Liz Ainsbury

Liz Ainsbury
UKHSA

PhD Physics

About

170
Publications
30,102
Reads
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3,034
Citations
Additional affiliations
April 2015 - present
Public Health England
Position
  • Group Leader
February 2007 - present
Public Health England
Position
  • Principal Radiation Protection Scientist
October 2003 - February 2007
University of Bristol
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (170)
Article
Full-text available
The fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) technique is now well established for retrospective dosimetry in cases of external radiation exposure that occurred many years ago. However, the question remains as to whether FISH provides valid estimates of cumulative red bone marrow radiation doses in cases of incorporation of radionuclides or combin...
Article
Full-text available
Classical methods of assessing the uncertainty associated with radiation doses estimated using cytogenetic techniques are now extremely well defined. However, several authors have suggested that a Bayesian approach to uncertainty estimation may be more suitable for cytogenetic data, which are inherently stochastic in nature. The Bayesian analysis f...
Article
Full-text available
The lens of the eye is recognized as one of the most radiosensitive tissues in the human body, and it is known that cataracts can be induced by acute doses of less than 2 Gy of low-LET ionizing radiation and less than 5 Gy of protracted radiation. Although much work has been carried out in this area, the exact mechanisms of radiation cataractogenes...
Article
Full-text available
Recent epidemiological and experimental animal data, as well as reanalyses of data previously accumulated, indicate that the lens of the eye is more radiosensitive than was previously thought. This has resulted in a reduction of the occupational lens dose limit within the European Union countries, Japan and elsewhere. This Commentary introduces the...
Article
Full-text available
As COVID-19 emerged, there are parallels between the responses needed for managing SARS-CoV-2 infections and radiation injuries. While some SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals present as asymptomatic, others exhibit a range of symptoms including severe and rapid onset of high-risk indicators of mortality. Similarly, a variety of responses are also obse...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Radium-223 dichloride ([²²³Ra]RaCl2), a radiopharmaceutical that delivers α-particles to regions of bone metastatic disease, has been proven to improve overall survival of men with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). mCRPC patients enrolled on the ADRRAD clinical trial are treated with a mixed field exposure compri...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Based on the experience of biodosimetry laboratories during the COVID-19 pandemic, the purpose of this paper is to describe the challenges of providing biodosimetry service in the event of a major radiation incident during a pandemic. This includes describing some of the preparations and planning made by biodosimetry laboratories and specia...
Article
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Purpose The aim of this brief personal, high level review is to consider the state of the art for biological dosimetry for radiation routine and emergency response, and the potential future progress in this fascinating and active field. Four areas in which biomarkers may contribute to scientific advancement through improved dose and exposure charac...
Article
When managed with appropriate radiation protection procedures, ionising radiation is of great benefit to society. Opacification of the lens, and vision impairing cataract, have recently been recognised at potential effects of relatively low dose radiation exposure, on the order of 1 Gy or below. Within the last 10 years, understanding of the effect...
Article
Full-text available
Generally, intentional exposure of pregnant women is avoided as far as possible in both medical and occupational situations. This paper aims to summarise available information on sources of radiation exposure of the embryo/fetus primarily in medical settings. Accidental and unintended exposure is also considered. Knowledge on the effects of radiati...
Article
Full-text available
Cataract is the leading cause of visual impairment which can result in blindness. Cataract formation has been associated with radiation exposure; however, the mechanistic understanding of this phenomenon is still lacking. The goal of this study was to investigate mechanisms of cataract induction in isolated lens epithelial cells (LEC) exposed to io...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Biological and/or physical assays for retrospective dosimetry are valuable tools to recover the exposure situation and to aid medical decision making. To further validate and improve such biological and physical assays, in 2019, EURADOS Working Group 10 and RENEB performed a field exercise in Lund, Sweden, to simulate various real-life ex...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to investigate the impact of chronic low-level exposure to chemical carcinogens with different modes of action on the cellular response to ionising radiation. Human lymphoblastoid GM1899A cells were cultured in the presence of 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide (4NQO), N-nitroso-N-methylurea (MNU) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for up to 6 mon...
Article
Full-text available
Since 2012, the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) has developed its Strategic Research Agenda (SRA), which contributes to the identification of future research needs in radiation dosimetry in Europe. Continued scientific developments in this field necessitate regular updates and, consequently, this paper summarises the latest revision of...
Article
Full-text available
Lens epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation are naturally well regulated and controlled, a characteristic essential for lens structure, symmetry and function. The effect of ionizing radiation on lens epithelial cell proliferation has been demonstrated in previous studies at high acute doses, but the effect of dose and dose rate on prolif...
Article
Full-text available
Recent epidemiological findings and reanalysis of historical data suggest lens opacities resulting from ionizing radiation exposures are likely induced at lower doses than previously thought. These observations have led to ICRP recommendations for a reduction in the occupational dose limits for the eye lens, as well as subsequent implementation in...
