Lluis Tort

Lluis Tort
Autonomous University of Barcelona | UAB · Dpt. Cell Biology, Physiology and Immunology

Ph.D.

About

295
Publications
57,484
Reads
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11,894
Citations
Introduction
Specialist in fish physiology and comparative physiology, and in particular in Health and Welfare in fish. Current research interests in the area of the Physiology of Stress in fish and its consequences on the immune, endocrine and metabolic response. Moreover, as a fish under stress is the opposite of a fish under welfare, indicators and assessments of fish welfare are investigated.
Additional affiliations
February 1987 - present
Autonomous University of Barcelona
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (295)
Article
Overcoming a stress situation, such as hypoxia episodes, which involve an allostatic load, will depend 13 on the ability of fish to modulate physiological and biochemical systems to maintain homeostasis. The 14 aim of the study was to determine the integrated stress response after acute hypoxia of rainbow trout 15 considering the different elements...
Article
Full-text available
The perception of an acute stressor (short-duration; high-intensity) induces a physiological response that activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis and the subsequent release of cortisol. Cortisol carries out its effect at the molecular level through its recognition by the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and the glucocorticoid rec...
Article
Circadian rhythms are present in all living organisms, participating in many physiological regulations including immune, stress and anti-oxidant responses. However, in fish the mutual influences between immune and circadian systems, either in wild or farmed scenarios, are still poorly analyzed. In farmed fish, vaccination strategies rely on memory...
Article
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Global warming is predicted to increase prolonged thermal challenges for aquatic ectotherms, i.e. it causes metabolic performance declines, impacts food intake, and finally causes impaired growth. In this research work, we investigated whether a tropical fish, Danio rerio (zebrafish), could tolerate prolonged thermal challenges and whether the temp...
Article
Full-text available
Skin mucus is a non-lethal and low-invasive matrix appropriate to assess fish welfare as it contributes to their defence against external aggressions and reflects changes in fish health status. However, more information on the response of this matrix to specific stressors is needed. In this study, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) specimens were...
Article
Full-text available
Vibrio vulnificus is a marine zoonotic pathogen associated with fish farms that is considered a biomarker of climate change. Zoonotic strains trigger a rapid death of their susceptible hosts (fish or humans) by septicemia that has been linked to a cytokine storm in mice. Therefore, we hypothesize that V. vulnificus also causes fish death by trigger...
Article
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The stress response in fish is characterized by the activation of the HPI axis resulting in the release of cortisol. Previous studies in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) have shown that an acute stressor modulates the expression of immune- and stress-related genes in mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues (MAL...
Article
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The spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) is an abattoir by-product used in animal nutrition with beneficial effects reported in livestock and commercial aquatic species. Previous results have found that the dietary inclusion of SDPP in gilthead sea bream ( Sparus aurata ) increased the density of intestinal goblet cells, and it did not result in signi...
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The transcriptomic response of the head kidney, the main lymphohematopoietic tissue of the body, was evaluated in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) smolts fed a functional feed containing a phytogenic rich in verbascoside and triterpenic compounds like ursolic acid. Fish (initial body weight = 55.0 ± 0.1 g) were fed two experimental diets (40% crude...
Article
Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) plastic fragments have been found abundant in the environment, but the knowledge regarding its effects on the physiology of aquatic animals is still poorly studied. Here the short-term (96 h) effects of waterborne exposure to PMMA nanoplastics (PMMA-NPs) on the muscle of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) fingerlings w...
Article
Full-text available
In the present study, the modulation of the transcriptional immune response (microarray analysis) in the head kidney (HK) of the anadromous fish Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed a diet supplemented with an olive fruit extract (AQUOLIVE®) was evaluated. At the end of the trial (133 days), in order to investigate the immunomodulatory properties of t...
Article
Full-text available
The feeding behavior in fish is a complex activity that relies on the ability of the brain to integrate multiple signals to produce appropriate responses in terms of food intake, energy expenditure, and metabolic activity. Upon stress cues including viral infection or mediators such as the proinflammatory cytokines, prostaglandins, and cortisol, bo...
Article
The association of vaccines with immunostimulants such as β-glucan, promote the production of cytokines, competent immune cells and antibodies. However, differences between β-glucan types and trials make it difficult to understand β-glucan's mechanism of action. In this study, three trials were carried out with control and fish fed β-glucan, the fi...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of porcine plasma protein hydrolysate (PPH) on growth, feed efficiency, and immune responses was evaluated in Sparus aurata. Fish were fed two isoproteic (48% protein), isolipidic (17% fat), and isoenergetic diets (21.7 MJ/kg) diets, one of them containing 5% PPH at the expense of fishmeal. Both diets were tested for 92 days. A signific...
Article
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β-glucans are prebiotic and/or food additives used by the aquaculture industry to enhance the immune response of fish. Their efficiency may vary according to their origin and structure. In this study, the immunostimulant effects of two β-glucan types extracted from wild-type baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and its null-mutant Gas1 were inv...
