Lluís Palou

Lluís Palou
Valencian Institute of Agrarian Research (IVIA) · Postharvest Technology Center (CTP)

Professor
Applied research and extension on postharvest pathology of fresh horticultural produce.

About

165
Publications
53,716
Reads
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4,836
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Introduction
Applied research and extension on technological aspects of fruit handling related to the development of postharvest diseases in fresh fruits (citrus, stone fruits, table grapes, minor Mediterranean fruits such as persimmon, pomegranate, loquat, date, etc.). Physical, chemical and biological alternative treatments. Integrated disease management. Effect of antifungal postharvest treatments on storage potential, fruit quality and bioactive compounds.
Additional affiliations
October 2003 - September 2017
Valencian Institute of Agrarian Research (IVIA)
Position
  • Principal Investigator
July 2003 - September 2003
Institute of Agricultural Research and Training (IFAPA)
Position
  • PostDoc Position
January 2003 - June 2003
IRTA Institute of Agrifood Research and Technology
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Education
July 1995 - February 1999
Universitat de Lleida (UdL)
Field of study
  • Postharvest Pathology

Publications

Publications (165)
Article
Full-text available
Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is an emerging crop in Italy and particularly in southern regions, such as Apulia, Basilicata, and Sicily, due to favorable climatic conditions. The crop is affected by several pathogenic fungi, primarily in the field, but also during postharvest phases. The most important postharvest fungal diseases in pomegranate...
Article
Full-text available
Novel pectin-based, antifungal, edible coatings (ECs) were formulated by the addition of natural extracts or essential oils (EOs), and their ability to control green mold (GM), caused by Penicillium digitatum, and preserve postharvest quality of ‘Valencia’ oranges was evaluated. Satureja montana, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CN), Commiphora myrrha (MY) E...
Article
The use of edible coatings can lead to significant extension of the postharvest life of fresh horticultural products through the regulation of water and gaseous exchange during storage. In this regard, nano-engineered materials are of great interest to design novel and multifunctional edible coatings and are increasingly employed. Chitosan and glyc...
Article
Full-text available
Penicillium digitatum and P. italicum are the major postharvest pathogens in citrus. To reduce postharvest decay, the use of low-oxygen (0.9 kPa O2) (LO) or low-pressure (6.6 kPa) (LP) treatments were evaluated during the storage of navel oranges for four or eight days. The results showed that exposure to both LO and LP treatments reduced in vivo p...
Article
Antifungal composite edible coatings (ECs) formulated with pregelatinized potato starch (PPS, 1.0–2.0% w/w) as biopolymer, glyceryl monostearate (GMS, 0.5–1.5%, w/w) as hydrophobe, glycerol (Gly, 0.5–1.5%, w/w) as plasticizer, and sodium benzoate (SB, 2%, w/w) as antifungal agent were optimized using the Box–Behnken response surface methodology to...
Article
Postharvest losses of fresh fruit are mainly caused by weight loss, physiological disorders, and decay during storage and commercialization. Currently, postharvest treatments with conventional chemical fungicides and/or synthetic waxes are commonly used in combination with low-temperature storage to reduce such losses and minimize their economic im...
Article
Full-text available
The curative antifungal activity of edible composite coatings (ECs) based on pregelatinized potato starch-glyceryl monostearate (PPS-GMS) formulated with or without sodium benzoate (SB) to control green mould (caused by Penicillium digitatum) and blue mould (P. italicum) was assessed on ‘Orri’ mandarins, ‘Valencia’ oranges and ‘Fino’ lemons. These...
Article
Full-text available
The sulfur-containing salts, classified as food additives, sodium metabisulfite (SMBS), potassium metabisulfite (PMBS), aluminum sulfate (AlS), and aluminum potassium sulfate (AlPS), were evaluated for their activity against Monilinia fructicola, Rhizopus stolonifer, and Geotrichum candidum, the most economically important fungal pathogens causing...
