECB 1997). Because some of the requirements are «not met», investigations were carried out to provide justifications in order to prove that the building can be considered as an...

A model has been developed to simulate a geothermal borefield for which borehole inlet conditions can be defined independently. The borefield is modeled with a control-volume finite difference method while boreholes are modeled as analytical thermal resistances. An analytical shape factor is used to link the borehole models to the surrounding groun...

Geothermal boreholes have been used for many years to extract and store thermal energy. For a long time, the behavior of such systems was studied using analytical and numerical models, but the configurations were mostly limited to one inlet and one outlet per bore field. In recent years, some interest has been given to more complex bore field syste...

In the classical methods to analyze ground heat exchanger, the thermal capacity of the boreholes is often neglected. In recent years, several models have been proposed to take into account this effect that can be important for better design. We have presented in our previous paper, an analytical model that can take into account the thermal mass of...

Geothermal heat pump technology is currently one of the most interesting technologies used to heat buildings. There are two designs used in the industry: geothermal heat pump using a secondary ground loop and direct expansion (DX) ground source heat pump. The latter is less used, with one of the possibly reasons being that less research has carried...

This paper presents a one dimensional thermal model of a solar evacuated tube open at both ends under transient conditions. Variations of fluid mass flow rate, ambient temperature, solar radiation, and wind speed are accounted for. The semi-analytical model relies on the energy conservation equation for small control volumes along the longitudinal...

This study presents a comparative performance analysis of a direct expansion geothermal evaporator using R410A, R407C and R22 as refrigerants. The main goal is to predict the best refrigerant capable of serving as a substitute for R22. A validated geothermal evaporator model developed by our research team was used. The simulation results show that...

The real potential for energy savings exists in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems in general, and especially in geothermal heat pumps systems. Recent studies indicate that a mere 1% improvement in the efficiency of such systems generates millions of dollars in savings at the national level. This efficiency can be optimized when bet...

The ground temperature is an important parameter for several applications such as ground source heat pumps, agricultural greenhouses and ground energy storage systems. This paper describes a numerical model based on 1D transient heat conduction equation, using the energy balance on the soil surface as a boundary condition. The absorbed solar radiat...

Thermal response tests, used to assess the thermal conductivity of the subsurface in the geothermal heating and cooling sector, require a high power source commonly supplied by a fuel generator. Supplying high power for the conventional test, in which with water flows in the ground heat exchanger, is an important source of cost and a new method usi...

In this study, we present an experimental analysis of a direct expansion (DX) geothermal heat pump (GHP) installed in the Thermal Technology Center (TTC) of the École de technologie supérieure in Montreal. The residential heating system studied consists of three geothermal 30 m deep wells, which use R22 as refrigerant. During the test campaign, whi...

Although geothermal heat pumps have been attracting more attention these days due to several energy efficiency and environmental benefits, they might be criticized over the fact that the performance decreases significantly over seasonal operation due to the unbalance loading in the ground. However, in direct-expansion geothermal heat pumps using ca...

Heat transfer performances of vertical ground heat exchangers can he determined in the field through the evaluation of the effective borehole thermal resistance with a thermal response test. A comparison of this parameter to that calculated with an analytical solution taking into account the ground heat exchanger configuration can be used to assess...

Dans ce travail, nous réalisons une optimisation des paramètres contrôlables d'un type de pompe à chaleur géothermique à expansion directe(DX) dans un processus de chauffage domestique en appliquant la méthode de Taguchi. Les paramètres étudiés sont : la température d'entrée et le débit de l'eau au condenseur et la longueur des puits géothermiques,...

A conventional thermal response test (TRT) provides a bulk estimate of the subsurface and borehole thermal properties over the length of the ground heat exchanger (GHE). The measurement of temperature inside the borehole during a TRT can be carried out to further determine thermal properties at different depths. The analysis of the transient temper...

Over the years several methods have been proposed to simulate and design the earth heat exchanger for a ground-source heat pump (GSHP) system. Some of these methods are based on numerical techniques while others rely on analytic solutions. Among the latter, two classical solutions have been extensively used over the years, the infinite line source...

HVAC systems (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) are recognized as the greatest energy consumers in commercial and institutional buildings. Generally, designers use common sense, historical data, and subjective experience in designing these systems; this includes the number of systems chosen and the grouping of the zones served by these sy...

This work presents some recent results on the solution of compressible flows using a simple adaptive mesh method and finite element code. This method consists of mesh enrichment and mesh derefinement procedures, and is based upon a special finite element residual norm. The residual norm provides a reliable indicator of regions to be adapted and hen...

In this section, we simulate the heat exchanger system in one dimension characterized by two coaxial tubes (Figure 2) with ribbed inner tube using the equations of conservation of mass, conservation of momentum and energy. The COMSOL PDE interface is used to simulate the monophasic and biphasic flow of refrigerant R22 (Chlorodifluoromethane). Heat...

In the design of ground-source heat pump systems, the calculation of the total length of the bore field is very important because it is responsible for the major part of the initial cost. Some technologies, like direct expansion systems and pile systems, often use inclined boreholes. Most design methods do not consider this effect and may overestim...