Presentation
Las partículas de plástico de pequeño tamaño (microplásticos - MPs y nanoplásticos - NPs) son consideradas contaminantes emergentes, por lo que han motivado recientes investigaciones para establecer sus consecuencias ambientales. La dorada (Sparus aurata) es una especie común en el mar Mediterráneo y es de las especies piscícolas más cultivadas en...
Article
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The inclusion of a medicinal plant leaf extract (MPLE) from sage (Salvia officinalis) and lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora), rich in verbascoside and triterpenic compounds like ursolic acid, was evaluated in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) fed a low fishmeal-based diet (48% crude protein, 17% crude fat, 21.7 MJ kg-1, 7% fishmeal, 15% fish oil) fo...
Article
Full-text available
One of the main targets for the use of phytogenics in aquafeeds is the mucosal tissues as they constitute a physical and biochemical shield against environmental and pathogenic threats, comprising elements from both the innate and acquired immunity. In the present study, the modulation of the skin transcriptional immune response, the bacterial grow...
Article
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In aquaculture, biofouling management is a difficult and expensive issue. Cuprous oxide has been commonly used to prevent fouling formation. To cheapen net management and reduce the use of copper, the industry has proposed several alternatives. Currently, polyurethane coatings are being explored and commercially implemented. With this alternative,...
Article
Full-text available
Essential oils (EOs) are promising alternatives to chemotherapeutics in animal production due to their immunostimulant, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties, without associated environmental or hazardous side effects. In the present study, the modulation of the transcriptional immune response (microarray analysis) and microbiota [16S Ribosomal...
Article
Full-text available
From a general structural perspective, a mucosal tissue is constituted by two main matrices: the tissue and the secreted mucus. Jointly, they fulfill a wide range of functions including the protection of the epithelial layer. In this study, we simultaneously analyzed the epithelial tissue and the secreted mucus response using a holistic interactome...
Book
Full-text available
Fish welfare in aquaculture – problems and approaches to solutions. Free download: http://www.ign-nutztierhaltung.ch/sites/default/files/Bilder/IGN_FOKUS20_Broschuere_Fischwohl_100Seiter_web.pdf (The English edition will be available in late spring 2021.)
Article
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A microencapsulated feed additive composed by garlic, carvacrol and thymol essential oils (EOs) was evaluated regarding its protective effect in gills parasitized by Sparicotyle chrysophrii in Sparus aurata. A nutritional trial (65 days) followed by a cohabitation challenge with parasitized fish (39 days) were performed. Transcriptomic analysis by...
Article
This study evaluated the effect of a short-term exposure to 45 nm polymethylmethacrylate nanoplastics (PMMA-NPs) on the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), by assessing biomarkers at different levels of biological organization in liver and plasma. Fish were exposed via water to PMMA-NPs (0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 mg L⁻¹) and sampled after 24 and...
Article
The presence of small-sized plastic particles in marine and freshwater environments is a global problem but their long-term impact on ecosystems and human health is still far from being understood. Nanoplastics (<1000 nm) could pose a real and uncontrolled ecological challenge due to their smaller size and sharp ability to penetrate living organism...
Article
Full-text available
Nodavirus, or nervous necrosis virus (NNV ), is the causative agent of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), a severe disease affecting numerous fish species worldwide. European sea bass, a cultured species of great economic importance, is highly susceptible to the disease. To better understand the response of this organism to NNV, we conduct...
Chapter
Plastics materials rarely biodegrade, instead, through different biotic and abiotic processes, they fragment into smaller microplastics (<5 mm, MPs), which have already been reported as ubiquitous pollutants in marine environments worldwide, as well as in a wide range of marine organisms [1]. Nanoplastics (NPs), the smaller than 100/1000 nm fractio...
Chapter
Small plastic particles are considered emerging pollutants, and this has motivated research to establish their ecological and environmental consequences. Currently, the study of the effects of nanoplastics (NPs) in aquatic organisms is still scarce, especially in organisms of higher trophic levels, such as fish.
Article
Cortisol is the main corticosteroid in teleosts, exerting multiple functions by activating glucocorticoid receptors (GR). Most teleost species have two GR genes, gr-1 and gr-2. Some teleost also presents two splice variants for gr-1; gr-1a and gr-1b. In this study, we report for first time the presence of 2 homeologous genes for gr-1 and gr-2, loca...
Article
In the present study, we evaluated the effects of a medicinal plant leaf extract (MPLE; 10%, ursolic acid, 3% other triterpenic compounds; 2% verbascoside and < 1% polyphenols) obtained from Lippia citriodora and Salvia officinalis on somatic growth and immune responses in juvenile gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). Fish (initial body weight = 26.0...
Article
Full-text available
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are single genetic code variations considered one of the most common forms of nucleotide modifications. Such SNPs can be located in genes associated to immune response and, therefore, they may have direct implications over the phenotype of susceptibility to infections affecting the productive sector. In this s...
