Liying Cheng

Liying Cheng
Queen's University | QueensU · Faculty of Education

PhD

About

138
Publications
215,657
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
5,757
Citations
Citations since 2017
36 Research Items
2174 Citations
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
Introduction
What’s in a grade? A multiple perspective validity study on grading policies, practices, values, and consequences The purpose of this study is to investigate the validity of grades by examining the policies, practices, values and consequences of teacher constructed grades in Canada and China.
Additional affiliations
January 2011 - present
Guangdong University of Foreign Studies
Position
  • Yunshan Chair Professor (讲座教授)
Description
  • Visiting position
July 2000 - present
Queen's University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
July 1998 - June 2000
University of Alberta
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Education
January 1994 - January 1998
The University of Hong Kong
Field of study
  • Language Testing
September 1992 - September 1993
University of Reading
Field of study
  • Applied Languages

Publications

Publications (138)
Article
Full-text available
In China, under the influence of examination-driven culture and teacher-centered ways of learning, students’ self-regulated learning (SRL) capabilities, self-efficacy, and actual English proficiency are greatly hindered. Given this situation, the Chinese Ministry of Education has promulgated the use of formative assessment in the College English cu...
Article
Full-text available
This study set out to explore English for academic purposes (EAP) student perceptions of their experiences at a university in western Canada. A qualitative approach was used, with 17 students completing a questionnaire toward the end of their EAP program, and one of those students taking part in an interview approximately one year later. Data from...
Article
This article presents a historical and contemporary account of Lithuania’s national public education assessment system and its transformation since the country’s declaration of independence from the Soviet Union in 1990. We explore how the external examination system has developed in relation to ongoing curriculum reforms over the last 30 years, an...
Article
Full-text available
This study explores beginning teacher candidates’ approaches to grading in relation to their broader conceptions of assessment through a survey research design. 248 Canadian teacher candidates responded to two scales: Teachers’ Approaches to Grading (TAG) and Teachers’ Conceptions of Assessment (TCOA). The results of factor analysis showed that tea...
Article
Full-text available
Formative assessment practices have been theoretically connected to the development of self-regulation with mounting empirical evidence. Co-regulation is the process whereby a more capable individual (e.g., teacher or peer) attunes the behaviours, emotions, or cognitive processes of an individual (a student) to align with goals or expectations and...
Article
Full-text available
Canada has one of the world’s largest immigrant populations, with one in five people in Canada born outside the country. Among these immigrants, a great majority started their lives in Canada working in entry-level jobs. This study examined the English language use and communication challenges among these new Canadian immigrants in entry-level work...
Chapter
In this chapter, we review the conceptualizations of English from Standard English to English as a lingua franca. Using this lense, we evaluate the current test design and testing practices in terms of construct representation in international environments (i.e., Im & Cheng 2019) and a university setting (i.e., Jabeen 2016). We problematize the cha...
Article
Full-text available
Grades are the dominant currency that enables student migration patterns; in particular, the recent upsurge of Chinese students studying and settling in Canada. Given the use of grades for student promotion, mobilization, and admission into educational programs internationally, there is an urgent need to understand the validity of grades across lea...
Article
Full-text available
Internationally educated nurses’ (IENs) English language proficiency is critical to professional licensure as communication is a key competency for safe practice. The Canadian English Language Benchmark Assessment for Nurses (CELBAN) is Canada’s only Canadian Language Benchmarks (CLB) referenced examination used in the context of healthcare regulat...
Article
Open access: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0265532220957298
Article
From the perspectives of newcomers to Canada using English an as additional language (EAL), this study explores how newcomers’ interlocutors might impede workplace communication. Six participants speaking EAL and coming from a variety of language backgrounds shared their workplace experiences. Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured...
Article
Effective test preparation for high-stakes English language tests is crucial for candidates whose futures depend on attaining a particular score. An increasing number of studies have investigated the role of test preparation; however, these studies have been exclusively conducted in individual contexts and countries around the world. This study dra...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose and background The purpose of this paper is to critically review the traditional and contemporary validation frameworks—the content, criterion, and construct validations; the evidence-gathering; the socio-cognitive model; the test usefulness; and an argument-based approach—as well as empirical studies using an argument-based approach to val...
Article
Please visit the following link to get access to the article at https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0265532219828252
Article
Over the past three decades, test impact has been one source of consequential evidence for test validation. Subsequently, attention to test impact in language assessment research has been steadily growing. Existing studies, however, tended to focus on the influences of testing on teaching and learning within the classroom (often termed as "washback...
