Llinos G Harris

Llinos G Harris
Swansea University | SWAN · Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

33.33
 · 
PhD Molecular Microbilogy & Biotechnology

About

58
Publications
7,190
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
2,818
Citations

Publications

Publications (58)
Article
This study describes the analysis of DNA from heat-killed (boilate) isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from two UK outbreaks where DNA was of sub-optimal quality for the standard methodologies routinely used in microbial genomics. An Illumina library construction method developed for sequencing ancient DNA was successfully used to obtain whole...
Article
Full-text available
Polyastaxanthin p(ATX) is a family of polymers synthesized from the carotenoid astaxanthin and various dicarboxylic acids, resulting in moldable, high MW polymers, that can be made biodegradable. p(ATX) has previously shown to have antimicrobial properties in vitro, including inhibition of biofilm formation of S. epidermidis 1457, S. aureus MRSA252...
Article
Staphylococcus epidermidis is a common cause of biomedical device-associated infections. Agr is the major quorum sensing system in staphylococci and regulates virulence factors. Four agr-specificity groups exist in S. epidermidis, and chronic S. epidermidis infections are hypothesised to select for agr-negative phenotypes. Therefore, we investigate...
Article
Staphylococcus epidermidis has emerged as an important opportunistic pathogen causing orthopedic-device-related infections (ODRI). This study investigated the association of genome variation and phenotypic features of the infectingS. epidermidisisolate with the clinical outcome for the infected patient.S. epidermidisisolates were collected from 104...
Article
Full-text available
Staphylococcus epidermidis is a permanent member of the normal human microbiota, commonly found on skin and mucous membranes. By adhering to tissue surface moieties of the host via specific adhesins, S. epidermidis is capable of establishing a lifelong commensal relationship with humans that begins early in life. In its role as a commensal organism...
Article
Full-text available
A library of novel high molecular weight polymers based on the natural carotenoid astaxanthin (ATX) has been successfully synthesized. ATX is a powerful antioxidant, known for its various therapeutic properties including anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. It is a xanthophyll with a symmetric chemical structure bearing two hydroxyl grou...
Article
Purpose: Nasal colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is poorly described for surgeons, despite the increased exposure to nosocomial pathogens and at-risk patients. This study investigated the molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of 26 MRSA isolates cultured from the nares of an international cross-sect...
Article
Full-text available
Bacterial species comprise related genotypes that can display divergent phenotypes with important clinical implications. Staphylococcus epidermidis is a common cause of nosocomial infections and, critical to its pathogenesis, is its ability to adhere and form biofilms on surfaces, thereby moderating the effect of the host's immune response and anti...
Article
Background: A major complication of using medical devices is the development of biofilm-associated infection caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis where polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) is a major mechanism of biofilm accumulation. PIA affects innate and humoral immunity in isolated cells and animal models. Few studies have examined these...
Article
Full-text available
The opportunistic pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis represent major causes of severe nosocomial infection, and are associated with high levels of mortality and morbidity worldwide. These species are both common commensals on the human skin and in the nasal pharynx, but are genetically distinct, differing at 24% average...
Article
Full-text available
We describe the first in vitro model of dormancy in Staphylococcus aureus, showing that cells are generated which can be resuscitated by addition of spent medium supernatant taken from cultures of the same organism. Over 30 days, culturable counts in dormant cultures of S. aureus SH1000 fell from 10(6)-10(7) cfu/ml to <10 cfu/ml as measured by the...
Article
Full-text available
Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms cause chronic infections due to their ability to form biofilms. The excretions/secretions of Lucilia sericata larvae (maggots) have effective activity for debridement and disruption of bacterial biofilms. In this paper, we demonstrate how chymotrypsin derived from maggot excretions/secre...
Chapter
Full-text available
Coagulase-negative staphylococci, mainly Staphylococcus epidermidis, are currently the most frequent cause of hospital acquired infections in the USA. Mostly, but not exclusively, S. epidermidis infections are linked to the use of implanted medical devices like central venous catheters, prosthetic joints and heart valves, pacemakers, cardiac assist...
Article
Full-text available
Fifty-six α-hemolytic streptococcal isolates were identified using MALDI Biotyper MS (Bruker Daltonics), API 20 Strep (bioMérieux), and BD Phoenix (Becton, Dickinson). The gold standard for identification was 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis with 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer sequencing. The following percentages of isolates were correctly identifi...
Article
Identification of microbial pathogens still relies primarily on culture and phenotypic methods, which is labour-intensive and time-consuming. In this study, identification of bacteria with valid standard identification using BD Phoenix, API panels and other recommended procedures is compared to identification with matrix-assisted laser desorption/i...
