Ljubica Marjanovič Umek

Ljubica Marjanovič Umek
University of Ljubljana · Department of Psychology

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41
Publications
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643
Citations

Publications

Publications (41)
Article
Until their conceptual, systemic and substantive reform in the 1990s, preschool institutions in Slovenia were recognised predominantly as care institutions, on the one hand, and as “preparatory institutions” for school or pre-primary school, on the other. This paper presents an analysis of preschool education in Slovenia based on theoretical starti...
Article
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The central premise of the attachment theory is that attachment security and the model of early child-parent relationship is reflected in the child’s interpersonal relationships across the life span, including his/her friendships. The child-parent relationship at different developmental stages is thus considered one of the most important predictors...
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In our study, we aimed to analyse the effect of child gender on parental and child interactive play behaviour, as well as to determine relations between parental general knowledge of child development and parental play behaviour in two developmental periods, namely toddlerhood and early childhood. The sample included 99 children (50 toddlers 1–3 ye...
Article
In the present study, we analysed the relations among the quality of mother–child shared reading, child’s storytelling and family literacy environment. The sample included 20 mother–child dyads, with 5-year-old children, who were recorded during shared reading. The quality of shared reading was assessed with the Scale for Observing Shared Reading w...
Article
Child gender has been proved to affect toddlers’/children’s language development in several studies, but its effect was not found to be stable across different ages or various aspects of language ability. The effect of gender on toddler’s, children’s and adolescents’ language ability was examined in the present meta-analysis of ten Slovenian studie...
Article
The aim of this longitudinal study, carried out on a sample of Slovenian-speaking toddlers, was to analyze developmental changes and stability in early vocabulary development; to establish relations between toddler's vocabulary and grammar; and to analyze the effects of parental education and the frequency of shared reading on toddlers' vocabulary...
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In this longitudinal study, we examined qualitative and quantitative changes in and the effect of gender on the vocabulary development of a sample of Slovenian toddlers (28 boys, 23 girls). In addition, we analysed the use of gender-typed words in boys’ and girls’ vocabularies. Parents assessed toddlers’ vocabulary 6 times over a 15-month period, a...
Article
The aim of this qualitative study was to evaluate the positive and negative aspects of the interactive whiteboard (IWB) and tablet computers use in the first grade of primary school from the perspectives of three groups of evaluators, namely the teachers, the pupils and an independent observer. The sample included three first grade classes with chi...
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Full-text available
In our study, we explored the ways in which SES-related factors of family environment affect child's language across toddlerhood and early childhood. We proposed a mediational path model in which we presumed that family literacy activities and parental encouragement of symbolic play acted as mediating variables, mediating the effect of parental edu...
Article
This study examines the effect of certain socio-cultural factors of the family environment on the language of toddlers and children in early childhood. The sample included 86 families with one- to six-year-old children. The data on the social, economic, and cultural factors of the family environment, parental reading literacy, parental knowledge of...
Article
Attachment is a permanent emotional bond activated in children by signals that they Perceive as frightening, dangerous or stressful, while in the parents' attachment system of care, it is activated by the goal of satisfying children's needs. The aim of this research was to determine which strategies mothers use in their interaction with children, a...
Article
The purpose of our study was to examine the ways in which parents engage in play with their children within the family context and to establish which parental play behaviour predicts the play behaviour of their children during interactive play with toys. The sample included 58 children from 2;6 to 6 years old and their parents. The parent–child dya...
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The family literacy environment is reported to be an important predictor of a child's language and early literacy development. This study examined the relations between various aspects of family literacy environment and different measures of children's language, assessed in three different settings, namely in a structured test situation, at home an...
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The goal of this research was to test thc difference between methers of securely and mothers of insecurely attached children with regard to personality traits. The sample consisted of 80 children aged five to seven and their mothers. Instruments used in thc research were: Technique for attachment evaluation in children MCAST (Thc Manchester Child A...
Article
Storytelling represents an aspect of children's general language competence. The characteristics of the home literacy environment, especially joint reading between parents and children, have a significant effect on children's storytelling. The purpose of this study was to explore the age differences in the storytelling of three- to six-year-old chi...
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Communicative competences develop rapidly in the periods of infanthood and toddlerhood, both from the qualitative and quantitative point of view. In the following study we aimed to analyse for the first time the age differences in early communication competences of Slovenian infants and toddlers. The sample included 512 infants and toddlers, aged f...
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ABSTRACT A large body of research shows that vocabulary does not develop independently of grammar, representing a better predictor of the grammatical complexity of toddlers' utterances than age. This study examines for the first time the characteristics of vocabulary and grammar development in Slovenian-speaking infants and toddlers using the Slove...
Article
Due to the broad acceptance of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and other comparative studies as instruments of policymaking, its accuracy is essential. This article attempts to demonstrate omissions in the conceptualisation, and consequently in calculation and interpretation, of one of the central points of PISA 2006 and 2...
