Llewellyn Leonard

Llewellyn Leonard
University of South Africa | unisa · Department of Environmental Sciences

PhD (Geography) - Kings College London

About

83
Publications
44,570
Reads
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662
Citations
Introduction
Llewellyn has an MSc (Environmental Management) - University of KwaZulu-Natal (Westville) and a Ph.D. Human Geography from Kings College London. He is passionate about human rights and has worked on environmental issues related to industrial, medical and municipal waste, landfills, air pollution, incineration, cleaner production techniques, and obsolete pesticides. Research interests include environmental justice; sustainability; industrial risks; climate change; and political ecology/economy
Additional affiliations
June 2018 - present
UNISA
Position
  • Professor
November 2017 - May 2018
University of Johannesburg
Position
  • Head of Faculty
Description
  • Develop policies and committees; funding and grants, marketing; Events, Graduations, Awards ceremonies; promotions and appointments; chairing of committees; international collaboration; appoint visiting professors, etc.
May 2012 - November 2017
University of Johannesburg
Position
  • HoD Tourism
Description
  • Co-ordination of the department functions, administration, budget planning and expenditure, performance appraisals, enrolment targets planning, re-curriculation of programmes, Marketing of departmental offerings via public forums and media interviews
Education
January 2006 - February 2009
King's College London
Field of study
  • Human Geography (Environmental Justice)

Publications

Publications (83)
Article
Full-text available
Although the tourism sector has greater potential for job creation than the mining sector, the debate on which sector may be more sustainable for employment and local social development, has not been extensively researched, especially in the global South. The popular tourist destination of Dullstroom, Mpumalanga has come under threat from an increa...
Book
This book investigates indigenous knowledge systems (IKS) in sub-Saharan Africa, thereby highlighting its role in facilitating adaptation to climate variability and change, and also demystifying the challenges that prevent it from being integrated with scientific knowledge in climate governance schemes. Indigenous people and their priceless knowled...
Book
This book examines the nexus between conservation, land conflicts, and sustainable tourism approaches in Southern Africa, with a focus on equity, access, restitution, and redistribution. While Southern Africa is home to important biodiversity, pristine woodlands, and grasslands, and is a habitat for important wildlife species, it is also a land of...
Article
Full-text available
Due to many abandoned mines that are not rehabilitated, there will be illegal mining. Although the mining industry and government continue to prevent illegal gold mining in abandoned mines by sealing open shafts, it is not possible to close all the shafts at once due to limited resources. Furthermore, after sealing the shafts, illegal miners often...
Article
KwaMaye community in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, has, for decades, suffered from severe environmental degradation partly due to soil erosion. Yet, no study has analysed farmers’ perception of environmental challenges confronting them and their effects on local livelihoods. Focus group discussions were conducted with KwaMaye farmers selected throug...
Article
Full-text available
COVID-19 is a game changer. Despite the challenges it posed to the tourism industry, the sector and communities relying on tourism are resilient. Change is inevitable, it is the only constant factor hence the need to be innovative.
Article
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In March 2012, the Nigerian meteorological agency forecasted massive flooding for parts of the country, with the displacement of large parts of the population as a consequence. Delta State in southern Nigeria was earmarked as a region expected to be adversely affected by the anticipated flood. Despite the Nigerian Emergency Management Agency (NEMA)...
Article
Full-text available
As a new phenomenon, geotourism research is on the rise. Although South Africa has some interesting geoheritage sites, not much has been done to investigate the potential contribution of geotourism to the tourism sector, the protection of natural resources and employment generation, let alone the challenges that may be experienced in promoting geot...
Article
Full-text available
Within sustainability development paradigms, state governance is considered important in interventions to address risks produced by the industrial society. However, there is largely a lack of understanding, especially in the Global South, about the nature and workings of the governance institutions necessary to tackle risks effectively. Reflexive g...
Article
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The concept of sustainable development has been widely adopted as a mechanism for job creation and poverty alleviation. Whilst the economic and environmental dimensions of sustainable development have received much attention, especially the former, the social sustainability pillar has been largely neglected. For this article, the theory of social s...
