Lorenzo Prendini

Lorenzo Prendini
American Museum of Natural History · Division of Invertebrate Zoology

Doctor of Philosophy

About

202
Publications
195,239
Reads
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5,052
Citations
Additional affiliations
March 2002 - present
American Museum of Natural History
Position
  • Curator: Arachnida and Myriapoda

Publications

Publications (202)
Article
Ricinulei Thorell, 1876 is an order of Arachnida currently represented in the New and Old Worlds by 103 living species. The order is also represented in the fossil record from the Carboniferous (ca. 305–319 Ma) and the Cretaceous (ca. 99 Ma) periods. In the present contribution, Hirsutisoma grimaldii sp. nov., a new extinct species of the suborder...
Article
Whip spiders (Amblypygi Thorell, 1883) are easily distinguished from their spider relatives (Araneae Clerck, 1757) by their raptorial pedipalps, the second pair of appendages, which are covered in spines and used to grasp and impale prey. Among other characters, the number, distribution, and size differences among the pedipalp spines continue to be...
Article
Like other arthropods, whip spiders of the arachnid order Amblypygi Thorell, 1883 protect themselves against external environmental influences. In addition to the epicuticle, the outermost layer of the exoskeleton, an additional cement layer, i.e., the cerotegument, is deposited as superhydrophic globules over certain body parts in this taxon. Due...
Article
Whereas morphology remains a powerful tool for the diagnosis and description of short-tailed whip scorpions, or schizomids (Order Schizomida Petrunkevitch, 1945), especially when adults of both sexes are available, the systematics of some schizomid taxa is difficult to resolve due to a lack of characters in these morphologically conserved arachnids...
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For several decades, Troglotayosicus Loureno, 1981, remained an enigmatic, monotypic scorpion genus believed to be troglobitic. The discovery and description in recent years of several endogean species of the genus, inhabiting the leaf litter of tropical rainforests in Colombia and Ecuador, advanced knowledge about these scorpions. The known distri...
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The first integrative systematic revision of the relictual Asian scorpion family Pseudochactidae Gromov, 1998, making use of an unprecedented collection of material acquired during several expeditions to most of the type localities, is presented. The subfamilies, genera and species of Pseudochactidae are revised based on a phylogenetic analysis of...
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The whip spider family Charinidae Quintero, 1986 is the most speciose and widely distributed in the arachnid order Amblypygi Thorell, 1883. It comprises three genera and 95 species distributed across all tropical continents and the eastern Mediterranean. Despite recent advances in the taxonomy of the family, a global revision of all its species, ne...
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The whip spider family Charinidae Quintero, 1986 is the most speciose and widely distributed in the arachnid order Amblypygi Thorell, 1883. It comprises three genera and 95 species distributed across all tropical continents and the eastern Mediterranean. Despite recent advances in the taxonomy of the family, a global revision of all its species, ne...
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Fragmented and degraded DNA is pervasive among museum specimens, hindering molecular phylogenetics and species identification. Mini-barcodes, 200–300-base-pair (bp) fragments of barcoding genes, have proven effective for species-level identification of specimens from which complete barcodes cannot be obtained in many groups, but have yet to be test...
Article
The present contribution addresses the phylogeny and biogeography of the pantropical whip spider family Charinidae Quintero, 1986, the most species-rich in the arachnid order Amblypygi Thorell, 1883, based on morphology and multilocus DNA sequences, analysed simultaneously using parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. The morphologica...
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The Ricinulei Thorell, 1876, or “hooded tick-spiders,” are among the least studied arachnid orders. Knowledge of ricinuleid diversity has been slow to accumulate because these arachnids are underrepresented in biological collections. Despite an increase in the pace of new species descriptions in recent decades, the species richness of the order pro...
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The 'tooth-tailed' scorpions of the buthid genus Odontobuthus comprises six species with an allopatric or parapatric pattern of distribution in the Middle East, but the diversity of Odontobuthus in Iran appears to be underestimated, with the limits of several species remaining unclear. In the present contribution, an integrative approach to the sys...
Article
The ‘tooth-tailed’ scorpions of the buthid genus Odontobuthus comprises six species with an allopatric or parapatric pattern of distribution in the Middle East, but the diversity of Odontobuthus in Iran appears to be underestimated, with the limits of several species remaining unclear. In the present contribution, an integrative approach to the sys...
Article
Sand scorpions of the genus Buthacus Birula, 1908 (Buthidae C.L. Koch, 1837) are widespread in the sandy deserts of the Palearctic region, occurring from the Atlantic coast of West Africa across the Sahara, and throughout the Middle East to Central Asia. The limits of Buthacus, its two species groups, and many of its species remain unclear, and in...
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The pharmacological utility of various biochemical compounds in scorpion venom offers promise in several research fields but its potential economic value has placed pressure on scorpion populations already threatened by habitat destruction and over harvesting for the international trade in exotic pets. Since at least 2016, several countries in Afri...
