Lorraine McKelvey

Lorraine McKelvey
University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | UAMS · Department of Family and Preventive Medicine

PhD

About

78
Publications
15,299
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1,378
Citations

Publications

Publications (78)
Article
Full-text available
Researchers have documented that Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), particularly in the absence of a nurturing caregiver, can negatively impact cognitive, social-emotional, and physical development. ACEs can be co-occurring, which increases the number of adversities that individuals may experience. Using data from the Early Head Start Research a...
Article
Introduction: COVID-19 has resulted in massive health and economic consequences, with effects felt most acutely by populations that were disadvantaged prior to the pandemic. For families with young children, the effects have been compounded by service interruptions, though there is a lack of empirical evidence that demonstrates how COVID-19 has af...
Article
Full-text available
Empirical evidence suggests young children who have experienced trauma are at risk of developing sleep problems and behavior difficulties, but it is unclear of the specific relation between these behavioral health concerns. The primary purpose of the study is to determine whether sleep problems moderate the relation between traumatic stress and beh...
Article
Background and objectives: The Following Baby Back Home (FBBH) home visiting program supports families of high-risk low birth weight preterm infants after discharge from a hospital NICU. This study compares the health care use, immunization, and infant mortality rate of low birth weight preterm infants enrolled in FBBH with similar infants not in...
Chapter
Summary of infant mental health and evidence based preventive intervention programs
Article
Full-text available
Researchers have documented the ways in which children’s parenting and home environments impact their social, emotional, and cognitive skills. There is scientific consensus that certain adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), particularly in the absence of a nurturing caregiver, decrease the likelihood that children will develop optimally. Many ACEs...
Article
Developing strategies to improve retention in home visiting programs is critical to their success. The purpose of the study is to examine how the content provided during home visits moderates the association between family risks (economic, household functioning, and conflict) and retention in services. Parents (n = 1,322) voluntarily enrolled in He...
Article
Background and objectives: Untreated maternal depression negatively impacts both the mother and her children's health and development. We sought to assess family medicine program directors' (PDs) knowledge and attitudes regarding maternal depression management as well as resident training and clinical experience with this disorder. Methods: Data...
Article
Full-text available
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have long-term health consequences. Young children in the southern part of the United States (US) are at greater risk than children in other parts of the US. This study assessed preschool children ACEs using a family-friendly tool, the Family Map (FMI), and compared children living in rural/urban areas while exa...
Article
Background: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) study articulated the negative effects of childhood trauma on adult weight and health. The purpose of the current study is to examine the associations between ACEs in infancy and toddlerhood and obesity and related health indicators in middle childhood. Methods: We used data collected from a s...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Improving family retention and engagement is crucial to the success of home visiting programs. Little is known about retaining and engaging depressed parents in services. The purpose of the study is to examine how home visit content moderates the association between depression and retention and engagement. Methods The sample (N = 1322) w...
Article
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The article "Keeping Our Eyes on the Prize: Focusing on Parenting Supports Depressed Parents' Involvement in Home Visiting Services", written by Lorraine M. McKelvey, Shalese Fitzgerald, Nicola A. Conners Edge and Leanne Whiteside‑Mansell, was originally published electronically on the publisher's internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 28 May...
Article
This article describes the development, initial implementation, and formative evaluation of Arkansas’s plan to reduce suspensions and expulsion from early care and education (ECE) settings. We describe how Arkansas used multifaceted implementation strategies to facilitate change in six areas: policy, workforce development, specialized supports, fam...
Article
Excessive television (TV) viewing by children can lead to negative health and developmental outcomes. Using structural equation modeling, this study tests a conceptual model to understand social and familial factors associated with TV exposure among a sample of 767 Head Start families with children between the ages of 3 and 5 years. Fit statistics...
Article
Findings from the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) study articulated the negative effects of childhood trauma on long-term well-being. The purpose of the current study is to examine the associations between ACEs experienced in infancy and toddlerhood and adaptive behavior and academic status in middle childhood. We used data collected from a sam...
