Lone Schmidt

Lone Schmidt
University of Copenhagen · Department of Public Health

MD, DMSci, PhD

About

213
Publications
38,722
Reads
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8,722
Citations
Citations since 2017
79 Research Items
5017 Citations
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Introduction
Prof. in Infertility and Public Health. PI of the international, cross-disciplinary research programme: The Copenhagen Multi-centre Psychosocial Infertility (COMPI) Research Programme established in 2000. My research focus on three tracks: 1) Mental and somatic health related to infertility and medically assisted reproduction; 2) Psychosocial consequences of infertility and assited reproduction; 3) Family formation, fertility awareness and prevention of infertility. ORCID 0000-0002-9518-1734
Additional affiliations
October 1991 - present
University of Copenhagen
Position
  • Master's Student

Publications

Publications (213)
Article
This study explored young Danish men's perceptions and attitudes towards two fertility awareness (FA) interventions (a podcast episode and an informational poster) and their preferences for how fertility awareness and prevention efforts should be targeted and communicated to young men in the future. Focus groups were held with 13 young men who were...
Article
STUDY QUESTION How are educational level, labor market attachment and income associated with receiving a first ART treatment in either the public or private healthcare sector among women in Denmark? SUMMARY ANSWER Higher educational level and income as well as labor market attachment were associated with higher probability of initiating ART treatm...
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Study question: Can animation videos on how to optimize the chances of pregnancy influence stress, anxiety, depression and sexual functioning of individuals trying to conceive (TTC)? Summary answer: There were no differences between those educated to have intercourse every other day, on the fertile window and a control group (CG), and depression...
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STUDY QUESTION Is the chance of childbirth, and risk of infertility, pregnancy loss and need for assisted reproduction different for women with asthma compared to women without asthma? SUMMARY ANSWER Women with asthma had comparable chances of giving birth compared to the reference population, however, their risk of both infertility and pregnancy...
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Study question What are men's preferences for communication of fertility information and how to target prevention efforts to promote men to make informed decisions regarding family formation? Summary answer Men preferred fertility education interventions to use positive language to create new knowledge, include personal stories as conversation sta...
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Study question What are teenagers and young adults’ attitudes towards learning about fertility, and how do they want to receive fertility information? Summary answer Young people find it important to learn about fertility from professionals when they are young, and want to hear about fertility in a multifaceted way. What is known already During t...
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Study question What are couples’ needs for health care and support in subsequent pregnancy after prior early pregnancy loss and do these needs change across the pregnancy? Summary answer Couples described unmet needs for pregnancy care in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy and were satisfied with care provided the remainder of the pregnancy. What i...
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New legislation was introduced in Sweden in 2016, giving single women access to medically assisted reproduction (MAR). While Swedish single women’s characteristics and motivations for choosing motherhood through MAR were assessed in our previous pilot survey, their experience of considering and making the decision to undergo MAR has not been assess...
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Introduction: The number of children and young adults who survive cancer has steadily increased over the past decades. Consequently, life circumstances after cancer have gained increasing importance. The aim of this study was to explore family formation and socio-economic status among 35-year-old men having survived cancer in childhood or early ad...
Article
STUDY QUESTION Is there an increased risk of breast cancer among women after ART treatment including ovarian hormone stimulation? SUMMARY ANSWER The risk of breast cancer was slightly increased among women after ART treatment compared to age-matched, untreated women in the background population, and the risk was further increased among women initi...
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To study the role of perceived threat of infertility, barriers, and facilitators in intention to anticipate childbearing, a cross-sectional study was conducted with 240 women desiring to have children and committed in a heterosexual relationship. Participants answered an online survey between July 2016 and February 2018. Results showed that perceiv...
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Being aware of factors that affect fertility can help people make informed decisions about their reproductive futures. To some, however, fertility information leads to worry and self-blame. In this paper, we explore how people from different generations discuss fertility and reproductive decision-making, along with their perceptions of fertility in...
Article
Study question Is the rate of fatherhood among men diagnosed with cancer in childhood and early adulthood different from men without cancer – have differences changed over time? Summary answer Men diagnosed with cancer had significantly reduced rates of fatherhood compared with undiagnosed men. Rates of fatherhood among the cancer survivors increa...
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Study question What are couples’ joint narratives of coping with, and making sense of recurrent pregnancy loss? Summary answer Couples can become stuck in patterns of communication and coping roles that may be dissatisfying and not reflect the complexity of their experience of RPL. What is known already Fertility problems such as recurrent pregna...