In the design of a ground-source heat pump (GSHP) system, the heat transfer from the fluid to the ground is influenced by the thermal borehole resistance between the fluid and the borehole surface and also by the interference resistance between the two (or four) pipes inside the borehole. Several authors have proposed empirical and theoretical rela...

Hourly energy simulations are an important part of the design and analysis of ground-source heat pump systems. In order to evaluate the fluid temperature in the borehole of a geothermal heat pump system, most of the current models express the heat transfer rate as a sum of step changes in heat transfer rate. The borehole temperature is then compute...

The paper presents a general distributed model of a vertical U-tube direct expansion heat exchanger cou pled with the ground. This model is developed for studyi ng the dynamic thermal behavior of a buried heat excha nger (the evaporator or condenser) which is an integral part of the so-called direct expansion heat pump. The trans ient conservative...

Many models, either numerical or analytical, have been proposed to analyse the thermal response of vertical heat exchangers that are used in ground coupled heat pump systems (GCHP). In both approaches, most of the models are valid after few hours of operation since they neglect the heat capacity of the borehole. This is valid for design purposes, w...

Heat transfer around vertical ground heat exchangers is a common problem for the design and simulation of ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems. Most models are based on step response of the heat transfer rate, and the superposition principle allows the final solution to be in the form of the convolution of these contributions. The step response...

Most design programs for heat exchangers design for Ground- source heat pumps use a superposition of annual, monthly and hourly pulses. Some design methods use monthly and hourly loads. Hourly load simulations are used mostly for simulation purposes but not for design due to longer simulation time. The authors propose a new design approach based on...

Annual hourly (or shorter) energy simulations are an important part of the design and analysis of ground-coupled heat pump systems. In order to evaluate the fluid temperature in the borehole of a geothermal heat pump system, most of the current models express the heat transfer rate as a sum of step changes in heat transfer rate. The borehole temper...

This article presents a numerical method for investigating the thermal behavior of a wind turbine nacelle operating in a Nordic climate. External air flow around the nacelle and rotor as well as internal air flow through the nacelle are described using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The energy equation is used to account for heat tr...

All existing safety systems for press-brakes have fixed protective volume. These protective systems do not consider the instantaneous motion of the worker's hands. This paper presents the development of a flexible protective system, taking this feature into account. The space before the machine is divided into three zones: initial interdiction, fle...

This paper presents a general approach for the design of an adaptive position control for robotic systems by the backstepping passivity strict-feedback technique. The advantage of this control technique is that it imposes desired stability properties by fixing for a given output, the storage, input and stabilizing functions with each recursive step...

This paper presents a general design study of an adaptive force/position control using the (SFB) "strict-feedback backstepping" technique, based on passivity and applied to a robotic system. The advantage of the implemented control algorithm is that it imposes desired stability properties by fixing the storage, output stabilizing and Lyapunov candi...

This paper presents a general study for the design of an adaptive force/position control for robotic manipulator using the (SFB) "strict-feedback backstepping" technique, based on passivity. Two distinct approaches are used for the adaptation parameters. The advantage of the design is that it imposes stability properties by fixing or by calculating...

The paper presents a general approach for the design of an
adaptive position control for a robotic system by the backstepping
strict-feedback technique. The advantage of this control technique is
that it imposes desired properties of stability by fixing the candidate
Lyapunov functions initially, then by calculating the other functions in
a recursi...

The design of power transmission lines requires a knowledge of combined wind and ice loading and of the dynamic behavior of wires loaded with ice accretion. The calculation of the wind forces, in turn, imposes a need for a more detailed computer model for determining glaze accretion shape. For this purpose, a computer model of glaze accretion on wi...

Designing a manufacturing operation is a major activity of process planning, especially in the case of processes requiring a comprehensive selection of the operating parameters. This activity includes three hierarchical stages : procedure design, schedule design, and tolerance design. A new approach for process modelling and optimization has been d...

A method is described that combines the geometric flexibility of finite element methodology with recent developments of high-resolution finite difference schemes for hyperbolic systems of equations. It is proposed to use the standard weighted residual approach to set up the discrete equations. Upwinding is then achieved via a modified quadrature ru...

The test series was carried out at ONERA/CERT at the T2 wind tunnel in September 1984. The objective of this series was to minimize wall interference through a bidimensional adaptation around the models, inducing tridimensional flows. For this, three different models were used, measuring either the pressures or the forces and moment of pitch (balan...

The top and bottom two-dimensional walls of the T2 wind tunnel are adapted through an iterative process. The adaptation calculation takes into account the flow three-dimensionally. This method makes it possible to start with any shape of walls. The tests were performed with a C5 axisymmetric model at ambient temperature. Comparisons are made with t...

This study is part of a larger project to enhance and develop a new type of heat pump geothermal direct expansion (DX) and to evaluate the performance of such a system with potential fluids (R404A and R407C) for the replacement of R22 refrigerant. A geothermal direct expansion (DX) is a heat pump (Figure 1) with the particularity that one component...