L.J. De Vries

L.J. De Vries
Delft University of Technology | TU · Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management

Ph.D.

About

116
Publications
18,633
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2,262
Citations
Introduction
Laurens de Vries is an Associate Professor at the Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management of Delft University of Technology. Laurens studied Mechanical Engineering in Delft, specializing in environmental and energy technology and obtained a second Master’s Degree, in Environmental Studies, from The Evergreen State College (Olympia, Washington State, USA) in 1996, focusing on environmental economics. He obtained his Ph.D. degree in June, 2004 from Delft University of Technology, this time at the Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management. He researches and teaches in the field of electricity market design and regulation in the context of the transformation towards a low-carbon energy system.
Additional affiliations
September 1999 - present
Delft University of Technology
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (116)
Article
Existing indicators of electricity system adequacy need to be supplemented with economic performance indicators. As power systems are decarbonized, energy storage technologies are being developed and demand is becoming more flexible. Reliability standards need to reflect the price-elasticity of these sources of flexibility. During scarcity situatio...
Article
Full-text available
For a holistic understanding and simulation of the energy markets, many different aspects need to modelled properly. Often no single modelling tool offers the whole picture, but a combination of methods needs to be used. A model linkage platform has been chosen previously and this deliverable describes the integration of the modelling tools used in...
Article
Electricity balancing is one of the main demanders of short-term flexibility. To improve its integration, the recent regulation of the European Union introduces a common standalone balancing energy market. It allows actors that have not participated or not been awarded in the preceding balancing capacity market to participate as voluntary bidders o...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This White Paper on the Clean Energy Transition constitutes EERA´s (European Energy Research Alliance) landmark contribution to advancing understanding of the profound implications such a transition will have beyond technology for our economy and our society. It builds on existing knowledge and provides an instrumental conceptual framework to suppo...
Article
Full-text available
DC distribution systems are a promising alternative to existing AC distribution systems. They connect customers to local energy sources without conversion, thus reducing power losses. However, the unique features of DC impose strict requirements for system operation compared to AC. Within the context of a liberalized energy market, this article dem...
Chapter
Full-text available
Capacity Subscription is a market for firm electricity capacity that is created in addition to an existing electricity market. The demand for capacity is based on individual consumers’ preferences for uninterrupted supply, which they can adjust to other options such as self-generation, storage, and demand flexibility. By providing a platform for ar...
Article
Driven by climate change concerns, Europe has taken significant initiatives toward the decarbonization of its energy system. The European Commission (EC) has set targets for 2030 to achieve at least 40% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions with respect to the 1990 baseline level and cover at least 32% of the total energy consumption in the Europea...
Article
Full-text available
The zonal electricity market design in the Central Western European electricity market relies on redispatching generation units after market closure to manage congestion within bidding zones, while congestion between the zones is handled using flow-based market coupling. The combination of internal congestion in the meshed European network with a g...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The authors provide a critical analysis of existing approaches to two fundamental ancillary services in electric power systems, balancing and congestion management (specifically redispatch), and their effects on the incentives for service providers. This issue is particularly important in the view of the harmonization of ancillary service procureme...
Article
Full-text available
Market-based procurement of balancing services in Europe is prone to strategic bidding due to the relatively small market size and a limited number of providers. In the European Union, balancing markets are undergoing substantial regulatory changes driven the efforts to harmonize the market design and better align it with the goals of the energy tr...
Article
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Recently, given the increased integration of renewables and growing uncertainty in demand, the wholesale market price has become highly volatile. Energy communities connected to the main electricity grid may be exposed to this increasing price volatility. Additionally, they may also be exposed to local network congestions, resulting in price spikes...
Article
Full-text available
The integration of renewable energy sources, including wind power, in the adequacy assessment of electricity generation capacity becomes increasingly important as renewable energy generation increases in volume and replaces conventional power plants. The contribution of wind power to cover the electricity demand is less certain than conventional po...
Article
PV-battery systems are currently not operated in an energy system optimal way as their operation heuristic (maximization of self-consumption) is generally unaffected by competitive market signals. To evaluate potential regulatory intervention, we propose a market alignment indicator which measures the relative economic efficiency of a prosumer batt...
Article
Full-text available
DC distribution systems (DCDSs) are a promising alternative to AC systems because they remove AC-DC conversions between renewable sources and loads. Their unique features compared to AC include low system inertia, strict power limits and power–voltage coupling. In a liberalised electricity market, merely applying an AC market design to a DCDS canno...
Article
Full-text available
Thanks to new technological advancements and EU policy impulse, distributed energy resources (DER) are poised to become a viable alternative to conventional electricity generation for the provision of balancing services to transmission system operators. In this paper we show that the design variables that affect DER access to and participation in t...
Article
Full-text available
Existing electricity markets, based on energy, are inefficient. • We compare power-based scheduling to the current practice of increasing resolution. • Power-based scheduling results in less reserve activation at equal computation time. • Increasing the resolution requires great computational expense. • We provide a set of market rules to implement...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The paper addresses a market design based on "Capacity Subscription", where consumers pay for capacity that they need during system stress events. Demand is normally not constrained, but is limited to the "subscribed" capacity when load limiting devices are activated by a system operator. Such limitations can occur due to system level capacity cons...