Article
Introduction: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have lifetime consequences for health and development. This study examined whether there is evidence to support a screening approach that assesses children's current exposures to risks that act as proxies for ACEs, measured in a way that falls below a threshold of explicit abuse, neglect, or illeg...
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Empirical evidence suggests maternal behavioral health problems are significant predictors of child behavioral health difficulties, but it is unclear of the specific relation of maternal alcohol use problems and depression symptoms with child internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. The purpose of the study is to examine the impact of mat...
Article
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have lifetime consequences for health and development. Identification of ACEs early in childhood provides the potential to intervene before health and development are impaired. This study examined the timing and duration of exposure to ACEs experienced by children from low-income families from ages one to three...
Article
This study applies noninferiority testing to assess the relationship between child weight and food security status in a sample of 808 children between 3 and 5 years old who were attending an urban, state-funded preschool program. Most families were African American (72.3%). Analyses were conducted using noninferiority testing to evaluate the overwe...
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This paper describes the development, implementation and preliminary evaluation of the Reaching Educators and Children (REACH) program, a training and coaching intervention designed to increase the capacity of early childhood teachers to support children’s social and emotional development. We evaluated REACH with 139 teachers of toddler and prescho...
Poster
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Poster explores automation options for reconstructing and validating information from minimal entry enrollment records and field surveys.
Article
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Objectives: Examine the association between mothers' low- and high-level depressive symptoms in early childhood and children's behavior problems in middle childhood. Methods: We used data from 1844 families in a multi-site, longitudinal study beginning when children were 14 months and continuing to age 11 years. Children's internalizing and exte...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and usefulness of a universal screening tool, the Family Map Inventory (F MI), to assess family strengths and needs in a home visiting program. The FMI has been used successfully by center-based early childcare programs to tailor services to family need and build on existing strengths. Home v...
Article
The general aim of early intervention and home visiting programs is to support families to minimize Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs). However, assessing children's exposure to these risks is complicated because parents serve as the conduit for both measurement and intervention. The primary aims of the study were to develop an assessment of chil...
Article
Full-text available
Our objective was to examine how mothers' warmth can protect children from the negative effects of maternal alcohol problems on children's externalizing behavior and, alternately, how harsh parenting can exacerbate the problem. We used data from 1,563 families eligible for Early Head Start and assessed when children were age 5 and again at age 11....
Article
Infant Mental Health based interventions aim to promote the healthy development of infants and toddlers through promoting healthy family functioning to foster supportive relationships between the young child and his or her important caregivers. This study examined impacts of an Infant Mental Health home-based Early Head Start (IMH-HB EHS) program o...
Article
Full-text available
Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between low-level depressive symptoms in mothers and teacher-reported child behavioral outcomes. Participants included 442 low-income mothers of preschool-age children who were screened for maternal depression by their child's preschool teacher. Teacher reports of child be...
Article
Objective The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between low-level depressive symptoms in mothers and their support for child cognitive development. Methods Participants included 913 low-income mothers of preschool-age children who were screened for maternal depression and interviewed about support for learning in the child's...
Article
This study examined the moderating effects of family cohesion on the relationship between community violence and child internalizing and externalizing problems at age 18. The study sample consisted of 728 children and families who were part of the Infant Health and Development Program, an intervention study for low-birthweight, preterm infants. Six...
Article
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While maternal substance use problems increase the likelihood of behavior problems in children, child outcomes are varied, leading to interest in understanding additional family factors that contribute to the development of behavior problems in children impacted by maternal substance abuse. The purpose of this study is to examine harsh parenting an...
Article
Background We examined child and family factors associated with teacher-reported behavior problems in 79 children of substance abusers (COSAs). Method Using regression models, we examined the impact of four family risk factors, cumulatively and individually, on children's behavior and explored children's engagement of adults as a protective factor....
Article
The use of trauma-informed practices in the child welfare system is critically important to prevent system-induced trauma and encourage timely assessment, triage and referral for care when indicated. Ultimately, such measures have the potential over time to decrease the risk for mental health problems in children exposed to a trauma. This study eva...