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Study question Are single women in fertility treatment stigmatised and what do they experience? Summary answer The women did not feel stigmatised. They experienced self-blame and negative thoughts about themselves, despite experiencing empowerment and receiving positive reactions from families and friends. What is known already Since 2007, medica...
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Study question Participating in a fertility awareness program accelerates the intention to have children 6 to 12 months after video- fertility awareness? Summary answer In combination with positive childbearing motivation, those in the video condition anticipated their intentions to have children at 6-12 months follow-up What is known already Fer...
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Study question Do women undergoing mNC-FET with progesterone supplementation experience mental health adverse effects at a greater rate compared to a control group. Summary answer Progesterone supplementation does not affect mental wellbeing in women undergoing mNC-FET. What is known already Women and men undergoing assisted reproductive treatmen...
Article
Study question Are single women in fertility treatment stigmatised and what do they experience? Summary answer The women did not feel stigmatised. They experienced self-blame and negative thoughts about themselves, despite experiencing empowerment and receiving positive reactions from families and friends. What is known already Since 2007, medica...
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Several studies worldwide have shown that reproductive-aged people often have inadequate fertility awareness (FA). Since attitudes and health behaviours are influenced by the partner, there is a need for studies exploring the role of these influences on the individuals’ adoption of fertility protective behaviours (FPB). This study explores the role...
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Objective To study childbirth and the risk of miscarriage and infertility among women who have received a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes before the start of their reproductive journey. Design Register-based cohort study using the Skåne Healthcare Register Setting All healthcare visits for the whole population of the southernmost region in Sweden ov...
Article
Research into gender and postdivorce mental and physical health has been highly inconsistent. The Gender Similarities Hypothesis suggests there are more similarities than differences and the Divorce Stress Adjustment Perspective suggests that structural inequalities may contribute to adverse postdivorce outcomes. We conducted secondary analyses fro...
Article
This study explored women’s lived experience of making fertility decisions six years after attending the Fertility Assessment and Counselling (FAC) clinic in Copenhagen, Denmark, which is a personalised fertility awareness intervention. We conducted a qualitative interview study with 24 women who attended the FAC clinic 6 years earlier. Interviews...
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STUDY QUESTION What are young men’s attitudes towards the Danish fertility campaign ‘How’s your sperm?’ and how do they want to receive fertility information in the future? SUMMARY ANSWER The young men found that the campaign had limited impact because it was not relevant to their current life situation and they believed general fertility awarenes...
Article
STUDY QUESTION Is the rate of fatherhood among men diagnosed with cancer in childhood and early adulthood different from men without cancer, and, if so, have the differences changed over time? SUMMARY ANSWER Men diagnosed with cancer have had significantly reduced rates of fatherhood compared with undiagnosed men; however, the rates of fatherhood...
Article
Background Infertility affects 15–25% of all couples during their reproductive life span. It is a significant societal and public health problem with potential psychological, social, and economic consequences. Furthermore, infertility has been linked to adverse long-term health outcomes. Despite the advanced diagnostic and therapeutic techniques av...
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Research question Can participating in a tailored 7-week meditation and mindfulness program with additional standard supportive care versus only standard supportive care reduce perceived stress for women with recurrent pregnancy loss? Design A two-armed randomized controlled trial with 12-month follow-up. In total 76 patients were enrolled and ran...
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Reproductive decision-making and fertility patterns change with time and place, and are influenced by contemporary societal factors. In this paper, we have studied biosocial aspects of reproductive decision-making over time and generations in a Nordic setting. The aim was to explore intergenerational changes and influences on decision-making, espec...
Article
The freeze all strategy has become a promising alternative to fresh embryo transfer in fertility treatment almost eliminating late ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in the segmented cycle. There is a lack of in-depth knowledge regarding patients’ attitudes towards the freeze all strategy. The aim of this study was to explore the attitudes to...
Article
Objective To investigate (1) if antidepressant use among women in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and among women without ART treatment influences cumulative live birth rates (CLBR) and number of initiated treatment cycles per woman, (2) whether women undergoing ART treatment are at higher risk of initiating use of antidepressants...
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STUDY QUESTION What are women’s perceptions and experience of fertility assessment and counselling 6 years after attending a Fertility Assessment and Counselling (FAC) clinic in Denmark? SUMMARY ANSWER Women viewed the personalized fertility knowledge and advice they received as important aids to decision-making and they felt the benefits outweigh...
Article
Most previous studies about fertility knowledge and attitudes among men have been based on quantitative methods using questionnaires with fixed-choice response options. The aims of this qualitative study were to explore childless young men’s reflections on fertility and infertility through semi-structured interviews. Danish (n = 17) and Swedish (n...