Article
Full-text available
Large-scale radiation emergency scenarios involving protracted low dose rate radiation exposure (e.g. a hidden radioactive source in a train) necessitate the development of high throughput methods for providing rapid individual dose estimates. During the RENEB (Running the European Network of Biodosimetry) 2019 exercise, four EDTA-blood samples wer...
Article
Full-text available
Background This communication reports the identification of a new panel of transcriptional changes in inflammation-associated genes observed in response to ionising radiation received by radiotherapy patients. Methods Peripheral blood samples were taken with ethical approval and informed consent from a total of 20 patients undergoing external beam...
Article
Epidemiological studies suggest an increased incidence and risk of cataract after low-dose (,2 Gy) ionizing radiation exposures. However, the biological mechanism(s) of this process are not fully understood. DNA damage and repair are thought to have a contributing role in radiation-induced cataractogenesis. Recently we have reported an inverse dose...
Technical Report
13th EURADOS Winter School Eye Lens Dosimetry, EURADOS Report 2021-01
Preprint
Full-text available
This communication reports the identification of a new panel of transcriptional changes in inflammation-associated genes observed in response to ionising radiation received by radiotherapy patients. Peripheral blood samples were taken with ethical approval and informed consent from a total of 20 patients undergoing external beam radiotherapy for br...
Article
Full-text available
In 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommended reducing the occupational equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye from 150 mSv/year to 20 mSv/year, averaged over five years, with no single year exceeding 50 mSv. With this recommendation, several important assumptions were made, such as lack of dose rate eff...
Article
With the use of ionizing radiation comes the risk of accidents and malevolent misuse. When unplanned exposures occur, there are several methods which can be used to retrospectively reconstruct individual radiation exposures; biological methods include analysis of aberrations and damage of chromosomes and DNA, while physical methods rely on luminesc...
Article
In May 2016, a new linear accelerator (Linac) was installed at a hospital oncology department. A team of individuals supervised the installation, including a Radiation Oncologist who acted as an independent observer to the installation, calibration, beam data collection and shielding measurements. In order to ensure the shielding was correct, a lic...
Article
Full-text available
Following recent developments, the RENEB network (Running the European Network of biological dosimetry and physical retrospective dosimetry) is in an excellent position to carry out large scale molecular epidemiological studies of ionizing radiation effects, with validated expertise in the dicentric, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)-translo...
Article
Medical exposures form the largest manmade contributor to total ionising radiation exposure of the UK population. In recent years, new technologies have been developed to improve treatment and prognosis of individuals treated with radiation for diseases such as cancer. However, there is evidence of public, patient, and medical professional concern...
Article
Purpose Inhomogeneous exposures to ionizing radiation can be detected and quantified with the dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) of metaphase cells. Complete automation of interpretation of the DCA for whole-body irradiation has significantly improved throughput without compromising accuracy, however, low levels of residual false positive dicentric c...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Since the exact development of posterior subcapsular cataracts (PSCs) is poorly understood, we review various risk factors and propose a two-stage etiology for PSCs. Methods: The biological mechanisms associated with age-related cataracts (primarily nuclear cataracts, cortical cataracts and PSCs) were reviewed in relation to selected ri...
Preprint
Full-text available
Purpose Inhomogeneous exposures to ionizing radiation can be detected and quantified with the Dicentric Chromosome Assay (DCA) of metaphase cells. Complete automation of interpretation of the DCA for whole body irradiation has significantly improved throughput without compromising accuracy, however low levels of residual false positive dicentric ch...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Global concerns on the potential for malevolent use of high activity sealed sources of ionising radiation have prompted moves to identify options for their replacement with alternative technologies. Sealed sources of caesium-137 are in common use in biological sciences research and in the production of blood products in blood transfusion services....
Article
Full-text available
This work presents an overview of the applications of retrospective dosimetry techniques in case of incorporation of radionuclides. The fact that internal exposures are characterized by a spatially inhomogeneous irradiation of the body, which is potentially prolonged over large periods and variable over time, is particularly problematic for biologi...
Article
Dicentric analysis and the ring PCC assay as established biodosimetry methods both have limitations in the estimation of absorbed doses in suspected overexposure cases between 5 and 10 Gy. The proposed method based on calyculin A-induced PCC overcomes these limitations by scoring excess objects as the endpoint. This new scoring method can potential...
Article
Full-text available
Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is a well-established minimally invasive technique that relies on x-ray guidance to introduce a stent through the femoral artery and manipulate it into place. The aim of this study was to estimate patient organ doses from EVAR procedures using anatomically realistic computational phantoms and detailed exposure in...
Article
Chemical-induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) is an alternative biodosimetry method to the gold-standard dicentric analysis for ionizing radiation. However, existing literature shows great variations in the experimental protocols which, together with the different scoring criteria applied in individual studies, result in large discrepanc...
Article
The European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) is a network of organizations and scientists promoting research and development in the dosimetry of ionizing radiation, contributing to harmonization in dosimetry practice across Europe, and offering education and training in areas relevant for dosimetry. As a registered nonprofit association under G...
Preprint
Full-text available
Introduction The dicentric chromosome (DC) assay accurately quantifies exposure to radiation, however manual and semi-automated assignment of DCs has limited its use for a potential large-scale radiation incident. The Automated Dicentric Chromosome Identifier and Dose Estimator Chromosome (ADCI) software automates unattended DC detection and determ...