Article
The current trend towards globalization, immigration, and internationalization of schools and universities around the world has led to the increased use of grades across educational systems. Given the use of grades for student promotion, mobilization, and admission into educational programs internationally, there is an urgent need to understand how...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the relationships between students' foreign language classroom anxiety and cognitive test anxiety and their College English Test Band 4 (CET-4) performance. A questionnaire was distributed to 921 Chinese university students to understand the nature and degree of the examined relationships. Follow-up interviews with twelve studen...
Chapter
Canada is one of the few countries with the world’s largest foreign-born immigrant population. One in every three newcomers to Canada is young people under 24 years of age. More than a third of young adults in Canada are from families where both parents are from another country. A thorough understanding of the relationship between immigrant student...
Article
In the 21st century, the number of multilingual users of English will far surpass the number of native speakers of English (McKay, 2002). Indeed the number has already surpassed that of native speakers, if we count the number of people who use English as a second and foreign language worldwide. According to an estimate , there are about 200–500 mil...
Article
Full-text available
Given the longstanding role of grades in education, and their increased use for high-stakes decisions including student mobility, admission, selection, and accountability, this paper presents a systematic review of grading policies across all 10 Canadian provinces and 3 territories. In total, 23 policies were inductively analyzed for their articula...
Article
Full-text available
As one of the most high-stakes practices in education, grading has been the subject of significant debate and research over the years. However, it is only recently that researchers have started to explore the teaching and learning values embedded in grades by looking at grading policies. This study examined grading polices in China by focusing on t...
Chapter
Washback, impact, and consequences refer to the educational phenomenon when testing (often large-scale and high-stakes), specifically the uses of test scores and the decisions made based on those scores, influence those stakeholders associated with such testing. Washback, impact, and consequences are used in different fields of research, and these...
Chapter
If we, as educators, are to first and foremost ‘do no harm’ (Taylor and Nolen, 2008, p. 10), we need to continue to focus on the relationship between teaching, learning and assessment, and rethink some of the assumptions that we hold about testing and assessment. The academic race to be the smartest, most skilled student in the class does not place...
Chapter
The research literature is full of examples of how better understanding of our students’ language learning experiences can improve the impact and effectiveness of our teaching and, as a result, enhance learning (see, for example, Gottlieb, 2006; Ivaniˇc, 2010; Zamel and Spack, 2004). In Chapter 5, we discuss assessment approaches and practices that...
Chapter
As we discussed in Chapter 5, the research literature is full of examples of how better understanding of our students’ language learning experiences can improve the impact and effectiveness of our teaching and, as a result, enhance learning (see, for example, Gottlieb, 2006; Ivaniˇc, 2010; Zamel and Spack, 2004). In this chapter, we again discuss a...
Chapter
It should be noted, that there is no one way to design a test, but there are commonly agreed standards that should apply to all testing activities, whether they occur within your classroom as a result of your own test development, across a programme, a system, a nation, or around the world. In the sections below, we will ‘walk through’ a process of...
Chapter
As we discussed in Chapter 1, teachers routinely deal with large-scale testing which is external to their classrooms, often with more at stake (or higher stakes). They routinely engage in small-scale testing, which is internal to their classrooms and measures achievement at the end of a unit or course with less at stake or (with lower stakes). Such...
Chapter
Assessment plays an essential role in language teaching and learning. The day-to-day assessment of student learning is unquestionably one of the teacher’s most important, complex and demanding tasks. As teachers, we are the principal agents of assessment, so we need to ensure the quality of classroom assessment practices and to use these practices...
Chapter
This chapter addresses some of the most challenging aspects in teaching: deciding what to teach, what to assess and how to align assessment in the classroom to the learning goals and outcomes for our students. Such goals and outcomes may be explicitly defined for a whole programme by benchmarks and standards, curriculum and external tests, or impli...
Book
This book makes a unique contribution to classroom assessment literature, linking teacher-friendly examples to scholarly work and current research in the field, and providing comprehensive, hands-on information on core concepts in accessible terms. Examples of real activities and questions for reflection and discussion aim to enrich understanding.
Article
Test preparation for high-stakes English language tests has received increasing research a ention in the language assessment feild; however, little is known about what aspects of test preparation students attend to and value. In this study, we considered the perspectives of 12 Chinese students who were enrolled in various academic programs in a Can...
Chapter
Washback, impact, and consequences refer to the educational phenomenon when testing (often large-scale and high-stakes), specifically the uses of test scores and the decisions made based on those scores, influence those stakeholders associated with such testing. Washback, impact, and consequences are used in different fields of research, and these...