Article
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Environmental and climatic changes have become issues of global concern partly because of their ability to disrupt activities connected to people's livelihood. Yet, the emotional distress caused by these changes and the factors responsible for place-based attachment, especially in the Global South, have received scant attention to date. Drawing on...
Article
Full-text available
In contrast to Europe, Asia and South America where geotourism is actively pursued, geotourism activities in South Africa have not to-date been a focus of tourism products. The purpose of this paper is to propose a field methodology that can be used to assess the potential for geotourism development. Existing procedures to establish geotourism site...
Chapter
Full-text available
The discussion on the progress towards sustainable African cities has been growing. The African region has unique histories and distinctive social, economic and political dynamics. In this regard, a dialogue on the risks and challenges facing urban tourism in the sub-Saharan African (SSA) region has been provided in this volume. It fills a scholars...
Chapter
"Urban tourism in the developing world is an underappreciated yet vital topic. Increased urbanisation, often poor public infrastructure, and increased threats, not least of which are global environmental change and the climate crisis, highlight the need for greater research on the interrelationships between urban tourism, risk and resilience at var...
Book
Full-text available
This book investigates urban tourism development in Sub-Saharan Africa, highlighting the challenges and risks involved, but also showcasing the potential benefits. Whilst much is written on Africa’s rural environments, little has been written about the tourism potential of the vast natural, cultural and historical resources in the continent’s urban...
Chapter
Full-text available
Inclusiveness that improves tourism governance is significant for development if benefits from tourism are distributed equitably. Declaration of 2017 as the International Year of Sustainable Tourism and adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have seemingly brought tourism to the forefront of development even where the SDGs have limite...
Article
Full-text available
South Africa’s adopted neoliberalism framework, since democracy, has spearheaded industrial development such as mining and has contributed to eroding civil society formations for environmental justice. Although civil society has acted against mining developments, such actions can be uncoordinated due to neoliberal development influences. Neoliberal...
Article
Full-text available
ORIENTATION: This article provided a theoretical enhancement for geotourism development positing the geotourism development index that contributed to gaining understanding of geotourism development by different stakeholders. RESEARCH PURPOSE: To establish and delineate a measurement scale of factors and subsequent variables that influenced geotouri...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this paper is to ignite a conversation on the challenges of the ongoing 'novel' surrounding the coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic in the Southern Africa region. The global COVID-19 pandemic started with the outbreak in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. It is understood that different countries, regions and territories will have differe...
Article
South Africa’s adopted neoliberalism framework since democracy has spearheaded industrial development such as mining and has contributed to eroding civil society formations for environmental justice. Although civil society has acted against mining developments, such actions can be uncoordinated due to neoliberal development influences. Neoliberalis...
Article
Full-text available
In the wake of a rapidly changing climate, climate services have enabled farmers in developing countries to make informed decisions, necessary for efficient food production. Climate services denote the timely production, translation, delivery and use of climate information to enhance decision-making. However, studies have failed to analyse the exte...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we seek to examine obstacles to township tourism development in Alexandra Township, Johannesburg, an area characterised by crime, unemployment, and poverty. Although the government implemented initiatives since 2001 to upgrade Alexandra as a tourism destination, the township remains underdeveloped. This paper reports on empirical evi...
Article
Although the significance of scientific expertise is often proposed and empirically illustrated in academic literature, it is still unclear how environmental expertise becomes authoritative, and how its legitimacy can be challenged. In order to understand the interplay between scientific expertise and civil society engagement, this paper examines h...
Article
Full-text available
Inclusiveness that improves tourism governance is significant for development if benefits from tourism are distributed equitably. Declaration of 2017 as the International Year of Sustainable Tourism and adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have seemingly brought tourism to the forefront of development even where the SDGs have limite...
Chapter
Full-text available
South African tourism geography studies have largely ignored how issues of industrial pollution and development such as for mining have affected nature tourism and conservation sites. It is argued in this chapter that South Africa’s transition to a democracy has not necessarily resulted in improved governance and protection of nature tourism destin...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines social differences and drought vulnerability among subsistence livestock farmers in Mpakeni, Mpumalanga province, South Africa. This paper asks, how do social differences between households and power relations shape vulnerability to drought? This is against the backdrop that parallel exposure to climatic risks does not translate...
