Loren Pickart

Loren Pickart
Skin Biology Inc.

PhD

About

111
Publications
26,605
Reads
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2,210
Citations
Citations since 2016
7 Research Items
617 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120
Introduction
Developing products, patents, and analyzing GHK's effects on human gene expression of 4,192 genes. In addition to GHK's published potential uses on skin inflammation, metastatic cancer and COPD, it appears to have beneficial effects on other tissue systems such as the nervous system, gastrointestinal system, and mitochondrial system.
Additional affiliations
June 1993 - present
Summit Associates Inc., Bellevue, WA
Position
  • Owner
Description
  • Developing products, patents, and analyzing GHK's effects on human gene expression of 4,192 genes. In addition to GHK's potential uses on skin inflammation, metastatic colon cancer and COPD, it appears to have beneficial effects on other tissue systems.
January 1985 - January 1991
Procyte Corporation
Position
  • Chairman and Founder
Description
  • Founded company and raised funds for stock listing on NASDAQ. Directed patenting and product development work.
December 1979 - December 1984
Virginia Mason Medical Center
Position
  • Associate Member
Description
  • Initial discovery that GHK-copper stimulates wound healing.
Education
September 1969 - June 1973
University of California, San Francisco
Field of study
  • Biochemistry
June 1960 - June 1962
University of Minnesota Twin Cities
Field of study
  • Chemistry and Mathematics
August 1956 - June 1959
US Army
Field of study
  • Electronic Navigation Equipment - DECCA predecessor of GPS

Publications

Publications (111)
Article
Full-text available
Neurodegeneration, the progressive death of neurons, loss of brain function, and cognitive decline is an increasing problem for senior populations. Its causes are poorly understood and therapies are largely ineffective. Neurons, with high energy and oxygen requirements, are especially vulnerable to detrimental factors, including age-related dysregu...
Article
Full-text available
The human copper-binding peptide GHK-Cu is a naturally occurring small plasma tripeptide (glycyl-l-histidyl-l-lysine) with a high affinity for copper (2+). GHK-Cu has multiple biological effects. It is known to stimulate regeneration of skin, nervous tissue, bones, lungs and liver, protect liver from oxidative damage, restore activity of irradiated...
Article
Full-text available
The human peptide GHK (glycyl-l-histidyl-l-lysine) has multiple biological actions, all of which, according to our current knowledge, appear to be health positive. It stimulates blood vessel and nerve outgrowth, increases collagen, elastin, and glycosaminoglycan synthesis, as well as supports the function of dermal fibroblasts. GHK’s ability to imp...
Article
Full-text available
Topical remedies capable of protecting skin from damage and supporting its regeneration can improve skin’s health as well as its appearance. Small copper peptides have an excellent safety record and are widely used in cosmetic products. The most studied copper peptide is GHK-Cu (glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine), a small copper-binding peptide, naturally...
Chapter
The copper-binding tripeptide GHK (glycyl-l-histidyl-l-lysine) is a naturally occurring plasma peptide widely used in skin care products. It is especially popular in antiaging cosmetic formulations due to its various and well-established positive biological effects on aging skin. It has been established that GHK-Cu improves wound healing and tissue...
Patent
Methods are provided for administering compositions for topical dermatological treatment and resolution of skin cancer lesions in humans and domestic animals, including especially light skinned individuals of equine, bovine, porcine, canine and other species susceptible to developing skin cancer. The compositions used to treat and resolve the skin...
Article
Full-text available
The copper binding tripeptide GHK (glycyl-l-histidyl-l-lysine) is a naturally occurring plasma peptide that significantly declines during human aging. It has been established that GHK:Copper(2+) improves wound healing and tissue regeneration and stimulates collagen and decorin production. GHK-Cu also supports angiogenesis and nerve outgrowth, impro...
Article
Full-text available
GHK (glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine) is present in human plasma, saliva, and urine but declines with age. It is proposed that GHK functions as a complex with copper 2+ which accelerates wound healing and skin repair. GHK stimulates both synthesis and breakdown of collagen and glycosaminoglycans and modulates the activity of both metalloproteinases and...