Article
Full-text available
We present a systematic review of the challenges to the regulation of electricity markets that are posed by the integration of variable renewable energy sources. System integration is the key to developing the required flexibility, because flexibility options exist at all system levels and within the competitive as well as in the regulated (network...
Article
Full-text available
To ensure security of supply and incentivize reliable investment in generation capacity, capacity markets (CMs) have been implemented or are being considered. However, demand response (DR) and electrical energy storage (EES) also contribute to system adequacy. In this paper, we analyse the change in the need for a CM if DR and EES are available, in...
Article
We analyze the effectiveness of a forward capacity market (FCM) with long-term contracts in an electricity market in the presence of a growing share of renewable energy. An agent-based model is used for this analysis. Capacity markets can compensate for the deteriorating incentive to invest in controllable power plants when the share of variable re...
Article
We present an approach to simulate climate and energy policy for the EU, using a flexible and modular agent-based modelling approach and a toolbox, called the Energy Modelling Laboratory (EMLab). The paper shortly reviews core challenges and approaches for modelling climate and energy policy in light of the energy transition. Afterwards, we present...
Article
Full-text available
The effectiveness of a capacity market is analyzed by simulating three conditions that may cause suboptimal investment in the electricity generation: imperfect information and uncertainty; declining demand shocks resulting in load loss; and a growing share of renewable energy sources in the generation portfolio. Implementation of a capacity market...
Research
Strategic reserves and capacity markets can improve the security of supply and contribute positively to consumer benefits if they are carefully conceived and managed. • The presence of an interconnector may negatively affect the effectiveness of a capacity market, depending on the relative size of the interconnection and the degree to which the con...
Article
Full-text available
The cross-border effects of a capacity market and a strategic reserve in interconnected electricity markets are modeled using an agent-based modeling methodology. Both capacity mechanisms improve the security of supply and reduce consumer costs. Our results indicate that interconnections do not affect the effectiveness of a capacity market, while a...
Article
Following the formulation of certain strategic policy goals, such as reducing greenhouse gases (GHGs) and including more renewable sources (RES) as part of the energy mix in several parts of the world, the practical translation and actual implementation of these goals have led to the introduction of substantial volumes of intermittent renewable ele...
Article
Full-text available
The integration of large amounts of variable renewable energy poses fundamental challenges to the operation and governance of the energy system. In this article we address the main institutional challenges that are caused by the integration of variable renewable energy sources like solar and wind energy in the European power system. We first addres...
Conference Paper
Large controllable loads, such as electric vehicles, are increasingly penetrating electricity distribution feeders. To avoid local congestion, their consumption behaviour must be steered, for which a real-time price propagated down from the transmission system does not suffice, as it does not reflect local grid conditions. To efficiently steer the...
Article
Full-text available
To ensure sufficient investment in electricity generation capacity, mechanisms such as strategic reserves are being considered or already implemented. We analyze the effectiveness of a strategic reserve in the presence of a growing portfolio share of renewable energy sources (RES) with EMLab-Generation, an agent-based electricity market model. A st...
Conference Paper
In this research we propose a micro-market for providing electricity during load shedding that is easy to replicate and analyze the possible incentive for investment in distributed generation from such a system. The micro-markets make investments in diesel and solar energy based distributed generation attractive, even if these distributed generatio...
Article
We present a survey of US capacity market experts with the purpose of drawing lessons for the EU. Of the respondents, 41% advised EU member states against implementing capacity markets, while the remaining were neutral or provided suggestions for improving capacity markets. Cross-border effects are currently not a concern but may become so in the f...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The viability of energy-only markets and the potential need for additional payment for capacity have been discussed since the introduction of the first power markets in the early 1990's. No convincing theoretical argument has come up to prove that energy-only markets work in practice, and neither has the necessicity of additional remuneration mecha...
Article
The low prices in the European Emission Trading System (EU ETS) have triggered discussions of various possible reforms. One option is to decouple the CO2 prices from renewable energy policy by adjusting the emission cap to renewable energy investment overshoots. We introduce two ways of reducing the CO2 cap in response to overshoots of renewable po...
Article
Full-text available
The EU parliament has accepted a proposal of the EU commission on the backloading of EU emission allowances (EUA), where the auctioning of EUAs is postponed to future time periods. The EU commission has also proposed a market stability reserve (MSR), which is a quantity-based stabilisation policy that is aimed at controlling the volume of EUAs in c...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The increase in variable renewable energy sources for power generation is creating a demand for more flexibility in the other parts of the value chain: networks, consumption and potentially storage facilities. Interfaces with other infrastructures may also provide flexibility. Implementation of these options for flexibility requires a more integrat...
Article
Possible congestion management mechanisms for price-responsive electric vehicle demand in electricity distribution networks are investigated. Because a high penetration of renewable energy sources weakens the correlation between wholesale electricity prices and network demand, cost-minimizing electric vehicles may cause high peaks in network load....
