Louis Goldstein

Louis Goldstein
University of Southern California | USC · Department of Linguistics

About

217
Publications
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Publications

Publications (217)
Article
Full-text available
Individuals who have undergone treatment for oral cancer oftentimes exhibit compensatory behavior in consonant production. This pilot study investigates whether compensatory mechanisms utilized in the production of speech sounds with a given target constriction location vary systematically depending on target manner of articulation. The data reveal...
Article
Introduction : Most of the previous articulatory studies of stuttering have focussed on the fluent speech of people who stutter. However, to better understand what causes the actual moments of stuttering, it is necessary to probe articulatory behaviors during stuttered speech. We examined the supralaryngeal articulatory characteristics of stuttered...
Article
No PDF available ABSTRACT There is a lack of general agreement among previous studies (e.g., Bakst, 2016; Dediu & Moisik, 2019; Westbury et al., 1998) on whether measurements of vocal tract morphology are robust predictors of inter-speaker variation in tongue shaping for American English /ɹ/. One possible reason is the different quantifications of...
Article
No PDF available ABSTRACT The theory of Task Dynamics provides a method of predicting articulatory kinematics from a discrete phonologically-relevant representation (“gestural score”). However, because the implementations of that model (e.g., Nam et al., 2004) have generally used a simplified articulatory geometry (Mermelstein et al., 1981) whose f...
Article
No PDF available ABSTRACT Articulatory dynamics of glottalic consonants—ejectives and implosives—show strictly different intergestural timing patterns that those of pulmonic consonants. For example, oral constriction and vertical larynx gestures in Hausa have been shown to be sequentially produced for glottalic consonants and simultaneously produce...
Article
Full-text available
Real-time magnetic resonance imaging (RT-MRI) of human speech production is enabling significant advances in speech science, linguistics, bio-inspired speech technology development, and clinical applications. Easy access to RT-MRI is however limited, and comprehensive datasets with broad access are needed to catalyze research across numerous domain...
Article
Full-text available
The glossectomy procedure, involving surgical resection of cancerous lingual tissue, has long been observed to affect speech production. This study aims to quantitatively index and compare complexity of vocal tract shaping due to lingual movement in individuals who have undergone glossectomy and typical speakers using real-time magnetic resonance i...
Article
Full-text available
Little is known about the cognitive capacities underlying real-time accommodation in spoken language and how they may allow conversing speakers to adapt their speech production behaviors. This study first presents a simple attunement model that incorporates hypothesized capacities, with a focus on individual variability as one of those capacities....
Preprint
Full-text available
Real-time magnetic resonance imaging (RT-MRI) of human speech production is enabling significant advances in speech science, linguistics, bio-inspired speech technology development, and clinical applications. Easy access to RT-MRI is however limited, and comprehensive datasets with broad access are needed to catalyze research across numerous domain...
Article
Full-text available
It has been previously observed [McMicken, Salles, Berg, Vento-Wilson, Rogers, Toutios, and Narayanan. (2017). J. Commun. Disorders, Deaf Stud. Hear. Aids 5(2), 1–6] using real-time magnetic resonance imaging that a speaker with severe congenital tongue hypoplasia (aglossia) had developed a compensatory articulatory strategy where she, in the absen...
Preprint
Fitts' law is a linear equation relating movement time to an index of movement difficulty. The recent finding that Fitts' law applies to voluntary movement of the vocal tract raises the question of whether the theory of speech production implies Fitts' law. The present letter establishes a theoretical connection between Fitts' law and the Task Dyna...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the intricate tone pattern of Seoul Korean, segmental and phrasal tone information are co-expressed such that an Accentual Phrase starting with a tense consonant initiates with a high F0 register sustained over multiple syllables, including those with TENSE/LAX-driven tone specification. Using rtMRI, this study sheds light on the articulatory me...
Article
Full-text available
Movements of the head and speech articulators have been observed in tandem during an alternating word pair production task driven by an accelerating rate metronome. Word pairs contrasted either onset or coda dissimilarity with same word controls. Results show that as production effort increased, so did speaker head nodding, and that nodding increas...
