Louis Duchesne

Louis Duchesne
Government of Quebec · Direction de la recherche forestière - Forest Research Branch

ing.f., M.Sc.

About

114
Publications
19,024
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
2,807
Citations
Citations since 2017
35 Research Items
1439 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300

Publications

Publications (114)
Article
The widespread increase of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in northern hemisphere surface waters have been generally attributed to the recovery from acidic deposition and to climatic variations. The long-term responses of DOC to environmental drivers could be better predicted with a better understanding of the mechanisms taking place at the soil lev...
Article
Sapwood characteristics, such as sapwood area as well as thermal and hydraulic conductivity, are linked to species-specific hydraulic function and resource allocation to water transport tissues (xylem). These characteristics are often unknown and thus a major source of uncertainty in sap flow data processing and transpiration estimates because bulk...
Article
Soil temperature (Tsoil) and soil water (θsoil) are fundamental variables that have an essential role in many processes in forest ecosystems, as well as influencing the tree species distribution and forest composition over time. We tested the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS) capacity to simulate Tsoil and θsoil in the boreal forest using a sixt...
Article
Full-text available
Historical temperature records reveal that the boreal forest has been subjected to a significant lengthening of the thermal growing season since the middle of the last century, and climate models predict that this lengthening will continue in the future. Nevertheless, the potential phenological response of trees to changes in growing season length...
Article
Rising temperatures are likely to increase the risk of drought across the globe over the next century. Boreal forests are particularly vulnerable to drought because temperatures within these biomes are projected to warm the fastest. Warm and dry conditions can reduce tree growth, particularly in regions that are already moisture-limited, which may...
Chapter
Full-text available
Monitoring of forest response to gradual environmental changes or abrupt disturbances provides insights into how forested ecosystems operate and allows for quantification of forest health. In this chapter, we provide an overview of Smartforests Canada, a national-scale research network consisting of regional investigators who support a wealth of ex...
Preprint
Full-text available
Climate change has threatened forests globally, challenging tree species’ ability to track the rapidly changing environment (e..g., drought and temperature rise). Conifer species face strong environmental filters due to climatic seasonality. Investigating how conifers change their hydraulic architecture during xylem development across the season ma...
Article
Full-text available
Tree-ring time series provide long-term, annually resolved information on the growth of trees. When sampled in a systematic context, tree-ring data can be scaled to estimate the forest carbon capture and storage of landscapes, biomes, and-ultimately-the globe. A systematic effort to sample tree rings in national forest inventories would yield unpre...
Article
Transpiration, a key component of the hydrological cycle, contributes greatly to the climate system by transferring large amount of water from soils to the atmosphere. Its correct representation within Land Surface Schemes in climate models is crucial to provide accurate and reliable climate projections. In this study, transpiration simulated by th...
Article
Full-text available
Texture strongly influences the soil’s fundamental functions in forest ecosystems. In response to the growing demand for information on soil properties for environmental modeling, more and more studies have been conducted over the past decade to assess the spatial variability of soil properties on a regional to global scale. These investigations re...
Article
Full-text available
Using residual biomass from forest harvesting to produce energy is viewed increasingly as a means to reduce fossil fuel consumption. However, the impact such practices on soil and future site productivity remains a major concern. We revisited 196 forest plots that were subject to either whole-tree (WTH) or stem-only (SOH) harvesting 30 years ago in...
Article
In land surface models, vegetation is often described using plant functional types (PFTs), a classification that aggregates plant species into a few groups based on similar characteristics. Within-PFT variability of these characteristics can introduce considerable uncertainty in the simulation of water fluxes in forests. Our objectives were to (i)...
Article
Full-text available
Some studies suggest that tapping sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall) trees can cause their growth to decline, particularly on poor and acidic soils. We tested this hypothesis in seven sugar bushes located in the Quebec Appalachians by comparing the growth of tapped trees with nearby untapped trees. The sites represented a range of soil fertility...
Technical Report
Full-text available
En réponse à un mandat confié par le Service des orientations d’aménagement de la Direction de l’aménagement et de l’environnement forestiers du Ministère des Forêts, de la Faune et des Parcs (MFFP), nous avons évalué la sensibilité des arbres aux sécheresses ponctuelles et à la variabilité interannuelle du bilan hydrique climatique à partir de mes...
Article
Reduction in SO4²⁻ and NO3⁻ atmospheric deposition in the past decades has improved surface water quality in several catchments but recent studies suggest an increasing influence of climate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Here, we report on long-term trends in climate variables, strong acid anions and base cations concentrations in precipitatio...