Article
Full-text available
The skin commensal and opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis is a leading cause of hospital-acquired and biomaterial-associated infections. The polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), a homoglycan composed of β-1,6-linked N-acetylglucosamine residues, synthesized by enzymes encoded in icaADBC is a major functional factor in biofilm...
Article
Full-text available
This study evaluated a multiplex real-time PCR method specific for the mecA, femA-SA and femA-SE genes for rapid identification of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and non-S. epidermidis coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), and meticillin susceptibility testing directly in positive blood cultures that grew Gram-positive cocci i...
Article
Hospital-acquired infections associated with implanted medical devices are most commonly caused by staphylococci. Current methods of species identification are slow, costly, and sometimes unreliable. We evaluated the ability of a Bruker Daltonics Microflex MALDI-TOF/MS in conjunction with MALDI Biotyper software to identify 158 characterized staphy...
Article
Chronic infections are commonly associated with biofilms formed by bacteria such as Staphylococcus epidermidis. With the increase in antibiotic resistant bacteria, maggot debridement therapy has been reintroduced for the treatment of chronic wounds. Studies have shown that the excretion/ secretions (ES) of Lucilia sericata larvae (maggots) contain...
Article
The shear stress of flowing blood profoundly influences the release of endothelium-dependent vasodilative and constrictive factors. Conversely, the influence of these mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) or endothelin-1 (ET-1) on blood rheology remains elusive. In the present study the influence of nitrovasodilators and ET-1 on red blood cell (RBC)...
Article
Medical device-associated infections, most frequently caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus, are of increasing importance in modern medicine. The formation of adherent, multilayered bacterial biofilms is crucial in the pathogenesis of these infections. Polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), a homoglycan of β-1,6-linked...
Article
Currently, ica is considered to be the major operon responsible for staphylococcal biofilm. The effect of biofilm on susceptibility to staphylococcal infection of different implant materials in vivo is unclear. The interaction of ica-positive (wild-type (WT)) and ica-negative (ica(-)) Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis strains wit...
Article
We report on the potential application of Raman spectroscopy for the fast typing of Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) strains related to medical device-associated infections. In this study bacterial colonies were directly probed on culture plates and Raman spectra were recorded from volumes containing approximately 10 bacteria. The spectr...
Article
Ideally, implants should inhibit nonspecific protein adsorption, bacterial adhesion, and at the same time, depending on the final application be selective toward cellular adhesion and spreading for all or only selected cell types. Poly(L-lysine)-grafted-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLL-g-PEG) polymers have been shown to adsorb from aqueous solution onto...
Data
Full-text available
Genes found differentially expressed in the femAB+ backcross BB1305 compared to the wild type BB903. The selection of regulated genes is based on statistical significance of moderated t-scores and thus also includes genes with a log2(fold change) < |1|. The genes are clustered according to their cellular main role as in the S. aureus N315 genome an...
Article
Implant-associated infections can cause serious complications including osteomyelitis and soft tissue damage, and are a great problem due to the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In some cases, antibiotic-loaded beads which release the antibiotic locally have been used, however su...
Article
Nosocomial staphylococcal foreign-body infections related to biofilm formation are a serious threat, demanding new therapeutic and preventive strategies. As the use of biofilm-associated factors as vaccines is critically restricted by their prevalence in natural staphylococcal populations we studied the distribution of genes involved in biofilm for...
Article
Full-text available
Synthesis of the Staphylococcus aureus peptidoglycan pentaglycine interpeptide bridge is catalyzed by the nonribosomal peptidyl transferases FemX, FemA and FemB. Inactivation of the femAB operon reduces the interpeptide to a monoglycine, leading to a poorly crosslinked peptidoglycan. femAB mutants show a reduced growth rate and are hypersusceptible...
Article
Medical device-associated infections, most frequently caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci, especially Staphylococcus epidermidis, are of increasing importance in modern medicine. The formation of adherent, multilayered bacterial biofilms is the most important factor in the pathogenesis of these infections, which regularly fail to respond to...
Article
Full-text available
INTRODUCTION: Internal fracture fixation implant surface finishes vary from electropolishing of stainless steel (SS) to micro-rough commercially pure' titanium (cpTi) and Ti-6%Al-7%Nb (TAN). Material comparisons are difficult as the surface finish of the materials vary considerably. 'Standard' SS has a smooth 'mirror like' finish while standard cpT...
Article