Article
BACKGROUND Two edible coating (EC) emulsions based on potato starch (F6 and F10) alone or formulated with sodium benzoate (SB, 2% w/w) (F6/SB and F10/SB) were evaluated to maintain postharvest quality of cold-stored ‘Fino’ lemons and control sour rot on lemons artificially inoculated with Geotrichum citri-aurantii. Previous research showed the pote...
Article
Full-text available
Composite edible coatings based on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), as a polymeric phase, and oleic acid (OA) or beeswax (BW), as a hydrophobic phase, were formulated with different food additives as antifungal ingredients. HPMC–OA coatings containing 2% (w/v) sodium benzoate (SB), 1% ammonium carbonate (AC), 1% potassium carbonate (PC), 1% po...
Article
Full-text available
Pomegranate exhibits important postharvest quality losses that limit its storage potential, caused mainly by weight loss, chilling injury and fungal diseases. In this work, we evaluated the effect of novel hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) edible coatings (ECs) formulated with three different lipids (beeswax (BW), carnauba wax, and glycerol mono...
Chapter
Among means alternative to chemical fungicides to control postharvest decay of fresh horticultural products, low-toxicity chemicals, classified as food additives or Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) compounds, are of interest because of their low toxicological effects on mammals and minimal impact on the environment. These chemicals include some...
Preprint
Antifungal composite edible coatings (ECs) formulated with pregelatinized potato starch (PPS, 1.0-2.0 % w/w) as biopolymer, glyceryl monostearate (GMS, 0.5-1.5 %, w/w) as hydrophobe, glycerol (Gly, 0.5-1.5 %, w/w) as plasticizer, and sodium benzoate (SB, 2 % w/w) as antifungal agent were optimized using the Box–Behnken response surface methodology...
Article
The effectiveness of the "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS) salts potassium sorbate (PS), sodium benzoate (SB), sodium ethylparaben (SEP) and sodium methylparaben (SMP) to control sour rot, caused by Geotrichum citri-aurantii, was assessed by dipping economically important citrus species and cultivars in aqueous solutions for 30, 60 or 150 s at...
Article
Full-text available
The in vitro antifungal activity of various generally recognized as safe (GRAS) salts against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, the causal agent of citrus postharvest anthracnose, was evaluated as mycelial growth reduction on potato dextrose agar (PDA) dishes amended with salt aqueous solutions at different concentrations. The most effective treatmen...
Article
Sodium metabisulfite (SMBS), potassium metabisulfite (PMBS), aluminum sulfate (AlS) and aluminum potassium sulfate (AlPS), common sulfur-containing salts used as food additives, were evaluated for their antifungal activity against Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium italicum and Geotrichum citri-aurantii, the most economically important pathogens ca...
Book
Book and book chapter only available for purchase as hardback or e-book: https://www.crcpress.com/Postharvest-Pathology-of-Fresh-Horticultural-Produce/Palou-Smilanick/p/book/9781138630833
Chapter
Book and book chapter only available for purchase as hardback or e-book: https://www.crcpress.com/Postharvest-Pathology-of-Fresh-Horticultural-Produce/Palou-Smilanick/p/book/9781138630833
Chapter
Book and book chapter only available for purchase as hardback or e-book: https://www.crcpress.com/Postharvest-Pathology-of-Fresh-Horticultural-Produce/Palou-Smilanick/p/book/9781138630833
Chapter
Book and book chapter only available for purchase as hardback or e-book: https://www.crcpress.com/Postharvest-Pathology-of-Fresh-Horticultural-Produce/Palou-Smilanick/p/book/9781138630833
Article
Full-text available
Starch–gellan (80:20) coating formulations were applied to apples and persimmons to analyse their effectiveness controlling the weight loss, respiration rate, fruit firmness, and fungal decay during postharvest. Thyme essential oil (EO) was incorporated (0.25 and 0.5 g per g of polymer) directly or encapsulated in lecithin to enhance antifungal act...
Article
A large amount of GRAS (generally recognized as safe) salts and concentrations were evaluated in in vitro tests (inhibition of mycelial growth on PDA dishes) against Lasiodiplodia theobromae, the causal agent of citrus Diplodia stem-end rot. Ammonium carbonate (AC, 0.2%), potassium sorbate (PS, 2.0%), potassium carbonate (PC, 0.2%), sodium methylpa...