Article
Full-text available
The recent low CO2 prices in the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) have triggered a discussion whether the EU ETS needs to be adjusted. We study the effects of CO2 price floors and a price ceiling on the dynamic investment pathway of two interlinked electricity markets (loosely based on Great Britain, which already has introduced a pr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper uses an agent-based model of interconnected electricity market to analyze the cross-border impact of a capacity market and a strategic reserve on consumer costs and on investment in generation capacity in the affected markets. We find that both capacity mechanisms can improve investment signals and cause positive cross border effects. Th...
Article
Carbon reduction and renewable energy policies are implemented in Europe to improve the sustainability of the electricity sector while achieving security of supply. We investigate the interactions between these policies using a dynamic investment model. Our analysis indicates that both policies are necessary to achieve a sustainable power sector. H...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This Sweco Multiclient Study was carried out against the backdrop of the large changes that the European power markets are undergoing. The phase-in of large volumes of subsidized renewable electricity with low marginal costs is changing the way power markets operate fundamentally. It is likely that we will see much more volatile markets in which ex...
Conference Paper
In order to maintain adequate volumes of electricity generation capacity, multiple European countries are currently implementing, or considering the implementation of, a capacity mechanism. This raises the question what the effects of these capacity mechanisms will be on neighbouring electricity markets. We model the long-term effects of a capacity...
Conference Paper
The increase in intermittent electricity generation is increasing investment risk in the electricity market. A capacity mechanism can contribute to security of supply. Germany is considering an expansion of its small strategic reserve in the south. In this paper the effects of deploying a strategic reserve in the German market are modelled to analy...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to analyse the degree to which cross-border electricity transmission and pumped hydro storage substitute or complement each other. The impacts of these two technical assets on annual dispatch costs, curtailment of variable renewable energy sources (RES) and CO2 emissions, as well as their impacts on one another, are analyse...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents a study which investigates the impact of cross-border electricity transmission capacity, as well as of generation capacity, on network reliability. Monthly empirical data on network reliability and generation and cross-border transmission capacities from 18 different European countries for a time span of 10 years is used. Result...
Conference Paper
The EU and its member states implement different policy tools aiming to promote a more sustainable power sector and achieve security of supply. Here carbon and renewable policies are the most prominently implemented (with the EU ETS established at the European level, and several national renewable policies implemented by the member states). In prin...
Article
Several European initiatives consider the electrical integration of the Euro-Mediterranean region a key priority for meeting future European Union (EU) energy policy goals. Ambitious plans include the development of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in the region as well as transmission interconnectors between the two shores of the Mediterranean Sea....
Article
The recent low CO2 prices in the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) have triggered a discussion whether the EU ETS needs to be adjusted in order to provide a sufficiently strong signal for investment in CO2 abatement. We study the effects of CO2 price floors and a price ceiling on the dynamic investment pathway of two interlinked elect...
Article
Due to the increase in electricity generation capacity in the Netherlands and a new connection policy, transmission system operator (TSO) TenneT expects a significant increase in congestion in the Dutch transmission grid. To manage this, the Dutch government implemented redispatching, a method which is argued in the literature to potentially impose...
Article
The European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity has been publishing network reliability data for major fault events in the European electricity transmission network since 2002. The work presented focuses on three reliability indicators provided for each major fault event: energy not supplied, total loss of power and restoratio...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The estimated growth of Europe's electricity demand and the policy goals of mitigating climate change result in an expected increase in variable renewable energy. A high penetration of wind and solar energy will bring several new challenges to the European electricity transmission network. The objective of this paper is to understand the effects of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Congestion management in liberalized power sectors is a complex multi-actor problem, where technical, economic, social, regula- tory, and political aspects all play a role. This paper presents a participa- tory simulation tool that can be used to evaluate congestion management mechanisms. It was developed to facilitate research related to strategic...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In order to support policy decisions, we have developed a modelling platform called AgentSpring, which facilitates the development of agent-based models in a modular and structured manner, using state- of-the-art IT development principles and tools. An attractive web-based interface allows for the interaction with policy makers. A model named d13n...
Article
The recent low of CO2 prices in the European Union Emission Trading Scheme have triggered a renewed discussion, whether the introduction of a CO2 price floor would lower investor uncertainty and thus trigger more investment in low-carbon electricity generation. We compare the effects of a CO2 price floor on the dynamic investment pathway of an inte...
Conference Paper
Agent-based models are seeing increasing use in the study of distributed generation (DG) deployment. Researchers and decision makers involved in the implementation of DG have been lacking a concise overview of why they should consider using agent-based modeling (ABM) for forecasting purposes. Since this particular field of inquiry has only develope...
Article
Current renewable energy support schemes in Europe either minimize investment risk, but in doing so rely on administratively determined prices, or rely on market prices, but in doing so create substantially higher investment risk. In Brazil, an alternative market design has been pioneered, in which the renewable energy policy instrument is part of...