Article
The goal of the current study was to examine the impact of the frequency of two types of early childhood mental health consultation (ECMHC) activities (time spent in the class and time spent meeting with teachers) on teacher–child interactions, use of positive classroom-management techniques, and the intent to quit the childcare profession. We addr...
Article
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Maternal supportiveness and children's emotion regulation are considered crucial for the development of school readiness, and enhancing both is particularly important for children from low-income families who are at higher risk for reduced school readiness. This study uses latent growth curve analysis to examine longitudinal connections between mat...
Article
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Objectives: Our objective was to examine the relationship between low- and high-level depressive symptoms in mothers' and children's risks in the areas of home and car safety, monitoring, and exposure to violence. Methods: Participants included 978 mothers of preschool-age children who were interviewed about their home environment and screened f...
Article
Children of alcoholics are at risk for a wide range of negative social–emotional outcomes, including externalizing behaviors. These negative outcomes are evident as early as infancy and early childhood. The current study examined whether fathers' supportiveness can protect children from the negative effects of maternal alcohol problems on children'...
Article
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Food insecurity impacts children in over 10 % of US homes with negative effects for health, cognitive, and behavioral development. Experiences of food insecurity in childhood also carry negative consequences across the lifespan. Families cannot be connected with needed services when needs are unidentified. However, early detection is essential if t...
Article
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We examined the impact of a home visiting intervention on 227 adolescent mothers' parenting attitudes. At enrollment, half of mothers were at risk for child maltreatment. Mothers assigned to intervention (n = 161) received home visits and case management. Intervention and comparison mothers (n = 66) participated in monthly peer group meetings. Regr...
Article
The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of early childhood mental health consultation (ECMHC) on teacher-level and child-level outcomes in the context of a partnership between community mental health centers in three regions of Arkansas and publically funded early education programs (14 intervention sites and 4 comparison sites). Fr...
Research
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The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of early childhood mental health consultation on teacher-level and child-level outcomes in the context of a partnership between community mental health centers in three regions of Arkansas and publically funded early education programs (13 intervention sites and 4 comparison sites).
Article
The current study was designed to investigate how the quality of stimulation and support available to children in the home interacts with participation in Early Head Start to determine children's development. Data were obtained as part of the national evaluation of Early Head Start (EHSRE), a randomized trial involving 3,001 children and families f...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the moderating effects of family conflict and gender on the relationship between community violence and psychosocial development at age 18. The study sample consisted of 728 children and families who were part of the Infant Health and Development Program study of low-birth-weight, pre-term infants. In this sample, adolescent psy...
Article
Fathers play an important role in child development, particularly with respect to children's academic skills. Yet relatively little is known about the nature of fathers' teaching interactions with their young children that would produce such effects. The purpose of the current study was to understand the contribution that fathers' teaching interact...
Article
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Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between preschool children's social outcomes in the classroom (including hyperactivity, aggression, and social skills) and their media viewing habits (including the amount of television they watch and whether they watch videos/movies that are rated as inappropriate for you...
Article
This article reviews the findings from our assessments of children and their families in two Head Start programs using the Family Map. Specifically, we used the Family Map assessment tool to identify risks to children associated with alcohol and drug use in families with young children. Practical suggestions are offered to administrators about the...
Article
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This study examines the usefulness of a screening process implemented in the context of a Head Start home visit and compares families who screened positive for substance abuse with those who did not on an array of child and family indicators important for healthy child development. The sample included 1,105 low-income families with preschool-age ch...
Article
Much is known about how to provide safe environments for preschool children (3–5years-of-age); however, many preschool children still experience preventable injuries—particularly children living in poverty. This study examined the use of an assessment tool used to identify children at risk for unintended injury in two large, federally funded Head S...
Article
Research Findings: Family conflict is known to be associated with poor development for young children, but many children appear resilient. This study examined the extent to which high-quality center care during early childhood protects children from these negative consequences. Children participating in center-based sites of the Early Head Start (E...