Article
This study explores teacher candidates' experiential learning through their test-taking experiences while attending a Bachelor of Education (B. Ed.) program. Eighty-four written reflections by teacher candidates taking a mid-term course examination on classroom assessment practices were analyzed. Major themes emerging from these reflections on the...
Article
Classroom assessment tasks and environment are central to supporting student learning, yet are under-studied at the tertiary level, especially in China’s test-driven culture. This study explores the relationship between students’ perceptions of assessment tasks and classroom assessment environment, within the university context of teaching English...
Article
The present study investigated the key determinants of Chinese students’ academic success in terms of GPA and the number of credit hours earned in Korean Universities. The determinants investigated included gender, age, prior academic performance, academic self-efficacy, the TOPIK score, self-perceived Korean and English proficiency, and the previo...
Article
No area of language assessment research in the past 20 years has received a greater increase in attention than washback research. Beginning with the seminal work of Alderson & Wall (Alderson & Wall 1993; Wall & Alderson 1993), an evolving body of empirical washback studies has been conducted worldwide, especially in countries where English is not t...
Article
This study investigated Chinese secondary school English language teachers’ grading decision making, focusing on the factors they considered and types of assessment they used for grading. A questionnaire was issued to 350 secondary school English language teachers in China. Descriptive analyses of the questionnaire data showed that these teachers o...
Article
This article draws on Kane’s (2006) argument-based validation framework to synthesize evidence derived from a large-scale, mixed-method explanatory study on the impact of the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test (OSSLT) on second language (L2) students. The purpose of the OSSLT is to ensure that students have acquired the essential reading and wr...
Article
Full-text available
High-stakes pre-entry language testing is the predominate tool used to measure test takers' proficiency for admission purposes in higher education in China. Given the important role of these tests, there are heated discussions about how to ensure test fairness for different groups of test takers. This study examined the fairness of the Graduate Sch...
Article
In keeping with the trend to elicit multiple stakeholder responses to operational tests as part of test validation, this exploratory mixed methods study examines test-taker accounts of an Internet-based (i.e., computer-administered) test in the high-stakes context of proficiency testing for university admission. In 2013, as language testing researc...
Article
The theme of LTRC 2015 From Language Testing to Language Assessment: Connecting Teaching, Learning, and Assessment highlights the symbiosis relationship of teaching, learning and testing. Symbiosis, as a biology term, refers to the interaction between two different organisms living in close physical association and typically to the advantage of bot...
Article
This study explores the meaning Chinese secondary school English language teachers associate with the grades they assign to their students, and the value judgements they make in grading. A questionnaire was issued to 350 junior and senior school English language teachers in China. The questionnaire data were analysed both quantitatively and qualita...
Chapter
Empirical research exploring test fairness in scoring written performance has been mostly conducted in the North American context. There has been little research conducted in Asian countries such as China. Considering the extreme high stakes of large-scale testing in this context, this study examines what and how raters’ scoring decisions were affe...
Article
This study examined test-takers' motivation, test anxiety, and test performance across a range of social and educational contexts in three high-stakes language tests: the Canadian Academic English Language (CAEL) Assessment in Canada, the College English Test (CET) in the People's Republic of China, and the General English Proficiency Test (GEPT) i...
Data
Full-text available
Testing for licensure and certification, as one of the essential components for professional licensure and certification, is utilized as a powerful decision-making tool to include or exclude internationally educated professionals from their respective professions in Canada. This report examined the role that testing plays in professional licensure...
Article
Few studies have investigated the impact of English language programs on L2 students studying in Canadian universities. This article reports on questionnaire responses of 641 L2 students studying in 36 different English language programs in 26 Canadian universities. Programs were identified by their activity emphasis as either English as a Second L...
Chapter
Within a set of relationships, large-scale high stakes testing induces consequences for its stakeholders—intended and unintended, positive and negative—between testing, teaching, and learning. At the core of this phenomenon lies the (mis)use of test scores and of the values and stakes attached to a test in society and within the pedagogical context...
Article
Testing is an essential component of professional licensure and certification, which serves as a powerful decision-making tool to include or exclude internationally educated professionals from their respective professions in Canada. This study examines the role that testing plays in professional licensure and certification from the perspectives of...
Article
This paper reviews a selected sample of 24 doctoral dissertations in language assessment (broadly defined), completed between 2006 and 2011 in Canadian universities. These dissertations fall into five thematic categories: 1) reliability, validity and factors affecting test performance; 2) washback (impact) and ethics; 3) raters, rating and rating s...