Book
This book is available from Amazon.com as a book or as an electronic book. The book covers practical uses of copper peptides for skin renewal and hair care. 268 pages.
Chapter
The copper-binding tripeptide GHK (glycyl-l-histidyl-l-lysine) is a naturally occurring plasma peptide widely used in skin care products. It is especially popular in antiaging cosmetic formulations due to its various and well-established positive biological effects on aging skin. It has been established that GHK-Cu improves wound healing and tissue...
Article
Full-text available
During human aging there is an increase in the activity of inflammatory, cancer promoting, and tissue destructive genes plus a decrease in the activity of regenerative and reparative genes. The human blood tripeptide GHK possesses many positive effects but declines with age. It improves wound healing and tissue regeneration (skin, hair follicles, s...
Article
Full-text available
GHK (glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine) is a human plasma copper-binding peptide that declines during aging. Numerous studies have established many biological actions of GHK: it improves tissue regeneration, possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, increases cellular stemness; increases decorin, angiogenesis, and nerve outgrowth. In recent stu...
Article
Journal of Aging Research & Clinical Practice 11/2012; Volume 1(Number 1):13-16. ABSTRACT: The human copper binding peptide GFll< has been extensively studied as a wound-healing agent and widely used in anti-aging cosmetic compositions. Recent studies demonstrated this substance has a broad range of anti-aging activity. GHK is normally used as its...
Patent
US Patent 8,183,204 Skin remodeling is stimulated at the site of blemished skin using an ionic metal-peptide complex to diminish or remove the skin imperfection. The blemish can be a scar, especially surgical or wound scars, acne scars, keloid scars, and the like, or a skin tag, callus, benign skin mole, stretch marks, facial keratosis, thickened s...
Article
Full-text available
Oxidative stress, disrupted copper homeostasis, and neuroinflammation due to overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines are considered leading causative factors in development of age-associated neurodegenerative conditions. Recently, a new mechanism of aging-detrimental epigenetic modifications-has emerged. Thus, compounds that possess antioxidant...
Article
Understanding of skin remodeling copper peptides as of 2010
Chapter
Human aging is marked by increased inflammation, a decline in tissue repair, and a deterioration of organ function. Externally, this diminution leads to wrinkles, photodamage, looser skin, bone loss, and other signs of aging. Growing old is also accompanied by a lessened resistance to infections. The human peptide GHK (glycyl-l-histidyl-l-lysine),...
Article
Tissue remodeling follows the initial phase of wound healing and stops inflammatory and scar-forming processes, then restores the normal tissue morphology. The human peptide Gly-(L-His)-(L-Lys) or GHK, has a copper 2+ (Cu(2+)) affinity similar to the copper transport site on albumin and forms GHK-Cu, a complex with Cu(2+). These two molecules activ...
Patent
Fingernail and toenail growth and repair are stimulated using an ionic metal-peptide complex. This also improves nail smoothness, strength and esthetic beauty. The peptide-ionic metal complex is comprised of an ionic metal selected from copper (II) or tin (II) and salts thereof, and the peptide component can be a acid, base, enzymatic, bacteria, or...
Article
Cosmetics & Medicine (Russia), 2005, pages 24-33
Article
From Larry Rhein, the column editor: During the past 15 years, the role of growth factors – both in skin disease (e.g., wound healing and psoriasis) and in the development of skin care products – has continued to evolve at lightening speed. Factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor beta (TFG-beta), kerat...
Patent
Methods are provided for preparing compositions suitable for protecting irritated or damaged skin from further oxidative and biochemical damage and thus permitting natural healing processes to progress, for accelerating the rate of healing of burns and surgical wounds, for stimulating melanogenesis, and for increasing the size of hair follicles and...