Article
Full-text available
Land vegetation is currently taking up large amounts of atmospheric CO 2 , possibly due to tree growth stimulation. Extant models predict that this growth stimulation will continue to cause a net carbon uptake this century. However, there are indications that increased growth rates may shorten trees′ lifespan and thus recent increases in forest car...
Article
On vegetation-covered land surfaces, tree transpiration, compared to soil and canopy evaporation, is a major process that sends large amounts of water back to the atmosphere. While the driving forces of tree transpiration have been studied over a range of tree species across an array of ecosystems, no work has been done on balsam fir and black spru...
Article
Sugar maple (SM, Acer saccharum Marsh.) sap was collected over one spring period in a base-poor SM stand, 18 years after an experimental liming. We wanted to test whether the healthier limed trees could produce more and sweeter sap in the long term than control (non-limed) trees. Results show that liming increased sap sweetness by up to 20%. No dir...
Article
In their paper recently published in FEM (“Finding the sweet spot: Shifting climate optima for maple syrup production in North America”), Rapp et al. (2019) suggest that there is a marked “sweet spot” for maple syrup production (i.e., a climatic optimum associated with much higher yield) centered around the 43rd parallel. They also project that thi...
Article
Full-text available
Tree rings are thought to be a powerful tool to reconstruct historical growth changes and have been widely used to assess tree responses to global warming. Demographic inferences suggest, however, that typical sampling procedures induce spurious trends in growth reconstructions. Here we use the world’s largest single tree-ring dataset (283,536 tree...
Article
The analysis of sulfate stable isotope ratios (δ¹⁸O-SO4 and δ³⁴S-SO4) in different hydrological compartments of forested catchments has revealed the major role of the humus layer in recycling atmospherically derived sulfur (S). The contribution of the mineral soil to S recycling is still uncertain and may vary among forest types. Here, seasonal var...
Article
1.Interactions between drought and insect defoliation may dramatically alter forest function under novel climate and disturbance regimes, but remain poorly understood. We empirically tested two important hypotheses regarding tree responses to drought and insect defoliation: 1) trees exhibit delayed, persistent, and cumulative growth responses to th...
Article
Full-text available
Predicted increases in temperature and aridity across the boreal forest region have the potential to alter timber supply and carbon sequestration. Given the widely-observed variation in species sensitivity to climate, there is an urgent need to develop species-specific predictive models that can account for local conditions. Here, we matched the gr...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing access to extensively replicated and broadly distributed tree-ring collections has led to a greater use of these large data sets to investigate climate forcing on tree growth. However, the number of chronologies added to large accessible databases is declining and few are updated, while chronologies are often sparsely distributed and are...
Research
Full-text available
Le phénomène du déclin de l’érable à sucre jumelé à celui de la prolifération du hêtre à grandes feuilles dans les érablières soulève de nombreuses questions et inquiète les aménagistes. En réponse à ce besoin de connaissances, la Direction de la recherche forestière du ministère des Forêts, de la Faune et des Parcs du Québec a constitué un comité...
Article
We resampled a research trial 20 years after applying acidifying or liming compounds (−16 to +16 kmol(+) ha⁻¹ of acid-neutralizing capacity [ANC]) in a northern hardwood stand. Although soil properties showed no statistical changes after this period, foliar calcium (Ca) concentrations of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), yellow birch (Betula all...
Article
Because of global warming, the frequency and severity of droughts are expected to increase, which will have an impact on forest ecosystem health worldwide1. Although the impact of drought on tree growth and mortality is being increasingly documented2, 3, 4, very little is known about the impact on nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems. Here, based...
Article
Full-text available
A future for boreal forests Conservation under climate change presents the challenge of predicting where will be suitable for particular organisms and ecological communities in the future. D'Orangeville et al. assess the probable future range for boreal forests in eastern North America, which are expected to be subject to large temperature increase...
Article
Full-text available
Biological carbon sequestration by forest ecosystems plays an important role in the net balance of greenhouse gases, acting as a carbon sink for anthropogenic CO 2 emissions. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about the abiotic environmental factors (including climate) that control carbon storage in temperate and boreal forests and consequent...
Article
Full-text available
Maple syrup production is an important economic activity in north-eastern North-America. The beginning and length of the production season is linked to daily variation in temperature. There are increasing concerns about the potential impact of climatic change on this industry. Here, we used weekly data of syrup yield for the 1999-2011 period from 1...