Acute and chronic osteomyelitis caused by staphylococci can be difficult to treat by conventional means and often has marked consequences for the patient. Current methods of treatment involve the use of systemic antibiotics, the local implantation of nondegradable drug carriers, and surgical debridement. A possible solution that could prevent initi...
Article
Surfaces of internal fracture fixation implants are generally designed to encourage soft- and/or hard-tissue adherence, eventually leading to tissue or osseo integration. Unfortunately, this feature may also encourage bacterial adhesion. About half of the two million cases of nosocomial infections per year in the US are associated with indwelling d...
Article
Incidences of infection following elective orthopedic surgery are low and range from 0.7−4.2%, depending on the type of operation, soft-tissue status, general patient condition, and prophylactic use of antibiotics. Patients with open fractures clearly show a higher risk of infection (5−33%) due to bacterial contamination and soft tissue damage. The...
Article
Medical device-associated infections, most frequently caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci, especially Staphylococcus epidermidis, are of increasing importance in modern medicine. Regularly, antimicrobial therapy fails without removal of the implanted device. The most important factor in the pathogenesis of medical device-associated staphyloc...
Article
Full-text available
Carbon catabolite protein A (CcpA) is known to function as a major regulator of gene expression in different gram-positive organisms. Deletion of the ccpA homologue (saCOL1786) in Staphylococcus aureus was found to affect growth, glucose metabolization, and transcription of selected virulence determinants. In liquid culture, deletion of CcpA decrea...
Article
Biodegradable polyurethanes have potential for use as implantable devices (orthopedic, maxillofacial, cardiovascular, wound dressing and plastic surgery) because of their controllable elasticity, and the possibility of changing their chemistry and structure. Studying bacterial and cell adhesion to polyurethanes helps to determine surface cytocompat...
Article
Over the years, many metal and polymer implants have been developed for internal fracture fixation. However, there are always some problems associated with their application, such as implant loosening or infection. This study describes how the morphology and adhesion of both fibroblasts and osteoblasts to two manufactured commercially pure, medical...
Article
The influence of contrast media on blood viscosity, erythrocyte morphology and platelet function was studied. In vitro blood was incubated with iopromide (Ultravist), ioxaglate (Hexabrix) or gadolinium-DOTA (Dotarem). Plasma viscosity and whole blood viscosity were measured and the mean erythrocyte volume and morphology were assessed. Platelet aggr...
Article
Full-text available
Implanted biomaterials are coated immediately with host plasma constituents, including extracellular matrix (ECM); this reaction may be undesirable in some cases. Poly(L-lysine)-grafted-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLL-g-PEG) has been shown to spontaneously adsorb from aqueous solution onto metal oxide surfaces, effectively reducing the degree of non-spe...
Article
Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen, associated with medical-device related infections. Converting biomaterial surfaces into non-interactive surfaces requires a specific surface/interface design. One approach is to polish the surface, and a second is to coat the surface with an antimicrobial or protein resistant coating. This study showed tha...
Article
Full-text available
In order for Staphylococcus aureus to adhere to host extracellular matrix (ECM) substrates, it elicits a wide range of surface proteins. We have characterized a novel ∼1.1-MDa protein in S. aureus, termed Ebh (for ECM-binding protein homologue), which has homology to other ECM-binding proteins. Ebh consists of several domains, including a large cen...
Article
The ability of Staphylococcus aureus to adhere to the extracellular matrix and plasma proteins deposited on biomaterials is a significant factor in the pathogenesis of orthopaedic-device related infections. S. aureus possesses many adhesion proteins on its surface, but it is not known how they interact with each other to form stable interactions wi...
Article
The ability of Staphylococcus aureus to adhere to the extracellular matrix and plasma proteins deposited on biomaterials is a significant factor in the pathogenesis of orthopaedic-device related infections. S. aureus possesses many adhesion proteins on its surface, but it is not known how they interact with each other to form stable interactions wi...
Article
Fibroblast and Staphylococcus aureus detachment strength from orthopaedic alloys and a tissue culture plastic (Thermanox) have been investigated with jet impingement. For S. aureus, unlike fibroblasts, detachment is caused more by pressure than shear. For these biomaterials, detachment strength is much higher for S. aureus than fibroblasts. Compari...
Article
Parathyroid hormone and calcitonin, both endocrine modulators of calcium homeostasis, may influence blood rheology. Parathyroid hormone is known to reduce erythrocyte survival, leading to anemia. Calcitonin has been found to have some vascular effects. We have analyzed the Influence of parathyroid hormone (10(-7) to 10(-10) mol/L), calcitonin (10(-...
Article
Adhesions between cells and substrates can be ob-served when the undersurfaces of resin-embedded cells are examined using high emission current backscattered elec-tron (HCBSE) imaging with a Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). The aim of this study was to find a fixation procedure that would optimise the con-trast of cell adhesion...
,