Article
Small plastic particles are considered emerging pollutants, and this has motivated a considerable number of studies to establish their environmental consequences. At present, the study of the effects of nanoplastics (NPs) on aquatic organisms is still scarce, especially in organisms from higher trophic levels such as fish. This review describes the...
Article
Full-text available
The current overview is presented regarding the biological investigations being carried out in fish to determine whether these animals are sentient beings with capacity to perceive stress and pain. After realising the wide biological diversity and describing the neural equipment and cognitive abilities, the current state of the scientific controver...
Article
Full-text available
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fendo.2019.00652/full
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Vaccination is a widely used therapeutical strategy in aquaculture, but whether vaccination elicits stress responses in the central neuroendocrine system and enhances the crosstalk between the immune and endocrine systems in the brain or pituitary after vaccination is unclear. To answer this question two experiments using two different vaccine expo...
Article
Vibrio vulnificus is a siderophilic pathogen spreading due to global warming. The zoonotic strains constitute a clonal‐complex related to fish farms that are distributed worldwide. In this study, we applied a transcriptomic and single gene approach and discover that the zoonotic strains bypassed the iron requirement of the species thanks to the acq...
Article
Full-text available
The use of anesthesia is a common practice in aquaculture to sedate fish and mitigate handling stress. Although the employ of anesthesia is considered beneficial for fish, as it reduces stress and improves welfare, at the same time it may induce hazardous side-effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of clove oil (CO) an...
Article
Full-text available
In the present study, the underlying short-term effects of gold nanoparticles (AuNP, spheres, citrate coated, ∼40 nm) on the hepatic function of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) was assessed, using a species-specific enriched oligonucleotide microarray platform (SAQ). Two distinct concentrations of AuNP (0.5 and 50 μg/L) were tested during 24 h w...
Article
Cortisol, the end product of the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis, has been traditionally measured in blood as indicator of stress in fish, however, the degree of invasiveness inherent to blood collection is not always possible or desirable. Instead, cortisol measurement in skin mucus is far less invasive, but as blood, this method pote...
Article
Full-text available
In the last decade, the concept of animal stress has been stressed thin to accommodate the effects of short-term changes in cell and tissue physiology, major behavioral syndromes in individuals and ecological disturbances in populations. Seyle's definition of stress as “the nonspecific (common) result of any demand upon the body” now encompasses ho...
Article
The pituitary is a central organ of the neuro-endocrine system in fish that plays critical roles in various physiological processes, including stress response and behavior. Although it is known that pituitary hormones can have a direct or indirect influence stimulating or suppressing the immune responses, whether there is a local immune response in...
Article
The aims of the present study were to validate an automated chemiluminescence assay (CIA) for cortisol determination in plasma and skin mucus of fish, to compare the results produced with those obtained by radio-immunoassay (RIA), and to evaluate the assay capacity to differentiate between stressed and non-stressed fish. Cortisol hormone was measur...
Article
Full-text available
Fish are ectotherm organisms that move through different thermal zones according to their physiological requirements and environmental availability, a behavior known as thermoregulation. Thermoregulation in ectothermic animals is influenced by their ability to effectively respond to thermal variations. While it is known that ectotherms are affected...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Environmental insults, such as exposure to pathogens, modulate the behavioural coping style of animals to stressors, and repeated exposure to stressful environments may lead to species-specific infection phenotypes. To analyse the influence of stress behavioural phenotypes on immune and metabolic performance, gilthead sea bream (Sparus aur...
Article
The stress and immune-related effects of short-term (1, 6 and 24 h) air exposure stress (1 min), bath vaccination with Vibrio anguillarum bacterin, and both stressors combined were evaluated in liver and spleen of Sparus aurata, Danio rerio and Onchorhynchus mykiss. Expression profiles of immune (interleukin 1 beta: il1β; tumor necrosis factor alph...
Article
The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of ~45 nm nanoplastics (NPs) on the marine fish Dicentrarchus labrax after a short-term exposure. Animals were exposed to a concentration range of NPs for 96 h and liver, plasma and skin mucus sampled. Assessed endpoints included biochemical biomarkers and expression of genes related to lipid metaboli...
Article
The effects of two new anesthetics (essential oils) extracted from oregano (OO) and eucalyptus (EO) plants were studied in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) stress response and welfare parameters in comparison to the effects of clove oil (CO) that is one of the most used anesthetics in aquaculture. A time-course study on evolution of plasma...
Article
This study aimed to assess antioxidant and immune gene transcription alterations in the gills of Sparus aurata exposed during 96 h to 4, 80, and 1600 μg/L of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) coated with citrate or polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP). After 96 h of exposure, gr and cat mRNA levels decreased for all tested concentrations of AuNPs, for both coating...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, the innate immune response has gained importance since evidence indicates that after an adequate priming protocol, it is possible to obtain some prolonged and enhanced immune responses. Nevertheless, several factors, such as the timing and method of administration of the immunostimulants, must be carefully considered. An inappropri...