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Study question: What is the rate of natural conception leading to ongoing pregnancy or livebirth over 6-12 months for infertile women of age ≥35 years? Summary answer: Natural conception rates were still clinically relevant in women aged 35 years and above and were significantly higher in women with unexplained infertility compared to those with...
Article
In high-income countries, parental age at first birth has increased and this postponement increases the risk of involuntary childlessness or having fewer children than desired. This interview study was conducted in Denmark and Sweden among childless men (n = 29) in their last year of an education. The aim was to explore the role of individual and s...
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Study question: Are male factor infertility or remaining childless risk factors for unipolar depression among men in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment? Summary answer: Male factor infertility was not associated with a significantly increased risk of unipolar depression and men remaining childless did not have a significantly incre...
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Objective To assess the association between psychological stress and male factor infertility as well as testicular function (semen quality, serum reproductive hormones) and erectile dysfunction. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting University Hospital-based research center. Patients Men with impaired semen quality were included from infertile c...
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Study question: What is the risk of death among men with oligospermia, unspecified male factor and azoospermia in the years following fertility treatment? Summary answer: No significantly elevated risk was observed among men with oligospermia and unspecified male factor, while an increased risk was found among men with azoospermia. What is know...
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Study question: Is female infertility predictive of a woman's future risk of early cardiovascular disease (CVD)? Summary answer: Female infertility does not seem to be predictive of early CVD during a mean follow-up of 9 years. What is known already: Associations between infertility and comorbidity have been found in several studies, but data...
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Study question: Does hormone stimulation during assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment increase the risk of ovarian cancer? Summary answer: No increased risk of ovarian cancer was found among ART-treated women, with the exception of ART-treated women with endometriosis. What is known already: Previous studies on the association betwe...
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Objective: The combined oral contraceptive pill is the most preferred contraceptive method worldwide. Despite high life-time prevalence of infertility of 16–26%, scarce data about concerns of future fertility among COC users are available. We aimed to study whether COC usage induces concerns about fertility. Methods: Online questionnaire-based surv...
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Characteristics and motivations of single mothers by choice were assessed in this pilot study, after new legislation in 2016 allowing access to medically assisted reproduction (MAR). Single women at a university clinic in Sweden were sent a postal questionnaire to their home address (n = 86) and 54 (62.8%) women filled it out and returned it. The w...
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Background It is hypothesised that hostility accentuates the association between stressful conditions and health. This study aims to test this hypothesis by analysing the joint effect of unemployment and hostility on all-cause mortality among men and women. Methods The population was 3677 men and 4138 women from the Danish workforce who participat...
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Study question: What are the attitudes towards different aspects of a freeze-all strategy and elective frozen embryo transfer (eFET) in comparison with fresh embryo transfer in assisted reproductive technology treatment among female and male patients before and after their first ART treatment cycle in a public health care setting? Summary answer:...
Article
Study question: What do couples referred to or attending a recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) clinic believe they need in terms of treatment, support and follow up? Summary answer: Men and women wish for more information, earlier access to treatment, support and follow up that is sensitive to their history of pregnancy loss (PL), includes both membe...
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Background Fertility rates in Europe are among the lowest in the world, which may be attributed to both biological and lifestyle factors. Cost and reimbursement of fertility treatments vary across Europe, although its citizens enjoy wide access to fertility care. Since few regional studies evaluating public support for fertility treatment exist, we...
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Objective: To assess academic performance in singletons aged 15-16 years conceived after frozen Embryo Transfer (FET) compared with singletons born after fresh embryo transfer (ET) in the Danish birth cohorts born from 1995 to 2001. Design: Danish national registry-based cohort study. Setting: Mean test scores on a national standardised and in...
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Introduction: Over the past 50 years women and men have postponed family formation in high-income societies. Fertility assessment and counselling has been suggested as a method to reduce delayed childbearing and its consequences. This study explored women’s perceptions of how attending a fertility assessment intervention influenced their decisions...
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Research question: Are self-reported symptoms of stress and depression associated with pregnancy outcomes within the first year after referral to a tertiary recurrent pregnancy loss unit? Design: Prospective cohort study with online questionnaires using the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) and Cohen's Stress Scale (PSS) at referral and after 1 y...
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Introduction: Men play an important role in couples' decisions about the timing of parenthood, and tend to delay parenthood. The reasons for delaying childbearing are multifaceted and complex. They may be making decisions to delay parenthood based on a lack of accurate information about the reproductive life span and the consequences of delaying p...