Article
The tropics contain many of the most biodiverse regions on Earth but the processes responsible for generating this diversity remain poorly understood. This study investigated the drivers of diversification in arthropods with stenotopic ecological requirements and limited dispersal capability using as model the monotypic whip spider (Amblypygi) genu...
Article
Pedipalpi Latreille, 1810 is a poorly studied clade of arachnids comprising the whip spiders (Amblypygi Thorell, 1883), short‐tailed whip scorpions (Schizomida Petrunkevitch, 1945) and whip scorpions (Thelyphonida Cambridge, 1872). It has recently been shown that whip spiders coat their exoskeleton with a solid cement layer (cerotegument) that form...
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A list of the 2,196 arachnid taxa (Araneae: 2181, Ricinulei: 13) described by the late Norman I. Platnick, is presented: two families (in synonymy); 159 genera (2 homonyms, 1 synonym), 2,035 species (6 synonyms).
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A list of 58 patronyms honoring the late Norman I. Platnick at the time of publication, is presented: six genera of spiders (Araneae Clerck, 1757), NormplatnickaRix and Harvey, 2010, PlatnickiaJocqué, 1991, Platnickina Koçak and Kemal, 2008, PlatnickniaÖzdikmen and Demir, 2009 (= ModisimusSimon, 1893), PlatnickopodaJäger, 2020, and PlatnickMarusik...
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A biography of the eminent arachnologist and systematic biologist, Norman I. Platnick, Curator Emeritus at the American Museum of Natural History, New York, is presented.
Article
Asian forest scorpions (Scorpionidae Latreille, 1802: Heterometrinae Simon, 1879) are distributed across South and Southeast Asia. All are fossorial, constructing burrows under stones or in open ground, in habitats differing in precipitation and vegetation cover, from rainforests and tropical deciduous forests to savanna and scrubland. The systemat...
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The ‘Out of India’ hypothesis is often invoked to explain patterns of distribution among Southeast Asian taxa. According to this hypothesis, Southeast Asian taxa originated in Gondwana, diverged from their Gondwanan relatives when the Indian subcontinent rifted from Gondwana in the Late Jurassic, and colonized Southeast Asia when it collided with E...
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The whip spider (Amblypygi) genus Paraphrynus Moreno, 1940 is distributed from the southern U.S.A. to the Greater Antilles and northern South America. Mexico is the diversity hotspot of the genus where many morphologically similar species occur, often in close geographical proximity. The present contribution aimed to resolve the diversity and phylo...
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Three new species of the short-tailed whipscorpion genus Surazomus Reddell & Cokendolpher (Hubbardiidae Cook, 1899) are described from Mexico: Surazomus chiapasensis sp.n., from Chiapas, Surazomus escondido sp.n., and Surazomus peregrinus sp.n., both from Oaxaca. Surazomus was previously known primarily from South America, its northernmost record r...
Article
Until recently, the Nearctic short-tailed whipscorpion genus, StenochrusChamberlin, 1922, included 27 species distributed primarily in Mexico, the USA and Central America. Morphological disparity among its species, associated with their adaptation to diverse habitats, raised the question as to whether Stenochrus was monophyletic. The phylogenetic r...
Article
Full-text available
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Article
The present contribution addresses the phylogeny and biogeography of the pantropical whip spider family Charinidae Quintero, 1986, the most species-rich in the arachnid order Amblypygi Thorell, 1883, based on morphology and multilocus DNA sequences, analysed simultaneously using parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. The morphologica...
Article
Full-text available
The new genus and species Myrmecicultor chihuahuensis Ramírez, Grismado, and Ubick is described and proposed as the type of the new family, Myrmecicultoridae Ramírez, Grismado, and Ubick. The species is ecribellate, with entelegyne genitalia, two tarsal claws, without claw tufts, and the males have a retrolateral palpal tibial apophysis. Some morph...
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Scorpions are an excellent system for understanding biogeographical patterns. Most major scorpion lineages predate modern landforms, making them suitable for testing hypotheses of vicariance and dispersal. The Caribbean islands are endowed with a rich and largely endemic scorpion fauna, the origins of which have not been previously investigated wit...
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The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) commits its 196 nation parties to conserve biological diversity, use its components sustainably, and share fairly and equitably the benefits from the utilization of genetic resources. The last of these objectives was further codified in the Convention's Nagoya Protocol (NP), which came into effect in 201...
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The North American vinegaroon, Mastigoproctus giganteus (Lucas, 1835), is demonstrated to comprise a complex of range-restricted species rather than a single widespread polymorphic species. Seven species are recognized based on morphological characters of the adult males, including the arrangement of spines on the prodorsal margin of the pedipalp t...
Article
The modestly diverse order Amblypygi Thorell, 1883 includes five families, of which Charinidae Quintero, 1986 is the most diverse and with the widest geographical distribution. The family currently comprises three genera, Catageus Thorell, 1889, Charinus Simon, 1892 and Sarax Simon, 1892, the first known by one species from a single locality in Mya...