Patent
Methods are provided for preparing compositions suitable for protecting irritated or damaged skin from further oxidative and biochemical damage and thus permitting natural healing processes to progress, for accelerating the rate of healing of burns and surgical wounds, and for increasing the size of hair follicles and the rate of hair growth. The c...
Patent
A method of enhancing the wound-healing process in animals utilizing glycyl-1-histidyl-1-lysine: copper(II) (GHL-Cu) is disclosed. GHL-Cu functions as a superoxide dismutase which detoxifies tissue-damaging oxygen radicals, but does not evoke an antigenic response. A method of treating inflammatory conditions in animals and a method of reducing the...
Patent
Compositions of peptones and ionic metals stimulate melanogenic activity in the skin while simultaneously protecting the skin from damage due to ultraviolet light. The compositions are useful in skin tanning and increasing pigmentation, and in healing skin damaged from exposure to ultraviolet light.
Patent
Methods are provided for preparing compositions suitable for protecting irritated or damaged skin from further oxidative and biochemical damage and thus permitting natural healing processes to progress, for accelerating the rate of healing of burns and surgical wounds, and for increasing the size of hair follicles and the rate of hair growth. The c...
Patent
There is provided metal-peptide compositions for use as stimulating agents for hair growth in warm-blooded animals. Methods for stimulating the growth of hair in warm-blooded animals are also disclosed. The methods utilize a stimulating effective amount of the metal-peptide composition or a pharmaceutical preparation containing the metal-peptide co...
Patent
Methods and compositions for (a) improving and/or maintaining the health of skin, and (b) increasing subcutaneous fat in warm-blooded animals are disclosed. The methods utilize an effective amount of a composition comprising GHL--Cu or a derivative of GHL--Cu.
Patent
Methods and compositions for (a) stimulating the growth of hair in warm-blooded animals, (b) increasing subcutaneous fat in warm-blooded animals, and (c) increasing the density of hair follicles in warm-blooded animals are disclosed. The methods utilize an effective amount of a composition comprising a derivative of GHL-Cu.
Patent
Methods for the use of compositions of copper(II) containing compounds to accelerate healing of wounds in warm-blooded animals. The methods include systemic loading of copper(II) to accelerate the rate of wound healing following injury or surgery. The copper(II) containing compounds include copper(II) complexes with amino acids and peptides, and co...
Patent
A variety of compositions suitable for use with methods for (a) reducing the formation of stomach ulcers in warm-blooded animals, (b) reducing the secretion of stomach acid in warm-blooded animals, (c) increasing the secretion of cytoprotective mucous in the stomach of warm-blooded animals, and (d) healing established stomach or intestinal ulcers i...
Patent
Methods and compositions for (a) improving and/or maintaining the health of skin, and (b) increasing subcutaneous fat in warm-blooded animals are disclosed. The methods utilize an effective amount of a composition comprising GHL-Cu or a derivative of GHL-Cu.
Patent
There is provided metal-peptide compositions for use as stimulating agents for hair growth in warm-blooded animals. Methods for stimulating the growth of hair in warm-blooded animals are also disclosed. The methods utilize a stimulating effective amount of the metal-peptide composition or a pharmaceutical preparation containing the metal-peptide co...
Patent
Compositions and methods for enhancing or restoring the resistance of a warm blooded animal to oxidative or inflammatory damage caused be release of reactive oxygen species by certain immune cells and other physiological processes are disclosed. The compositions include metal:peptide and metal:peptide:chelating agent complexes.
Patent
A method of promoting and accelerating the healing of bones in animals utilizing an effective amount of a GHL-(Cu) pharmaceutical composition is disclosed. Also methods of inducing the formulation of granulation tissue in affected bones of animals using a GHL-(Cu) composition is disclosed.
Patent
A variety of compositions suitable for use with methods for (a) reducing the formation of stomach ulcers in warm-blooded animals, (b) reducing the secretion of stomach acid in warm-blooded animals, (c) increasing the secretion of cytoprotective mucous in the stomach of warm-blooded animals, and (d) healing established stomach or intestinal ulcers i...