Article
Articulation of liquid consonants in onsets and codas by four speakers of General American English was examined using real-time MRI. Midsagittal tongue posture was compared for laterals and rhotics produced in each syllable margin, adjacent to 13 different vowels and diphthongs. Vowel articulation was examined in words without liquids, before each...
Article
No PDF available ABSTRACT The recent increasing availability of comprehensive real-time MRI data of the vocal tract and concomitant progress in air-tissue boundary segmentation present novel opportunities for articulatory modeling. PCA-based articulatory models represent vocal tract configurations as weighted linear combinations of articulatory com...
Article
No PDF available ABSTRACT Speech units under prominence present longer, larger, and faster constriction gestures than their non-prominent counterparts. However, whether there are discrete degrees of prominence, and if so how many, has yet to be discovered, partly because the contribution of the information structure in marking prominence is unclear...
Article
Full-text available
This study uses a response mouse-tracking paradigm to examine the role of sub-phonemic information in online lexical ambiguity resolution of continuous speech. We examine listeners' sensitivity to the sub-phonemic information that is specific to the ambiguous internal open juncture /s/-stop sequences in American English (e.g., "place kin" vs. "play...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose As increasing amounts and types of speech data become accessible, health care and technology industries increasingly demand quantitative insight into speech content. The potential for speech data to provide insight into cognitive, affective, and psychological health states and behavior crucially depends on the ability to integrate speech da...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Given the segmental f0 contrast for LAX and TENSE stops of contemporary Seoul Korean, the language’s strict Accentual Phrase (AP) tonal pattern provides the opportunity to examine the co-expression of segmental and prosodic tonal specifications. We demonstrate that the instantiation of the lexical f0 contrast is prosodically asymmetric; the consona...
Article
Sequences of similar (i.e., partially identical) words can be hard to say, as indicated by error frequencies, longer reaction and execution times. This study investigates the role of the location of this partial identity and the accompanying differences, i.e. whether errors are more frequent with mismatches in word onsets (top cop), codas (top tock...
Article
Full-text available
This study presents techniques for quantitatively analyzing coordination and kinematics in multimodal speech using video, audio and electromagnetic articulography (EMA) data. Multimodal speech research has flourished due to recent improvements in technology, yet gesture detection/annotation strategies vary widely, leading to difficulty in generaliz...
Article
This paper reports on the concurrent use of electroglottography (EGG) and electromagnetic articulography (EMA) in the acquisition of EMA trajectory data for running speech. Static and dynamic intersensor distances, standard deviations, and coefficients of variation associated with inter-sample distances were compared in two conditions: with and wit...
Article
Full-text available
In contemporary Seoul Korean (SK), phrasal tone patterns are co-active with tone patterns that distinguish tense and lax stops. Utilizing real-time MRI, the current investigation of the SK stops elucidates the articulatory synergies that distinguish tense versus lax and how they function within SK’s Accentual Phrase (AP) prosodic system. The f0 and...
Article
Full-text available
Ejectives and implosives are understood to have laryngeal activity distinct from their pulmonic counterparts. However, while correlations of vertical larynx movement (VLM) with tone and intraoral pressure are known, little articulatory data exists regarding VLM in glottalic consonants. This study examines the degree and timing of VLM in a Hausa spe...
Article
Full-text available
This study uses a maze navigation task in conjunction with a quasi-scripted, prosodically controlled speech task to examine acoustic and articulatory accommodation in pairs of interacting speakers. The experiment uses a dual electromagnetic articulography set-up to collect synchronized acoustic and articulatory kinematic data from two facing speake...
Article
Recent advances in real-time magnetic resonance imaging (RT-MRI) have made it possible to study the anatomy and dynamic motion of the vocal tract during speech production with great detail. The abundance of rich data on speech articulation provided by medical imaging techniques affords new opportunities for speech science, linguistics, clinical and...