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Men and women are increasingly postponing childbearing until an age where fertility has decreased, meaning that they might have difficulties in achieving their desired family size. This study explored childless men's attitudes towards family formation. Data were collected through semi-structured qualitative interviews with 21 men attending the Fert...
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Introduction: Recent evidence indicates that reproductive-age people have inadequate fertility awareness (FA) concerning fertility, infertility risk factors, and consequences of delaying childbearing. However, no study has tried to summarize these studies and to clarify the variables associated with FA, namely the role of gender, age, education, an...
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Previous studies have reported reduced mortality among women undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment, possibly related to selection of healthy women into ART treatment. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of relevant selection factors on the association between ART treatment and mortality and explore effect modificat...
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This is a prospective cohort study with the objective to describe psychiatric disorders, such as any mood and anxiety disorders, in both women and men five years after assisted reproductive technology (ART). The Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD) questionnaire, based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (...
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Study question: Are couples initiating ART treatment at higher risk for future union dissolution compared to other couples? Summary answer: There is no effect of ART treatments in future marital dissolution over a period of 16 years when adjusting for all confounders. What is known already: Findings regarding marital stability and infertility...
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Introduction: Infertility is a concern for men and women.There is limited knowledge on how male factor infertility affects the couple in fertility treatment. The aim of this study was to explore how severe male factor infertility affects men's sense of masculinity, the couple's relationship and intentions about family formation. Material and meth...
Article
Objective: To compare self-reported quality of life, psychosocial well-being, and physical well-being during assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment in 1,023 women allocated to either a short GnRH antagonist or long GnRH agonist protocol. Design: Secondary outcome of a prospective phase 4, open-label, randomized controlled trial. Four t...
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Background: Gender, possibly due to the influence of gonadal hormones, is presumed to play a role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), but no studies have evaluated whether male infertility is associated with MS. Objective: To study the association between male factor infertility and prevalent as well as incident MS. Method: Our coh...
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Study question: Can a consensus and evidence-driven set of terms and definitions be generated to be used globally in order to ensure consistency when reporting on infertility issues and fertility care interventions, as well as to harmonize communication among the medical and scientific communities, policy-makers, and lay public including individua...
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Study question: Can a consensus and evidence-driven set of terms and definitions be generated to be used globally in order to ensure consistency when reporting on infertility issues and fertility care interventions, as well as to harmonize communication among the medical and scientific communities, policy-makers, and lay public including individua...
Article
Male factor infertility is associated with an increased risk of disease and mortality, which has been related to markers of chronic systemic inflammation. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between male factor infertility and low-grade inflammation and furthermore to examine the lifetime prevalence of male factor inferti...
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Study question: Is male factor infertility associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes? Summary answer: The study provides evidence that male factor infertility may predict later occurrence of diabetes mellitus with the risk being related to the severity of the underlying fertility problem. What is known already: Previous cross-se...
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The objective was to assess the potential association between female and male alcohol consumption and probability of achieving a live birth after assisted reproductive treatment. From a nationwide Danish register-based cohort information on alcohol consumption at assisted reproductive treatment initiation was linked to information on births and abo...
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The association between male infertility and increased risk of certain cancers is well studied. Less is known about the long-term risk of nonmalignant diseases in men with decreased fertility. A systemic literature review was performed on the epidemiologic evidence of male infertility as a precursor for increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular di...
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Introduction: This study is part of a longitudinal cohort undertaken in both women and men to describe live birth outcome after undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment in a clinical setting. Another objective was to follow women and men living with children from other alternatives after ART, such as adoption. Material and meth...
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Study question: Is academic performance in adolescents aged 15-16 years and conceived after ART, measured as test scores in ninth grade, comparable to that for spontaneously conceived (SC) adolescents? Summary answer: ART singletons had a significantly lower mean test score in the adjusted analysis when compared with SC singletons, yet the diffe...
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Background Postponing parenthood has steadily increased during the past decades in Western countries. This trend has affected the size of families in the direction of fewer children born per couple. In addition, higher maternal age is associated with an increased risk of pregnancy-related complications such as prematurity and foetal death, while hi...
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Study question Are the Copenhagen Multi‐Centre Psychosocial Infertility research program Fertility Problem Stress Scales (COMPI-FPSS) a reliable and valid measure across gender and culture? Summary answer The COMPI-FPSS is a valid and reliable measure, presenting excellent or good fit in the majority of the analyzed countries, and demonstrating ful...