Article
Full-text available
The influence of dose rate on radiation cataractogenesis has yet to be extensively studied. One recent epidemiological investigation suggested that protracted radiation exposure increases radiation-induced cataract risk: cumulative doses of radiation mostly <100 mGy received by US radiologic technologists over 5 years were associated with an increa...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To determine cumulative scan frequencies and estimate lens dose for paediatric CT head examinations in the context of potential cataract risk. Methods: The cumulative number of headregion CT scans among a cohort of 410,997 children and young adults who underwent CT scanning in the UK between 1985 and 2014 was calculated. Images from a sa...
Article
Purpose: This study aimed to construct a calibration curve for high-dose exposure using cell fusion-induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC). Some of the associated practicalities and methodological details were also investigated. Materials and methods: Peripheral blood from two donors was used. PCC mediated by fusing mitotic CHO cells with...
Data
Software tutorial for DoseEstimateH2AX
Article
Full-text available
Over the last decade, the γ–H2AX focus assay, which exploits the phosphorylation of the H2AX histone following DNA double–strand–breaks, has made considerable progress towards acceptance as a reliable biomarker for exposure to ionizing radiation. While the existing literature has convincingly demonstrated a dose–response effect, and also presented...
Data
DoseEstimateH2AX tutorial. (PDF)
Data
PHE calibration data (1h and 24h) in .xls and .dat format. (ZIP)
Article
Biological dosimetry enables individual dose reconstruction in the case of unclear or inconsistent radiation exposure situations, especially when a direct measurement of ionizing radiation is not or is no longer possible. To be prepared for large-scale radiological incidents, networking between well-trained laboratories has been identified as a use...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Epidemiological evidence regarding the radiosensitivity of the lens of the eye and radiation cataract development has led to changes in the EU Basic Safety Standards for protection of the lens against ionizing radiation. However, mechanistic details of lens radiation response pathways and their significance for cataractogenesis remain uncl...
Article
The RTGene study was focused on the development and validation of new transcriptional biomarkers for prediction of individual radiotherapy patient responses to ionizing radiation. In parallel, for validation purposes, this study incorporated conventional biomarkers of radiation exposure, including the dicentric assay. Peripheral blood samples were...
Article
Full-text available
For triage purposes following a nuclear accident, blood-based gene expression biomarkers can provide rapid dose estimates for a large number of individuals. Ionizing-radiation-responsive genes are regulated through the DNA damage-response pathway, which includes activation of multiple transcription factors. Modulators of this pathway could potentia...
Article
Tissue reactions are the most clinically significant consequences of high-dose exposures to ionizing radiation. However, currently there is no universally recognized dose quantity that can be used to assess and report generalized risks to individuals following whole body exposures in the high-dose range. In this work, a number of potential dose qua...
Article
Tissue reactions are the most clinically significant consequences of high-dose exposures to ionizing radiation. However, currently there is no universally recognized or recommended dose quantity that can be used to assess generalized risks to individuals following whole body exposures in the high-dose range. This is particularly problematic in emer...
Article
Full-text available
Biological and physical retrospective dosimetry are recognised as key techniques to provide individual estimates of dose following unplanned exposures to ionising radiation. Whilst there has been a relatively large amount of recent development in the biological and physical procedures, development of statistical analysis techniques has failed to ke...
Article
Full-text available
The increasing risk of acute large-scale radiological/nuclear exposures of population underlines the necessity of developing new, rapid and high throughput biodosimetric tools for estimation of received dose and initial triage. We aimed to compare the induction and persistence of different radiation exposure biomarkers in human peripheral blood in...
Data
Gating strategy for flow-cytometry (Annexin V) experiment. (A) Dot plot analysis shows the region of lymphocytes (R1), PBMC (R2) and granulocytes (R3) based on their forward scatter (FSC) and side scatter (SSC) characteristic. (B) Dot plot analysis of lymphocytes (R1 region) shows intact cells (Annexin V-negative, PI-negative), early apoptotic cell...
Article
Full-text available
Previous investigations in gene expression changes in blood after radiation exposure have highlighted its potential to provide biomarkers of exposure. Here, FDXR transcriptional changes in blood were investigated in humans undergoing a range of external radiation exposure procedures covering several orders of magnitude (cardiac fluoroscopy, diagnos...
Article
Full-text available
Studies suggest iodinated contrast media (ICM) may increase organ dose and blood cell DNA damage for a given X-ray exposure. The impact of ICM on dose/damage to extravascular cells and cancer risks is unclear. Methods We used Monte Carlo modelling to investigate the microscopic distribution of absorbed dose outside the lumen of arteries, capillari...
Article
Full-text available
Previous investigations in gene expression changes in blood after radiation exposure have highlighted its potential to provide biomarkers of exposure. Here, FDXR transcriptional changes in blood were investigated in humans undergoing a range of external radiation exposure procedures covering several orders of magnitude (cardiac fluoroscopy, diagnos...