Article
Full-text available
Control of postharvest diseases of fresh fruits has relied for many years on the continuous use of conventional chemical fungicides. However, nonpolluting alternatives are increasingly needed because of human health and environmental issues related to the generation of chemical residues. Low-toxicity chemicals classified as food preservatives or as...
Article
Materials based on silver are used for controlling different pathogenic microorganisms. However, the influence of the silver carrier in the biocidal activity of the material has been scarcely reported. The present research is focused on studying the influence of zeolite properties on the biocidal activity of silver‐exchanged zeolites, acting as res...
Article
Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) is an expanding crop in Spain. The most important production area is València (about 90% of total planted area) and astringent ‘Rojo Brillante’ is by far the most planted cultivar. An increasingly important factor limiting storability of persimmon is postharvest decay due to Alternaria black spot (ABS) caused by th...
Article
Full-text available
The influence of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose- (HPMC-) beeswax (BW) composite edible coatings formulated with or without food additives with antifungal properties on physicochemical and sensory properties of plums (Prunus salicina) cv. “Friar” stored for 11 and 22 d at 1°C followed by a shelf life period of 5 d at 20°C was evaluated. Food preserva...
Research
Full-text available
The workshop is organised by the Postharvest Working Group of Italian Horticultural Society (SOI), with the support of the Italian Phytopathological Society (SIPaV), the Italian Association for Plant Protection (AIPP), the Italian Society for Research on Essential Oils (SIROE), and the Italian Society of Agricultural Engineering (AIIA). This meetin...
Article
One of the most economically important postharvest diseases of citrus fruit is green mold caused by the fungus Penicillium digitatum. In this investigation, the antifungal properties of silver FAU and silver LTA zeolites against P. digitatum either alone or incorporated into edible coatings were evaluated in citrus fruit. The Ag-zeolites were chara...
Article
Tuta absoluta is an invasive pest species that affects tomatoes and other solanaceous crops and is found in Europe and other Mediterranean areas. Hitherto, fumigation with methyl bromide is the only measure used to control this pest during the postharvest period. Because of methyl bromide phytotoxicity and health, safety and environmental concerns,...
Article
‘Algerie’ is currently the most important loquat cultivar in Spain. The incidence and etiology of postharvest diseases affecting this cultivar were determined under local conditions. Latent and wound pathogens were evaluated for two consecutive seasons on commercially grown loquats from two orchards. Healthy loquats were either surface-disinfected...
Article
Postharvest decay caused by fungal pathogens is one of the most important factors causing economic losses for the worldwide industry of fresh horticultural produce. Despite the positive results of the use of conventional chemical fungicides, alternatives for decay control are needed because of increasing concerns related to their widespread and con...
Article
Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is a fruit tree cultivated in semiarid to subtropical regions worldwide. During the last few years, pomegranate-growing areas in east-central Spain increased up to 3,500 ha with the introduction of foreign cultivars of vivid red color fruit such as ‘Wonderful’ and ‘Acco.’ In October 2013, symptoms consisting of inte...
Article
The curative activity of the food additives dehydroacetic acid, dimethyl dicarbonate, ethylene diamine tetracetic acid, sodium acetate, and sodium benzoate (SB) was tested in in vivo preliminary screenings against green and blue molds on citrus fruit artificially inoculated 24h before with Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, respectivel...
Article
Background: The greatest hurdle to the commercial marketing of fresh-cut fruits is related to their higher susceptibility to enzymatic browning, tissue softening, and microbial growth. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a pectin-based edible coating and low oxygen modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) to control enzymatic browning and...
Article
Synergistic effects and very effective control of citrus postharvest green and blue molds, caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, respectively, were observed on artificially inoculated 'Valencia' oranges and 'Clemenules' and 'Ortanique' mandarins after a potassium sorbate (PS) treatment was followed by 2 days of storage in atmosp...