Patent
Methods are disclosed for enhancing the healing of a variety of wounds in horses. The methods generally comprise administering to the wound a therapeutically effective amount of a composition comprising GHL:Cu or a derivative thereof in combination with a physiologically acceptable carrier or diluent.
Article
The copper binding tripeptide, glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine [GHK:Cu(II)] has a plethora of biological effects related to the wound healing process. The presence of iron complexes in damaged tissues is detrimental to wound healing, due to local inflammation, as well as microbial infection mediated by iron. To test if the wound healing properties of GH...
Patent
Derivatives of GHL-Cu possessing greater resistance to proteolytic enzyme breakdown are disclosed. These derivatives can be taliored to increase their fat solubility, making them more useful in the formation of pharmaceutical creams and gels. Further, the derivatives of the present invention possess significant superoxide dismustase activity, makin...
Article
The tridentate complex CuGHK does not form ESR detectable adducts upon addition to either glutathione or Ehrlich ascites cells under our conditions. The absence of adducts is consistent with the poor uptake of CuGHK by cells. ESR spectra are used to characterize adduct formation between CuGHK and histidine. The CuGHK-histidine adduct is not stable...
Patent
Methods are disclosed for (a) enhancing the formation of a natural biological dressing composed primarily of serum proteins; (b) enhancing the reestablishment for free, full-thickness skin grafts in warm-blooded animals; (c) enhancing the establishment of split-thickness skin grafts; and (d) increasing the rate of wound closure in warm-blooded anim...
Article
Glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine (GHK) is a tripeptide with affinity for copper(II) ions and was isolated from human plasma. This peptide appears to play a physiological role in wound healing. We report the stimulating effect of GHK-Cu on collagen synthesis by fibroblasts. The stimulation began between 10−12 and 10−11 M, maximized at 10−9 M, and was inde...
Patent
A variety of compositions suitable for use within methods for (a) reducing the formation of stomach ulcers in warm-blooded animals, (b) reducing the secretion of stomach acid in warm-blooded animals, and (c) increasing the secretion of ctyoprotective mucous in the stomach of warm-blooded animals are disclosed. The compositions include glycyl-L-hist...
Patent
Derivatives of GHL-Cu possessing greater resistance to proteolytic enzyme breakdown are disclosed. These derivatives can be tailored to increase their fat solubility, making them more useful in the formation of pharmaceutical creams and gels. Further, the derivatives of the present invention possess significant superoxide dismutase activity, making...
Article
This chapter focuses on biological activity of human plasma copper-binding growth factor glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine. Glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine: copper(II) (GHL-Cu) is a growth factor isolated from human plasma. The peptide portion of the complex, GHL (glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine), has an affinity for copper(II) equivalent to that of the copper tran...
Chapter
Wound-healing remains a major medical problem. Yearly in the United States alone there are 29 million in-patient hospital surgical procedures (plus many more handled on an out-patient basis), 2.3 million burns requiring medical attention, approximately 6 million bedsores (decubitus ulcers) at any given time, 1.1 million severe fractures, and 2 mill...
Article
Many conditions are associated with defective would healing. A tripeptide growth factor, glycyl-histidyl-lysyl Cu(II) (GHL), which may augment healing these wounds, was investigated. GHL has been recently synthesized by Pickart. In vitro GHL stimulates axonal growth from neurons, serves as a chemoattractant for mast cells and endothelial cells, pos...
Article
Interest in the crystal structure of a copper complex of the growth factor, glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine has been stimulated by the tripeptide's ability to facilitate copper uptake in cultured hepatoma cells and by the copper complex's tendency to induce angiogenesis. The coordination polyhedron is a distorted square pyramid, CuN3O2, with the four ba...
Article
The human tripeptide, glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine (GHL) isolates from plasma as a copper complex (GHL-Cu). At nanomolar concentrations GHL serves as an in vitro growth factor for many types of cultured cells and organisms and appears to function by promoting copper uptake. In vivo GHL-Cu acts as an angiogenic factor that induces new capillary format...