Article
Full-text available
Inadequate water supply is one of the greatest current and growing global challenges particularly in rural communities of the developing world. Part of the challenge has been the ineffective water legislation and policies contributing to poor water management and governance. This study investigates policy and institutional responses of community-ba...
Article
Full-text available
Inadequate water supply is one of the greatest current and growing global challenges particularly in rural communities of the developing world. Part of the challenge has been the ineffective water legislation and policies contributing to poor water management and governance. This study investigates policy and institutional responses of community-ba...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to question the extent to which Sub-Saharan African cities are progressing towards promoting pro-poor economies through pro-poor tourism (PPT). It specifically examines how African cities are resilient towards attaining sustainable urban tourism destinations in light of high urbanization. Design/methodology/app...
Article
In South Africa, proposals for mining are becoming increasingly situated in rural areas, with communities impacted negatively by local resource extraction due to environmental and social impacts. Unfortunately, traditional leadership structures have largely posed a barrier towards inclusion of local community concerns/decisions over mining developm...
Article
Full-text available
Current academic literature examining race and nature conservation in South Africa has relied mainly on secondary data analysis while neglecting the voices of local communities. This article draws on empirical experience to assess the extent of the impact of race and social equity in conservation, with the aim of promoting sustainable and more incl...
Chapter
Full-text available
In contemporary South Africa, environmental justice is a critical question for geographers. It is argued in this chapter that whilst new civil society leadership has emerged to address environmental justice concerns in the post-apartheid period, these have not been effective in formulating an emerging ‘environmental justice framework’ by way of a c...
Article
Full-text available
During Apartheid, the mining industry operated without restraint and compromised the ecology, the health of mining workers, and local communities. The lines between the mining industry and government was often unclear with the former influencing government decisions to favour uncontrolled operations. Although new post-Apartheid regulations were des...
Article
Full-text available
South Africa presents a unique case for mining development and impacts on sustainability because the lines between the mining industry and the state are unclear and due to the increasing inequality between citizens. This questions the potential for citizens to hold mining industries (and government) accountable for environmental abuse. This paper e...
Article
Full-text available
Greening is an effective way for hotels to minimise their impact on the environment. Studies have shown that many South African hotels have not adopted greening practices because governance and guidance from the South African government are poor. There is also limited academic literature exploring stakeholder relationships and enforcement of greeni...
Article
Full-text available
Mining licenses in post-apartheid South Africa are being granted by the ruling government in sensitive areas that are important tourism hubs and employment generators. Limited research has been conducted to understand mining impacts on protected environments and tourism sites. This paper will focus on the Mapungubwe World Heritage Site as a tourist...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores the potential to converge the theory of political ecology with the environmental justice discipline as means to promote more effective civil society actions against macro-economic risks, whilst analysing the case of South Africa. Such a convergence could result in mutual benefit for both arenas that already share a commitment to...
Article
Full-text available
Whereas anti-apartheid social movements engaged collectively against a repressive regime, especially in actions against social injustices, post-apartheid civil society has witnessed fragmentation when it comes to engaging jointly against neoliberal risks such as poor/no service delivery, privatisation, and environmental pollution. Civil society has...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The study conceptualizes service quality as a second-order factor and analyzes its influence on customer satisfaction, perceived value, image, consumption emotions, and customer loyalty by testing a structural equation model. Design/methodology/approach The model is tested using data collected from 672 guests staying in accommodation est...
Article
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South African democracy witnessed considerable effort to redefine Environmental Impact Assessment regulations to improve participation of citizens towards sustainable development activities. Unfortunately, the effectiveness of participatory processes has generally been mixed and in many cases fallen below expectations, with lack of empirical eviden...
Article
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Despite the advent of democracy witnessing government making considerable progress in developing the legal frameworks to manage mining development and include citizens in decision-making processes, this has largely been unsuccessful. Although it is known that the post-apartheid state may be ineffective in holding mining companies accountable for so...
Article
Full-text available
The West Rand is known for its gold mining industry, including its tourist attractions. The local municipality describes the area as ‘unspoiled wilderness’ that must be carefully managed to preserve its heritage. However historical mining activities has resulted in the formation of acid mine drainage with impacts on the tourism industry. Anecdotal...