Article
The effect of short-term exposure to high CO2 or O2 atmospheres, alone or in combination with heat (35°C), for the control of postharvest gray mold was evaluated on ‘Mollar de Elche’ pomegranate fruit artificially inoculated with Botrytis cinerea and stored at 20 or 5°C. Exposure to high CO2 for 48 h at 20°C effectively reduced gray mold on pomegra...
Article
Full-text available
According to their origin, major postharvest losses of citrus fruit are caused by weight loss, fungal diseases, physiological disorders, and quarantine pests. Cold storage and postharvest treatments with conventional chemical fungicides, synthetic waxes, or combinations of them are commonly used to minimize postharvest losses. However, the repeated...
Article
Purpose of review: The aim of this review is to assemble the key information available to understand the pathology and to develop strategies (pre- and postharvest) to control the main postharvest diseases of stone fruits.Findings: The bibliography presented in this review contains the most interesting research done in the last few years concerning...
Article
Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is a deciduous fruit tree native of central Asia included in the so-called group of minor fruit tree species. Although not widely grown, it has some importance in the east and southeast of Spain, where there are about 3100 ha of commercially cultivated pomegranates. In semi-arid climate areas like Spain, irrigation...
Article
Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is, since ancient times, one of the most appreciated fruits in the world for its nutricional and medicinal properties. Southeastern Spain is one of the most important pomegranate producing and exporting regions in the Mediterranean Basin. The cultivar-populations most frequently grown in this area are 'Mollar de Elc...
Article
The effects of active modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the postharvest quality of cherry tomatoes stored at cold temperature (5 °C) and in bi-oriented polypropylene/low density polyethylene BOPP/LDPE bags were investigated. The atmosphere composition used in the packaging was 5% O2 + 5% CO2 (MAP), and synthetic air (control). The variables me...
Article
Full-text available
Preventive and curative activities of postharvest treatments with selected chemical resistance inducers to control postharvest green and blue molds on oranges (cvs. 'Valencia' or 'Lanelate') artificially inoculated with Penicillium digitatum and P. italicum, respectively, were evaluated. In vivo primary screenings were conducted to select the most...
Article
Edible composite coatings based on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), beeswax (BW), and food preservatives with antifungal properties were formulated and evaluated on cherry tomatoes during cold storage. Selected food preservatives included: sodium methyl paraben (SMP), sodium ethyl paraben (SEP) and sodium benzoate (SB). Cherry tomatoes artific...
Article
In semi-arid climate areas, where often pomegranate trees are cultivated, irrigation management is a powerful tool to manipulate tree water status and performance and fruit composition. A field irrigation trial was conducted over four seasons in a 'Mollar de Elche' pomegranate orchard in southeastern Spain. This paper will focus on the main positiv...
Article
Full-text available
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are secondary metabolites acting as a language for the communication of plants with the environment. In orange fruits, the monoterpene D-limonene accumulates at very high levels in oil glands from the peel. Drastic down-regulation of D-limonene synthase gene expression in the peel of transgenic oranges harboring a...
Article
Full-text available
‘Rojo Brillante’ is currently the most important persimmon cultivar in Spain. The incidence and etiology of postharvest diseases affecting this cultivar were determined under local conditions. Latent and wound pathogens were assessed for two consecutive seasons on commercially grown persimmons from two orchards. Healthy persimmons were either surfa...
Article
'Rojo Brillante' persimmons can be commercialized as a fresh-cut commodity after removing natural fruit astringency by applying high levels of CO2. However, the shelf life of minimally-processed fruit is rather limited due to enzymatic browning and microbial growth. The aim of this study was to develop new edible coatings based on apple pectin with...
Article
Full-text available
Three paraben sodium salts (p-hydroxy-benzoate) were evaluated as postharvest treatments to control citrus green (GM) and blue (BM) mold, caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, respectively. The curative activity of sodium methyl (SMP; at 0.1, 1, 10, 40, 70, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mM), ethyl (SEP; at 0.1, 1, 10, 20, 30, 40, 70, an...
Article
New hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-lipid edible composite coatings containing food additives or GRAS ('generally regarded as safe') compounds with antifungal properties were developed for postharvest preservation of fresh citrus fruit. Stable emulsions were selected among a large number of formulations prepared with different solid concentrat...