Article
Production of lateral consonants in many languages involves separate but coordinated tongue tip and tongue rear actions—raising of the tongue tip and retraction of the tongue body. Given these gestures and the presence of lateral airflow, it has been speculated that horizontal (i.e., side-to-side) narrowing of the tongue may occur during production...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and accompanying analytical methods are shown to capture and quantify salient aspects of apraxic speech, substantiating and expanding upon evidence provided by clinical observation and acoustic and kinematic data. Analysis of apraxic speech errors within a dynamic systems framework is provided an...
Article
Full-text available
Convergence effects have been found in many aspects of communication between speakers in conversation. This study examines how phonetic properties of each speaker’s prosodic structure differ before, during and after participating in a cooperative maze task. Using two NDI electromagnetic articulatory tracking systems simultaneously, we recorded spea...
Presentation
Full-text available
In this work, we provide previously undocumented aspects of the consonant type effect on tones of the contemporary Seoul Korean AP. Our results show that the consonant type effect on F0 targets seems quantitative in AP-internal position, compared to the qualitative effect observed in AP-initial position. In addition, these asymmetric F0 differences...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study examined articulatory composition of the Korean liquid in the phonological contexts that condition its allophony using real-time MRI. During the liquid, tongue tip constriction, tongue body raising and tongue root fronting motions were observed. Inter-vocalic liquids (flap percept) were produced with shorter tongue tip movement duration...
Article
In typical speech words are grouped into prosodic constituents. This study investigates how such grouping interacts with segmental sequencing patterns in the production of repetitive word sequences. We experimentally manipulated grouping behavior using a rhythmic repetition task to elicit speech for perceptual and acoustic analysis to test the hypo...
Article
The human tongue is considered to be a muscular hydrostat (Kier and Smith, 1985). As such, it is considered to be incompressible. This constant volume hypothesis has been incorporated in various mathematical models of the tongue, which attempt to provide insights into its dynamics (e.g., Levine et al., 2005). However, to the best of our knowledge,...
Presentation
Full-text available
Lexical ambiguities arise with ‘open juncture’ sequences such as ice cream/I scream. Prior research on word recognition shows that listeners can use sub-phonemic/allophonic cues (e.g., McMurray, Tanenhaus & Aslin, 2009). However, most prior work on ambiguous open juncture sequences has tested situations with clear prosodic boundary cues. Little is...
Article
USC-TIMIT is an extensive database of multimodal speech production data, developed to complement existing resources available to the speech research community and with the intention of being continuously refined and augmented. The database currently includes real-time magnetic resonance imaging data from five male and five female speakers of Americ...
Article
Full-text available
We address the hypothesis that postures adopted during grammatical pauses in speech production are more "mechanically advantageous" than absolute rest positions for facilitating efficient postural motor control of vocal tract articulators. We quantify vocal tract posture corresponding to inter-speech pauses, absolute rest intervals as well as vowel...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We use real-time magnetic resonance imaging (rtMRI) as a tool to investigate post-glossectomy speech by examining articulatory behavior. Our data reveal that listeners perceive speech produced by postoperative partial-glossectomy patients whose surgical procedure most affected the base of tongue to be typical, while speech produced by patients whos...
Article
This study investigates the coordination of boundary tones as a function of stress and pitch accent. Boundary tone coordination has not been experimentally investigated previously, and the effect of prominence on this coordination, and whether it is lexical (stress-driven) or phrasal (pitch accent-driven) in nature is unclear. We assess these issue...
Article
Although the phenomenon of boundary lengthening is well established, the scope of the effect and its interaction with prominence is not well understood. It is known that phrase-final prominence is a determining factor. However, it is unclear whether it is lexical stress or pitch accent that drives the effect, and whether the affected domain is cont...
Poster
Full-text available
Professional singers are trained to maximize vowel duration and minimize consonant interference, while still maintaining intelligibility. The mechanisms by which they do this, however, are unclear. A deeper understanding of the gestural mechanisms utilized during professional-quality singing could be useful to train singers more effectively. It has...