Article
Full-text available
The Kyoto Protocol is an international arrangement setting goals for thirty-seven industrialised countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Clean Development Mechanism as a flexibility mechanism defined in the Kyoto Protocol offers emission reduction projects which generate Certified Emission Reduction units which may be traded in emissions...
Article
There is now an increasing need for universities to support first year students to more easily transition into the academic environment. This is largely due to many students dropping out in their first year of study due to various factors. Such factors may include socio -economic factors and historical legacies. Although studies have been conducted...
Article
Full-text available
Tourism and hospitality is a booming industry with negative impacts on the environment. In order to keep up with consumer demand the industry is utilising more natural resources than previously assumed, questioning sustainability practices within the industry. However the industry can contribute to sustainable development by adopting greening princ...
Article
Full-text available
Alexandra Township is one of the most populated and poorest townships in Johannesburg. It is surrounded by the country’s most affluent and prosperous suburbs such as Wendywood, Kelvin, and Sandton. Unlike the Soweto Township, which emerged as a well-known township destination in postapartheid South Africa, township tourism is a recent phenomenon in...
Article
Full-text available
The Handbook of Civil Society in Africa, edited by Ebenezer ObadareLondon: Springer, 2013. Pp. 490. £117 (hbk) - Volume 53 Issue 1 - LLEWELLYN LEONARD
Article
Full-text available
Tourism and hospitality is a booming industry with negative impacts on the environment. In order to keep up with consumer demand the industry is utilising more natural resources than previously assumed, questioning sustainability practices within the industry. However the industry can contribute to sustainable development by adopting greening princ...
Article
Full-text available
The World Social Forum (WSF) has provided an international stage for civil society from across the globe to share ideas, strategies, tactics and struggles for creating 'another world' against the failures of market inequalities. It attracts more than sixty thousand people pursuing the vision of 'Another World is Possible', with the event becoming a...
Article
Full-text available
Developing countries are suffering most under climate change and global warming. The tragedy is that countries in the global South have contributed limitedly to climate change with the problem caused mainly by the fiscal activity of the northern developed countries. How effective have policy interventions been in tackling the climate crisis and how...
Article
Full-text available
To cite this article: Llewellyn Leonard (2014) Reconsidering the 'risk society theory' in the South: The case of civil society actions against a proposed industrial risk facility in Durban, makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (the "Content") contained in the publications on our platform. However, Taylor & Francis, our a...
Article
Full-text available
Although post-apartheid South Africa has witnessed constraints on press freedom by the ruling party, there is limited understanding of how media discourse is contested and constructed by diverse social actors. This article is interested in the extent to which various social actors in the Durban network society, such as civil society, corporations a...
Article
Full-text available
Since South Africa’s transition to democracy, civil society has been considered a critical component of new inclusive “democratic” societies, acting to ensure human rights for all. Government and donor agencies require the incorporation of this sector within project documents and programmes. However, is civil society merely a loosely defined term u...
Conference Paper
This paper examines the ability of civil society leaders in Africa to assist in forging a common vision against industrial risks. With increased industrial pollution such as air, water and land contamination that impact on the marginalised, how have African leaders assisted in working together and with the grassroots in tackling the industrial cris...
Conference Paper
With neoliberalism contributing to growing inequalities around the globe and worsening living conditions for the majority of the world’s people, alternative visions to combat inequalities are required. The World Social Forum (WSF) attracts on average more than sixty thousand people pursuing the vision of 'Another World is Possible', with the event...
Article
Full-text available
Africa will suffer most under climate change as the continent is the poorest and least equipped to adapt to the potential impacts of the climate crisis. This paper briefly reviews some of the emerging trends surrounding climate change and implications for the African continent. It explores some of the already devastating impacts of climate change o...
Article
Full-text available
Under Apartheid, marginalised groups had limited power to influence decisions contributing to environmental injustices. Democracy witnessed civil society as ‘inclusive’ to engage in formal decision-making. This paper examines the ability of the state and industry to effectively implement formal participatory decision-making spaces, including the ab...
Article
Full-text available
The idealization of the natural environmental as a virtual garden of Eden during colonization and apartheid in South Africa has continued to influence mainstream conservationists focusing purely on nature – excluding environmental justice concerns. If issues of environmental justice are neglected, then biodiversity is also at risk. The paper draws...