Article
The performance of postharvest treatments with sodium propylparaben (SPP), alone or combined with low doses of the fungicide imazalil (IMZ), against citrus green (GM) and blue (BM) molds was evaluated on several citrus species and cultivars artificially inoculated with Penicillium digitatum and P. italicum, respectively, and incubated at 20 °C or c...
Patent
The invention consists in modifying the levels of accumulation and emission of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in citrus as a mechanism to achieve systemic resistance against pathogens or repellency against pests. The alteration of the content of d-limonene and other terpenes is achieved by genetic transformation via the introduction of a gene that...
Article
Edible composite coatings based on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), beeswax (BW), and food preservatives with antifungal properties, were evaluated on cherry tomatoes during cold storage. Food preservatives selected from previous research work included sodium propionate (SP), potassium carbonate (PC), ammonium phosphate (APh) and ammonium carb...
Chapter
Green and blue molds, caused by the pathogens Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, respectively, are the most economically important postharvest diseases of citrus fruit in all production areas with low summer rainfall. Both fungi are strict wound pathogens that affect all citrus species and cultivars and can infect the fruit in the fiel...
Article
The effect of commercial degreening with ethylene gas on fruit susceptibility and quality and development of postharvest green (GM) and blue (BM) molds on early season citrus fruit was investigated. Each cultivar was harvested with different peel color indexes (CI). Fruit were exposed for 3 d to 2 μL L−1 ethylene at 21 °C and 95–100% RH before or a...
Article
Preventive and curative antifungal activities of postharvest treatments with potassium silicate (PSi) against green (GM) and blue (BM) molds were evaluated on oranges (cvs. ‘Valencia’ or ‘Lanelate’) artificially inoculated in rind wounds with Penicillium digitatum and P. italicum, respectively. The most effective PSi concentration, the effect of fu...
Article
Common food preservative agents were evaluated in in vitro tests for their antifungal activity against Monilinia fructicola, the most economically important pathogen causing postharvest disease of stone fruits. Radial mycelial growth was measured in Petri dishes of PDA amended with three different concentrations of the agents (0.01-0.2%, v/v) after...
Article
Common food preservative agents were evaluated in in vitro tests for their antifungal activity against Monilinia fructicola, the most economically important pathogen causing postharvest disease of stone fruits. Radial mycelial growth was measured in Petri dishes of PDA amended with three different concentrations of the agents (0.01–0.2%, v/v) after...
Article
Fruit epiphyte and environmental fungal populations were examined in «Clemenules» orchards in Baix Ebre and Montsià areas (Tarragona, Spain). For two consecutive seasons, sampling was conducted twice (from September to December and from January to March) in four representative commercial orchards and in an organic orchard. Cladosporium was the most...
Chapter
Full-text available
Postharvest green mold, caused by the pathogen Penicillium digitatum (Pers.:Fr.) Sacc., is the most economically important postharvest disease of citrus fruits in Spain, areas with Mediterranean climate, and citrus production areas worldwide characterized by low summer rainfall. Economic losses due to this disease have been typically reduced throug...
Article
Early detection of fungal infections in citrus fruit still remains one of the major problems in postharvest technology. The potential of laser-light backscattering imaging was evaluated for detecting decay in citrus fruit after infection with the pathogen Penicillium digitatum, before the appearance of fruiting structures (green mould). Backscatter...
Article
Preventive and curative activities of postharvest treatments with selected chemical resistance inducers to control postharvest green (GM) and blue (BM) molds on oranges (cvs. 'Valencia' or 'Lanelate') artificially inoculated with Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, respectively, were evaluated. In vivo primary screenings to select the m...
Article
Research was conducted to elucidate the effect of commercial degreening with ethylene gas on the development of postharvest green (GM) and blue (BM) molds on artificially inoculated 'Clemenules' mandarins. Fruit were harvested with three different rind color index (CI=-6.5, -3.6, 2.2) and wound inoculated in the fruit equator with conidial suspensi...