Article
Family conflict is known to have detrimental impacts on the social development of young children. An important issue in counseling parents and the development of intervention for children is the extent to which other family environmental conditions are the path through which conflict impacts children's development. This study examined two maternal...
Article
This study examines the degree to which support from parents and teachers buffers the level of depression for four groups of children involved in bullying (victim, bully, bully-victims, or not involved children). Nine hundred and seventy-seven 5th-, 9th-, and 11th-grade students in the rural South completed questionnaires on bullying, social suppor...
Chapter
Infant mental health refers to all of the factors that affect the infant’s social and emotional development, with particular emphasis on self–other relationships, self-regulation, and social competence. Many very young children are reared in less than optimal home and neighborhood environments. Risk models focusing on intervention (for existing con...
Article
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This study used confirmatory factor analysis to examine the structure and factor loadings of an authoritarian parenting scale. The study used data from 315 married couples who had toddlers participating in the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project located in 14 communities across the United States. The sample was diverse and consisted la...
Article
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We examined the impact of parenting behaviors on preschool children’s social development in low-income families from three cultural groups: European American (n=286), African American (n=399), and Hispanic American (n=164) using Spanish as the primary language in the home. Observed parenting behaviors of stimulation, responsivity, and acceptance of...
Article
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We examined the psychometric properties of two scales of the parenting stress index-short form (PSI-SF) in a low-income sample of fathers of toddlers. The factor structure, reliability, and validity of the parental distress and parent–child dysfunctional interaction subscales were assessed for 696 fathers in a multi-site study of Early Head Start....
Article
The Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project, a random-assignment evaluation, found a broad pattern of positive impacts for children and families. However, there were no program impacts on depression or use of mental health services by the time children reached age 3, at the end of the Early Head Start (EHS) program. This paper presents rec...
Article
Full-text available
Objective. This study examines psychometric properties of 2 scales of the Parenting Stress Index—Short Form (PSI—SF) in a sample of preschool children from low-income families. Design. The factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Parental Distress and Parent—Child Dysfunctional Interaction subscales were assessed for 1122 Early Head Start...
Article
Beverage intake and diet quality of toddlers from families with limited incomes were described and compared to their mother's beverage intake. At both 2 and 3 years of age, the children's average milk intake was adequate, the juice intake was twice that recommended, and the intake of sweetened beverages was high. Mothers who consumed more than 12 f...
Article
Objective. We examined the relation between neighborhood violence and father antisocial behavior with a national sample of fathers from low-income families with 3-year-old children Design. Children were classified into 4 groups based on their exposure to father antisocial behavior and neighborhood violence. Results. Children who experience high lev...
Article
To describe interaction patterns of low-income mothers and infants and to compare the study sample to a larger, diverse sample from a national database. Data from 156 mothers with infants under 12 months of age were identified from the first wave of a longitudinal evaluation of an early childhood intervention program. Trained data collectors using...
Article
Stress, whether in the form of daily hassles, chronic life stressors, or stressful life events, has consistently been shown to impact the quality of the parent–child relationship. Coping has been defined as any strategy meant to manage stressful situations or events. To the extent that daily hassles and life events evoke strategies for coping with...
Article
: Continuous quality improvement efforts are vital to high-quality services to infants, toddlers, and their families. This article describes an ongoing quality improvement project within an infant mental health-based Early Head Start program. Both strategies and challenges in implementation issues and lessons learned in the initial 2-year phase of...
Article
Twenty-nine low-income parents and their infants participated in an explanatory study about parent-infant interaction - describing the level of interaction and the similarities and differences in mother-infant and father infant pairs. The Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale, a 73-item standardized observation instrument, was used to measure int...
Article
Résumé Vingt-neuf parents à faible revenu et leurs nourrissons ont participé à une recherche exploratoire portant sur les interactions parent-nourrisson et décrivant le niveau d'interactions, les similarités et les différences au sein des dyades mère-nourrisson et père-nourrisson. L'échelle de mesure Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale, un inst...