Data
Description of climate variables used in the construction of statistical models. (DOCX)
Article
Cette étude avait pour objectif d’évaluer l’évolution du statut nutritif des sapinières de la Forêt Montmorency en se basant sur des analyses foliaires faites en 1967, 1988 et en 2011. La composition minérale des aiguilles du sapin baumier ( Abies balsamea ) a grandement fluctué au cours de ces 45 ans. Entre 1967 et 2011, nous avons observé une bai...
Article
The Canadian Drought Code (CDC) is an empirical soil drying model adapted to high-latitude forests and commonly used by Canadian fire managers and researchers to predict the water content of the organic soil layer. A better knowledge of the capacity of the CDC to predict the effect of droughts on the water content of the mineral soil could improve...
Article
La maladie corticale du hêtre (MCH) est de plus en plus fréquente dans les forêts de l’est de l’Amérique du Nord. Des chercheurs ont avancé l’hypothèse que l’expansion de cette maladie pourrait être en partie liée au statut nutritif des arbres. Pour tester cette hypothèse, nous avons vérifié la relation entre l’apparition de cette maladie et la com...
Article
Full-text available
The projected increase in atmospheric N deposition and air/soil temperature will likely affect soil nutrient dynamics in boreal ecosystems. The potential effects of these changes on soil ion fluxes were studied in a mature balsam fir stand (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill) in Québec, Canada, that was subjected to three years of experimentally increased so...
Article
A few studies have reported a recent and rapid decline in NO3 (-) deposition in eastern North America. Whether this trend can be observed at remote boreal sites with low rates of N deposition and how it could impact canopy uptake (CU) of N remain unknown. Here we report trends between 1997/1999 and 2012 for precipitation, throughfall N deposition a...
Article
Full-text available
Sugar maple syrup production is an important economic activity for eastern Canada and the northeastern United States. Since annual variations in syrup yield have been related to climate, there are concerns about the impacts of climatic change on the industry in the upcoming decades. Although the temporal variability of syrup yield has been studied...
Article
Identifying the sources of S exported from catchments and the reactivity of the large soil organic S pool is crucial to understand the mid- or long-term response of forested catchments to decreasing atmospheric S deposition and global warming. Sulfur fluxes as well as S and O isotopes of SO4 were measured in precipitation, throughfall, soil solutio...
Article
Full-text available
Tree growth in most boreal forests is strongly regulated by temperature and nitrogen (N) availability. The expected increases in soil temperature and N deposition over the next decades have the potential to affect the phenology of tree growth and xylogenesis. To test for these changes on xylogenesis of balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill), 12 matu...
Article
The accuracy of suggested soil thresholds for diagnosing calcium (Ca), potassium (K), and phosphorus (P) deficiencies in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) stands was tested and updated when possible. With respect to Ca, the combination of Ca saturation of the mineral B horizon (threshold: ≤28.4%), and the humus Ca/magnesium (Mg) ratio (≤5.322) an...
Article
Full-text available
Nitrogen (N) is a major growth-limiting factor in boreal forest ecosystems. Increases of temperature and atmospheric N deposition are expected to affect forest growth directly and indirectly by increasing N availability due to higher rates of N mineralization. In order to understand the potential impacts of these changes, a mature balsam fir stand...
Technical Report
Full-text available
L’objectif de cette étude est de déterminer la précision des seuils de fertilité des sols existants pour diagnostiquer les carences en calcium (Ca), potassium (K) et phosphore (P) chez l’érable à sucre (Acer saccharum Marsh.) et d’en proposer de nouveaux s’il y a lieu. Les seuils de fertilité ont d’abord été analysés à partir de données provenant d...
Article
In northeastern North America, a growing number of studies report on the regeneration failure of sugar maple (SM, Acer saccharum Marsh.) in some SM-dominated stands coupled with a marked increase in abundance of American beech (AB, Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) in the regeneration stratum, suggesting change in forest composition toward AB dominance. The...
Article
Full-text available
Nitrogen (N) is a major growth-limiting factor in boreal forest ecosystems. Increases of temperature and atmospheric N deposition are expected to affect forest growth directly and indirectly, by increasing N availability due to higher rates of N mineralization. In order to understand the potential impacts of these changes, a mature balsam fir stand...
Article
Along with climate, multiple global or large-scale change agents shape forest ecosystem health. We present a case study where we attempted to elucidate the driving factors causing decline symptoms in white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) in young spruce–fir boreal stands. Tree defoliation rate in the studied areas was related to the foliage dis...