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The present study explored gender differences in emerging language skills in 13,783 European children from 10 non-English language communities. It was based on a synthesis of published data assessed with adapted versions of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDIs) from age 0.08 to 2.06. The results showed that girls are slig...
Article
This study examines the effect of parental education and children's storybook exposure on children's storytelling in middle childhood. The sample included 114 children, 6 to 9 years old and their parents. The assessment of children's storybook exposure was obtained indirectly through the parents' familiarity with storybooks using the Checklist of T...
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Storytelling reflects children's pragmatic language ability, which develops rapidly in early childhood and is related to various characteristics of the child's environment. This study examines the effect of preschool, maternal education and quality of the home environment on children's storytelling skills. The sample included 229 Slovenian children...
Article
Several studies have demonstrated that children's gender and parental education exert a significant, but not equal, effect on toddler language development at different ages. This study determined the effect of children's gender and parental education on the verbal competence of toddlers between 16 and 30 months. The sample included 953 Slovenian to...
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Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of preschool on children’s school readiness in connection with their intellectual abilities, language competence and parents’ education. The sample included 219 children from 68 to 83 months old attending the first year of primary school, differentiated by whether or not they had attended preschoo...
Article
This study ascertains the extent to which children's intellectual ability and factors in the family environment (paternal and maternal education, and quality of the family environment) and in preschool (the age at which children start preschool and preschool quality) are linked to children's language competence (language comprehension, language exp...
Article
The authors present an original Slovene instrument for assessment of children's language front ages four to six that was developed based oil the analysis of foreign tests and the authors' own research. While the criteria for assessment of child's story have been presented in detail ill Slovenia and elsewhere, the present article presents the Scales...
Article
Studies in the area of developmental psychology — especially those carried out in the past thirty years — show that preschool quality, both at the structural and process levels, in combination with the quality of the family environment influences various areas of children's development and learning. The goal of this study is to determine the effect...
Article
In the present study we examined the effects of age at entry to preschool in interaction with maternal education and the quality of child's home literacy environment on children's language. The sample included 162 children, who were divided into two groups depending on their age at entry to the preschool institution: children who entered preschool...
Article
As the findings of many studies have shown, different aspects of children's home literacy environment are related to the development of their language competence. We designed the Home Literacy Environment Questionnaire (HLEQ) to evaluate the quality of different aspects of the home literacy environment. This paper presents the development of this i...
Article
As part of a larger Slovene longitudinal study on the impact of the preschool institution on the child's development and his or her school achievements, effects of the age at entry to preschool on children's language were explored. The sample included 82 children, who were divided into two groups depending on their age at entry to the preschool ins...
Article
Many studies show that play represents an important context for the development of child's language, communication skills and competence, and is often accompanied by complex language interactions. The purpose of our study was to evaluate children's use of language during three different pre-school activities: free play, routine activity and guided...
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Full-text available
The importance of the role played by children's literature in the child's mental, social and linguistic development and in the development of his or her basic academic skills, such as reading and writing, has been confirmed by numerous studies (e.g. Becher and Wolfgans, 1977; Browne, 1996; Pellegrini, 1980; Pellegrini and Galda, 1992). A central is...
Article
There is an increasing number of studies and papers which highlight the social function of speech and the importance of communication in the context of social interactions. Our study analyses communication between children, namely the speech in connection with the social interactions of children. Symbolic play is one of the important activities whi...
Article
This contribution highlights the impact of contextual factors (the structure and realism of toys and the play situation) on the development of symbolic play. The studies compared three age groups of children in preschool settings. In the first study we varied the degree of structure in the toys. The level of the play was evaluated by a five-level s...
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Full-text available
The paper considers symbolic play in different age groups of children in preschool institutions. Symbolic play was stimulated through two different structured activities and dictation of the preparation and the use of different toys and play materials (i.e. thematic symbolic play and play related to pictorial material). The children's play was vide...
Article
In Slovenia many mixed-age groups have recently been formed in early childhood institutions. Results of research from various countries show that, in most cases, mixing of children of different ages in early childhood institutions has many advantages. It has an impact on a child's cognitive, social and emotional development, as well as on the socia...
Article
Full-text available
Play is considered to be an important context for the development of language, communication skills and competence, and is often accompanied by complex language interactions. Children use language in their play most of the time, talking to themselves, their toys or their playmates. The purpose of our study was to evaluate children's use of language...

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