Article
Full-text available
The perceptual assimilation model (PAM; Best, C. T. [1995]. A direct realist view of cross-language speech perception. In W. Strange (Ed.), Speech perception and linguistic experience: Issues in cross-language research (pp. 171-204). Baltimore, MD: York Press.) accounts for developmental patterns of speech contrast discrimination by proposing that...
Article
Much evidence has been found for pervasive links between the manual and speech motor systems, including evidence from infant development, deictic pointing, and repetitive tapping and speaking tasks. We expand on the last of these paradigms to look at intra- and cross-modal effects of emphatic stress, as well as the effects of coordination in the ab...
Article
We investigate articulatory behavior in post-glossectomy speech using real-time magnetic resonance imaging. Our data reveal that listeners judge speech produced by partial-glossectomy patients as atypical when the surgical procedure affected the oral tongue. Speech produced by patients whose procedure affected the base of tongue, however, was judge...
Article
The tongue varies across speakers in terms of the proportion of the overall speech production apparatus that it occupies. Differences in tongue size have the potential to result in speaker-specific articulatory strategies for shaping the vocal tract area function and, in turn, individual patterns of vowel acoustics. The present study examines the i...
Article
Sound-level errors collected by ear from continuous communicative speech have been interpreted as mis-selections of planning elements, which are then produced fluently without residue of the original target (Lashley 1957, Fromkin 1972, Garrett 1975, Shattuck-Hufnagel 1982). In contrast, articulatory measures of tongue twister errors reveal gestural...
Article
We present a computational model of lenition-based sound change. Speech production targets for constriction degree are modeled by differential equations with a single stable fixed point at the target constriction degree that interact with higher order equations that reflect prosodically conditioned variation. This output is then input to the articu...
Article
We have previously presented a computational approach to derive interpretable movement primitives from speech articulation data using a convolutive Nonnegative Matrix Factorization with sparseness constraints (cNMFsc) technique (Ramanarayanan et al., Interspeech 2011; Ramanarayanan et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134(2), in press). However, it is not c...
Article
Full-text available
We present and evaluate two statistical methods for estimating kinematic relationships of the speech production system: Artificial Neural Networks and Locally-Weighted Regression. The work is motivated by the need to characterize this motor system, with particular focus on estimating differential aspects of kinematics. Kinematic analysis will facil...
Article
This paper presents a computational approach to derive interpretable movement primitives from speech articulation data. It puts forth a convolutive Nonnegative Matrix Factorization algorithm with sparseness constraints (cNMFsc) to decompose a given data matrix into a set of spatiotemporal basis sequences and an activation matrix. The algorithm opti...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents an automatic procedure to analyze articulatory setting in speech production using real-time magnetic resonance imaging of the moving human vocal tract. The procedure extracts frames corresponding to inter-speech pauses, speech-ready intervals and absolute rest intervals from magnetic resonance imaging sequences of read and spont...
Article
This study tests the hypothesis that the acoustic difference between [a] in English diphthongs (e.g., [a] in "pie'd") and its corresponding monophthong (e.g., [a] in "pod") results from the same pharyngeal gesture being truncated by the following palatal glide in the diphthongal environment. Production data were collected with real-time MRI and hav...
Article
Articulatory setting postures adopted during speech production are examined with the goal of determining whether setting postures are more mechanically advantageous than rest positions in facilitating motion of vocal tract articulators toward task goals. Articulatory simulations using the Task Dynamics Application (TADA) suggest that setting postur...
Article
Speech production can be described in multiple coordinate frames: articulatory configurations, gestural tasks, and acoustic patterns. Examination of the achievement of retroflex stops and liquids in Tamil suggests that we must consider separately the gestural task of apical pre-palatal constriction and the articulatory maneuver to achieve the task....
Article
We respond to a commentary by Goldrick & Chu in which they sketch a possible account of our speech error data based on gradient symbol processing and specific assumptions of how planning activations map onto articulatory kinematics. Gradient activation patterns during planning are hypothesised to map directly onto gestural activation duration. Unde...