Article
Dolomitic lime (CaMg(CO3)2) was applied in 1994 at rates of 0–50 Mg ha−1 to sugar maples (SMs) (Acer saccharum Marsh.) in a base-poor and declining northern hardwood stand subjected to a high level of acid deposition in Quebec. The soil chemistry and the SM nutrition, growth, crown vigor, and regeneration status were evaluated 15 years after treatm...
Article
Full-text available
Base cations (Ca, Mg, and K) are essential nutrients for forest growth. Many studies have reported important decreases in the soils of several forests in eastern North America, partly because of atmospheric acid deposition and forest harvesting. To quantify the impacts of these perturbations on forest base cations, accurate estimation of tree bioma...
Article
It is important to develop a better understanding of the climatic factors controlling the growth of boreal forests. Dendrometer measurements were used to characterize inter-annual variation in seasonal patterns of stem diameter increment of balsam fir trees (n = 3) over seven growing seasons (2004–2010) in a boreal forest of Québec, Canada. For the...
Article
Full-text available
The impacts of climate change on future soil temperature Ts and soil moisture Ms of northern forests are uncertain. In this study, the authors first calibrated Ts and Ms models [Forest Soil Temperature Model (ForSTeM) and Forest Hydrology Model (ForHyM), respectively] using long-term observations of Ts and Ms at different depths measured at three f...
Article
Composition, structure, and species-specific patterns of recruitment and growth were characterized in two yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.)–conifer stands in Quebec, Canada, to improve our understanding of the dynamics of these complex ecosystems. The mixture of mid- and shade-tolerant species in the canopy, the inverse J-shape stem diame...
Book
Full-text available
Les projets de modélisation de la croissance et du rendement menés par la Direction de la recherche forestière sont essentiels à un aménagement efficace des ressources forestières du Québec. L’identification des facteurs biogéoclimatiques cartographiables qui influencent le potentiel de croissance en diamètre des dix espèces d’arbres les mieux repr...
Article
The concentrations and the isotopic compositions of S, N and C were studied in soils and in the dominant plant species of three forested watersheds (Québec, Canada) located along a latitudinal and atmospheric deposition gradient. Large increases in S, N and C isotope ratios (up to 3.9‰, 10‰, 2.6‰, respectively) were observed with increasing soil de...
Presentation
Within the southeast Canada and northeast USA region, a peak in sulphate (SO42-) concentration has been reported for some streams following periods of substantial catchment drying during the summer months (ON, Canada; VT, NH and NY, USA). However, it is currently unclear if a SO42- response to seasonal drying is widespread across the broader region...
Article
Full-text available
Within the southeast Canada and northeast USA region, a peak in sulphate (SO42−) concentration has been reported for some streams following periods of substantial catchment drying during the summer months (ON, Canada; VT, NH and NY, USA). However, it is currently unclear if a SO42− response to seasonal drying is widespread across the broader region...
Article
In the present context of global climate changes and the continuous development of forest management strategies based on the concept of sustainable use, it is important to develop a better understanding of the climatic factors controlling the growth of boreal forests. In this study, we report the results of a five-year field research within which d...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Most recent simulations of the future climate from the Canadian Regional Climate Model for the eastern boreal forest of Canada suggest an average annual temperature increase of 3°C by 2050 whereas precipitations should increase by 5 to 20%. Such changes are likely to have a major impact on tree growth. Climate, however...
Article
Full-text available
Most of eastern North America receives elevated levels of atmospheric deposition of sulfur (S) that result from anthropogenic SO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Atmospheric S deposition has acidified sensitive terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in this region; however, deposition has been declining since the 1970s, resulting in some recover...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) decline in northeastern North America has been regarded as a major factor structuring hardwood forests by favouring American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) in the understory of maple-dominated stands. To determine whether soil fertility differences associated with sugar maple decline may have promoted...
Article
Full-text available
We respond to the comment by Messier et al. (2011. Can. J. For. Res. 41: 649-653) on our recent paper questioning the possible influence of the base status of soils in the present-day expansion of American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) in Quebec (2009. Can. J. For. Res. 39: 2273-2282). From our observations, as well as from a large body of scient...
Article
Full-text available
The chemistry of precipitation and of the lake's outlet (1988-1994) were measured at the Lake Clair Watershed (226 ha, 46°57'N, 71°40'W, 270-390 m above sea level), which is located 50 km northwest of Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. In wet precipitation, concentrations of SO4, Ca, and Na decreased from 1988 to 1994 whereas pH increased. In bulk precip...