Article
All New World buthid scorpions except one South American genus, Ananteris Thorell, 1891, comprise a monophyletic group. The monophyly of two subfamilies, Centruroidinae Kraus, 1955 (= Rhopalurusinae Bücherl, 1971) and Tityinae Bücherl, 1971, proposed to accommodate a subset of these genera, has never been tested. The genera accommodated within Cent...
Article
The cuticle of scorpions (Chelicerata: Arachnida) fluoresces under long-wave ultraviolet (UV) light due to the presence of beta-carboline and 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin in the hyaline layer of the exocuticle. The adaptive significance of cuticular UV fluorescence in scorpions is debated. Although several other chelicerate orders (e.g. Opiliones and...
Article
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The Neotropical "club-tailed" scorpions of the genus Rhopalurus Thorell, 1876, and two related genera in family Buthidae C.L. Koch, 1837, i.e., Physoctonus Mello-Leitão, 1934, and Troglorhopalurus Lourenço et al., 2004, are revised, based on a simultaneous phylogenetic analysis of 90 morphological characters and 4260 aligned DNA nucleotides from th...
Article
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This original form of this rebuttal was submitted to Science on 3 March 2017 (limited to 300 words as per Science editorial policy) but rejected on 13 March 2017. Herein, we elaborate on our original Science submission in order to more fully address the issue without the length limitations. This rebuttal is followed by the list of the signatories w...
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We present a phylogenetic analysis of spiders using a dataset of 932 spider species, representing 115 families (only the family Synaphridae is unrepresented), 700 known genera, and additional representatives of 26 unidentified or undescribed genera. Eleven genera of the orders Amblypygi, Palpigradi, Schizomida and Uropygi are included as outgroups....
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The question whether taxonomic descriptions naming new animal species without type specimen(s) deposited in collections should be accepted for publication by scientific journals and allowed by the Code has already been discussed in Zootaxa (Dubois & Nemésio 2007; Donegan 2008, 2009; Nemésio 2009a–b; Dubois 2009; Gentile & Snell 2009; Minelli 2009;...
Data
This plot is not part of the published stance but derives from it. The plot shows the number of authors by geographic region (courtesy of Dr. Diego Astua).
Article
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The scorpion fauna of East Africa, encompassing Burundi, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, and Uganda, is more diverse than those of West and Central Africa, but a systematic survey has never been conducted and the distributions of its species remain poorly understood. A recent opportunity to examine two extensive collections of East African, and predominan...
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Recently a new species of bombyliid fly, Marleyimyia xylocopae, was described by Marshall & Evenhuis (2015) based on two photographs taken during fieldwork in the Republic of South Africa. This species has no preserved holotype. The paper generated some buzz, especially among dipterists, because in most cases photographs taken in the field provide...
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Four distinct genera, forming two monophyletic groups, are basal in the phylogeny of the North American vaejovid scorpion subfamily Syntropinae Kraepelin, 1905: Konetontli González-Santillán and Prendini, 2013; Maaykuyak González-Santillán and Prendini, 2013; Syntropis Kraepelin, 1900; and Vizcaino González-Santillán and Prendini, 2013. All except...
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Many animals reside in burrows that may serve as refuges from predators and adverse environmental conditions. Burrow design varies widely among and within taxa, and these structures are adaptive, fulfilling physiological (and other) functions. We examined the burrow architecture of three scorpion species of the family Scorpionidae: Scorpio palmatus...
Article
Aim: One of the planet's most imposing geomorphological features, the Andes, played an important role in the evolution of South America's flora and fauna. The bothriurid scorpion genus Brachistosternus Pocock, 1893 comprises more than 40 species with high diversity and endemism in the Andes. The present contribution investigates the biogeographical...
Conference Paper
The cuticle of scorpions (Chelicerata: Arachnida) fluoresces under ultraviolet light due to the presence of the hyaline layer in the exocuticle. The adaptive significance of this phenomenon has been debated; however, no attempt has been made to document the occurrence of fluorescence among other chelicerates. A systematic study of modern chelicerat...
Article
The scorpion fauna of tropical central Africa is poorly known and may be more diverse than generally recognized. The present contribution describes three morphologically similar, and probably monophyletic species of Uroplectes Peters, 1861, which have gone undetected, despite being distributed across a large area, extending from the Democratic Repu...
Article
The first rigorous analysis of the phylogeny of the North American vaejovid scorpion subfamily Syntropinae is presented. The analysis is based on 250 morphological characters and 4221 aligned DNA nucleotides from three mitochondrial and two nuclear gene markers, for 145 terminal taxa, representing 47 species in 11 ingroup genera, and 15 species in...
Article
The scorpion fauna o f southern Africa is very diverse, especially in the arid western half of the subcontinent. New species continue to be discovered as the region is surveyed with ultraviolet light detection methods. The present contribution describes Uroplectes ansiedippenaarae sp. n., which is endemic to the Succulent Karoo Biome in the Norther...