Article
The ratio of free fatty acids (FFA) to albumin, its carrier protein, was determined in 118 healthy men of ages 20 to 69 years and in 83 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) of ages 33 to 69 years. During aging in normal men, this ratio increased progressively from an average value of 0.755 +/- 0.061 in the age 20-29 group to a value of 1.042...
Article
Magnetic resonance studies of GHK and copper Determine the stability of GHK-Cu in solution. GHK and GHK-Cu slowly exchange copper(II) in solution.
Article
Aroylhydrazones of pyridoxal and of salicylaldehyde, a series of tridentate chelating agents, are potent inhibitors of DNA synthesis and cell growth in a number of human and rodent cell lines grown in culture. A copper(II) complex of the most potent of the chelators, salicylaldehyde benzoyl hydrazone (SBH), exhibits significantly greater inhibitory...
Article
Optical, electron paramagnetic resonance, and electron spin-echo envelope spectroscopies were used to examine the structure of the Cu(II) complex of glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine (GHL) in solution. At neutral pH, GHL forms a mononuclear 1:1 Cu(II) compound having an EPR spectrum resembling that of Cu(II) equatorially coordinated by two or three nitrog...
Article
The effect of pretreatment of rats with a hypolipidemic agent, clofibrate ethyl alpha-(p-chlorophenoxy)isobutyrate on the acute-phase induction of fibrinogen synthesis by thrombin injections was evaluated. Rats were pretreated with graded dosages of clofibrate (10-300 mg/kg day), then injected intraperitoneally with 1,000 U topical thrombin at 0 ho...
Article
Glycylhistidyllysine (GHL), a tripeptide isolated from plasma, has been shown to alter the growth rate of many cell types and organisms in culture systems. The tripeptide is optimally active at concentrations between 10 and 200 ng/ml. Some of the more interesting uses of GHL are highlighted in this paper. Present information suggests that GHL funct...
Article
Many major inflammatory stimuli induce secondary conditions of blood hyperfibrinogenemia and fibrinolytic inhibition, changes which may be mediated by alterations in free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism. The effect of a free fatty acidemia induced by the intravenous infusion of a triglyceride into rabbits on the fibrinogen/fibrinolytic system was deter...
Article
Recent studies have emphasized the role of blood fibrinogen as a major determinant of blood and plasma viscosity in the microcirculation, of red cell and platelet aggregation, and in the growth of atheromatous lesions. Blood fibrinogen levels are increased and the endogenous fibrinolytic activity decreased by conditions or factors which raise plasm...
Article
The plasma tripeptide glycyl-L-lysine (GHL), when added at nanomolar concentrations to a wide group of cultured systems, produces a disparate set of responses ranging from the stimulation of growth and differentiation to outright toxicity. Such diverse actions imply that this tripeptide mediates some basic biochemical function common to many types...
Article
Plasma protein Cohn fraction IV-1 was extracted and fractionated according to the method of Van Wyk et al.[1], with the omission of the Sephadex G-75 step. The fractionated polypeptides were investigated for insulin-like activity (lipid synthesis and lactate production) and growth-stimulatory activity (DNA synthesis) in three bioassay systems: rat...
Article
Plasma fibrinogen is elevated in various stressful states and conditions in which active mobilization of free fatty acids (FFA) occurs. Reduction of plasma FFA by an assortment of hypolipidemic drugs is consistently followed by a decrease in the accompanying hyperfibrinogenemia. A direct link between FFA and fibrinogen has been demonstrated in anim...
Article
The tripeptide H-Gly-His-Lys-OH (GHL) is a human plasma constituent which has been previously shown to modulate the growth and viability of a variety of cell types and organisms. Experimental observations presented herein indicate that GHL is complexed with the transition metal ions Cu++ and Fe++ in vivo and may exert its biological effects as a pe...