Conference Paper
The concept of environmental justice emerged in the United States as a response to the unequal distribution of environmental risks amongst specific ethnic communities, with South Africa building on from the United States movement. Unfortunately, the days of the United States as environmental justice pioneer have weakened. Germany now paves the way...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Decisions on what risks are acceptable and by whom often lead to the contested nature of risk assessment and remedial action. This paper examines perceptions of industrial risk between civil society and industrial environmental health practitioners. This paper draws on qualitative research from a local case study in Merebank, South Durban to explor...
Conference Paper
Democracy in South Africa witnessed an inclusive civil society acting to ensure a just and healthy environment for all citizens as defined in the constitution. Government and donor agencies have required the integration of this sector within development projects to support grassroots empowerment. What really is this civil society that has become so...
Article
Full-text available
The concerns of political ecology since its beginnings as a field have been predominantly set in rural areas with limited focus on urban industrial risks. Further, debates on the global South (often from Anglo-American perspectives) have not fully appreciated the divergent and differentiated perceptions of urban risks and, therefore, everyday forms...
Article
Full-text available
The World Social Forum is a site of hope for many activists that ‘Another World is Possible’, yet, as Llewelyn Leonard describes, there is a long way to go and much grassroots organisation to be done before such a world can come into being.
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the ability of civil society leaders in Durban, South Africa to champion environmental justice in an industrial risk society. It presents viewpoints from key social actors at the Durban city level, including three local case sites, to examine civil society leadership capacity to achieve environmental justice by addressing grassr...
Article
Full-text available
This paper seeks to map the extent to which civil society actors champion environmental justice in an industrial risk society. It examines the role of civil society actors in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, in being able to perceive industrial risk and push local concerns in development processes. The paper draws on qualitative and empirical research for a...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the ability of civil society actors to champion environmental justice in an industrial risk society in South Africa by way of mobilisation and protest action. This paper presents viewpoints from key stakeholders at the Durban city level and three local case study sites to examine social capital relations to achieve environmental...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report provides a contextual overview of DDT usage in South Africa. It specifically highlights the fact that the present use of DDT in South Africa is unnecessary in the Mphumalanga and Limpopo provinces where the only malaria vector is the Anopheles arabiensis which can be effectively controlled with pyrethroids and other less toxic technolog...
Technical Report
Full-text available
For years polluting technologies such as incinerators which have been rejected in the north have been pushed to developing countries. Due to health effects and public pressure, since 1995, dirty technologies such as incinerators in the US have been rapidly phased out. Incineration as a dirty technology is been phased out in Greece, Germany, Japan,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Health Care Waste is a mounting problem in South Africa as in many other countries. Desktop studies show that 45% of health care waste generated in the KwaZulu-Natal province alone cannot be accounted for, suggesting that it is being illegally dumped, buried or burnt somewhere, thus affecting the health of people and the environment. The paper outl...

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Projects (2)
Project
The volume aims at demystifying the role of indigenous knowledge systems (IKS) in facilitating climate change adaptation and mitigation, as well as analysing the extent to which IKS features in climate governance and planning schemes in Sub-Saharan Africa. Also, the volume unpacks the challenges that prevent IKS from being integrated with scientific knowledge in climate change governance schemes.
Archived project
Although much research has been conducted on the tourism phenomenon, the imbalances between the developed and the developing countries has been largely recognised by scholars. Knowledge production has largely been dominated by the developed world. Such geographic imbalances as Nunkoo, Gursoy and Ramkissoon (2013:269) noted ‘provides some indication of underlying power dimensions in the production of tourism knowledge’. The need for further research in the developing context cannot be overemphasised. This need is even more pressing given the recent calls for the decolonisation of education in Africa (as seen in the student movement campaign in South Africa in 2015) with specific focus on African epistemologies. There has been a general lack of African voices exploring the continents tourism geographic discourses and away from the Anglo-American centre. There is thus a need to explore from where and how tourism geographic discourses emanate and their construction thereof. Within this context, this issue therefore seeks to proliferate African scholarships and issues surrounding ‘contemporary trends in Africa’s tourism and hospitality landscape.’