Article
Recovery of somatomedin activity from plasma fractions was increased approximately 5-fold by prolonged extraction of isolates with formic acid. Extraction for 72 hours enhanced the yields of active peptides in the 6,000, 8,000 and > 20,000 dalton range. Yields of smaller peptides were similar following short (2 hrs) and long (72 hrs) extraction per...
Article
Plasma contains a number of insulin-like activities (ILA) of molecular weights 7,000 to 90,000 (somatomedins and insulin-like proteins) which stimulate cellular metabolism and may function as growth factors. We have found evidence for the presence of an 800 Dalton peptide in human plasma which markedly stimulates the metabolism of chick chondrocyte...
Article
Full-text available
Previous work in our laboratory has indicated that free fatty acids stimulate synthesis of fibrinogen by the liver. The effect of the hypolipidemic agent clofibrate on hyperfibrinogenemia associated with tumors was evaluated by monitoring clofibrate-induced changes in plasma fibrinogen concentration and biosynthesis of the protein in Buffalo rats i...
Article
Isolation and purification of growth-modulating peptides from biological sources is often accompanied by excessive losses of bioactive material. During the isolation of a growth-modulating tripeptide glycylhistidyllysine (GHL) from human plasma, copper and iron were found to co-isolate with the peptide. Studies with [3H]GHL demonstrated that these...
Article
The hepatic synthesis of fibrinogen and albumin in mice during fetal development (12 to 20 days gestation) was determined. Fetal hepatic synthesis of fibrinogen matures relatively rapidly and reaches adult levels by the 16th day of gestation. In contrast, albumin production develops more slowly, attaining 80% of adult values immediately prior to bi...
Article
Induction of DNA synthesis is associated with increased uptake of calcium in cultured cells. Calcium distribution within the plasma membrane and adjacent cytoplasmic layers of hepatoma cells was investigated with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and oxygen plasma etching. Cells in minimal growth medium initiate active DNA synthesis 16 h after addit...
Article
Summary The structure of a growth-modulating tripeptide from human serum and plasma has been determined to be H-glycyl-histidyl-lysine-OH.
Article
A rise in circulating triglyceride or free fatty acids (FFA) is often associated with increased F, and recent data indicate that FFA may be involved in regulation of F synthesis. F was measured in young rats allowed access to regular chow while treated with a 10% suspension of IL (3 to 6 g/kg/day) administered P.O., by continuous i.v. infusion, or...
Article
The effects of human albumin preparations on oxidative energy metabolism and lipid svnthesis were investigated in rat liver slices incubated with sodium [1-14C]acetate as precursor. Labeled CO2 production and incorporation of precursor into the major lipid classes was increased 2 to 3-fold by fresh preparations of albumin (fraction V), and by defat...
Article
Mobilization of FFA in mice, triggered with an injection of thrombin, was followed within 24 h by a 2.5-fold increase in fibrinogen synthesis and a 30% increase in plasma fibrinogen concentration. In mouse liver slices, incubated in plasma, additions of palmitate or stearate in amounts similar to those expected in vivo in FFA mobilization stimulate...
Article
Plasma concentrations of albumin and fibrinogen and arterial hematocrits were determined during the last third of gestation in growth-retarded and control fetal lambs. The mean fetal plasma albumin concentration increased slightly as term approached and was not significantly different in the two groups. The mean plasma fibrinogen concentration did...
Article
Severe ultrastructural abnormalities of liver endoplasmic reticulum have been described in newborn mice homozygous for radiation-induced deletion alleles at the colour locus. The ultrastructural defects were accompanied by deficiencies of several enzymes and lowered serum protein levels. Studies on serum protein synthesis were undertaken to see if...

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Projects (2)
Project
Three previous publications by others found GHK to stimulate nerve outgrowth in cell culture and rats. We have been analyzing GHK's effect on nervous system genes and will publish our work in November. GHK affects UP and Down about 1,000 human genes of the 4,100+ for which we have gene expression data. I see you are in Copenhagen. I have ancestors from Jutland and Schleswig Holstein, plus 47% Scandinavian genes.