Book
The day-to-day assessment of student learning is unquestionably one of the most demanding, complex, and important tasks that teachers face. Language Classroom Assessment is a comprehensive overview of different forms of language classroom assessment and practical applications that support students' learning in any context. The activities and reflec...
Article
This study investigates the relationship between English listening comprehension and English and Chinese phonological awareness (PA), and the cross-linguistic transfer of PA in 48 Grade 2 and 47 Grade 4 Chinese English-immersion students. The results of the study indicate a correlation between English PA and English listening comprehension. English...
Article
Research has demonstrated that second language immersion is an effective means of facilitating primary school students’ second language acquisition without undermining their competence in their first language. Despite the rapid growth of Chinese–English bilingual programmes in China, limited empirical research has been conducted thus far by which t...
Article
This study investigated the effects of English and Chinese phonological awareness (PA) and naming speed (NS) on English reading achievement and the evidence for cross-linguistic transfer in Chinese English-immersion students. English PA was a significant predictor of English reading achievement for immersion students in Grades 2 and 4. There was li...
Article
A publication of the Faculty of Education and the Education Alumni Committee Spring 2012 Revisiting English as a Second Language and the Place of French in Canada within the Context of Globalization and Plurilingualism MESSAGE FROM THE EDITOR Rosa Bruno-Jofré, editor T his issue is devoted to English Language Learners (ELL) and the place of French...
Article
Test-takers' interpretations of validity as related to test constructs and test use have been widely debated in large-scale language assessment. This study contributes further evidence to this debate by examining 59 test-takers' perspectives in writing large-scale English language tests. Participants wrote about their test-taking experiences in 300...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the relationships among students’ background information and their in-school and after-school literacy activities, as well as the relationships between students’ background and their views of the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test (OSSLT). The results showed that students’ literacy activities could be grouped into three type...
Article
The study tracked 8 high school English Language Learners (ELLs) from 2 Ontario secondary schools located in small Ontario cities for 3 years and closely documented their linguistic, cognitive, and socio-cultural learning experiences. Each student was visited 2-4 times per year and face-to-face interviews were used on each visit. It was found that...
Article
Despite the fast growth of English immersion in China, only limited research has been conducted regarding immersion teachers' educational background, instructional contexts, professional development, and their perceptions about English immersion. This study explored the above key issues from three primary immersion schools. Results indicated that t...
Article
School-based assessment (SBA) has recently been introduced into the Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examinations (HKCEE) in English. The present study was conducted within the context of this assessment change to investigate students’ and parents’ perceptions of the impact of SBA. Two surveys were employed to explore students’ and parents’ perce...
Article
The importance of first language (L1) and second language (L2) test takers' experience with large-scale literacy testing has been well documented in educational research. Our study focused on the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test (OSSLT), a cross- curricular literacy test that is one of the graduation requirements for Ontario high school stude...
Article
The study tracked 8 high school English Language Learners (ELLs) from 2 Ontario secondary schools located in small Ontario cities for 3 years and closely documented their linguistic, cognitive, and socio-cultural learning experiences. Each student was visited 2-4 times per year and face-to-face interviews were used on each visit. It was found that...
Article
Research has demonstrated that second language immersion is an effective means of facilitating primary school students' second language without undermining competence in their first language. Despite the rapid growth of English immersion (EI) programmes in China, only limited empirical research has been conducted to evaluate students' academic achi...
Book
This volume addresses a very timely and important topic, and provides both broad and in-depth coverage of a number of large-scale English tests in China, including Hong Kong and Taiwan, and about the Chinese learner.
Article
This study examined relationships between the after-school literacy activities and test performance of students who passed and students who failed the 2003 administration of the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test. It included both students who have been in the Canadian school system for most of their school lives and mostly use English as a fir...
Article
The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the College English Test (CET) is to examine the English proficiency of undergraduate students in China and ensure that Chinese undergraduates reach the required English levels specified in the National College English Teaching Syllabus (NCETS). In accordance with the courses on the syllabus, the CET consists of three tests: Band 4 (...
Article
The aggressive internationalization of Canadian universities and increased immigration to Canada over the past 20 years have resulted in a dramatic increase in the number of second language (L2) students in Canadian universities. However, little is known about the factors that influence academic acculturation of L2 students or about the role of Eng...
Article
Full-text available
In a vast country like China, where the function of testing as a fair indicator of students’ academic success is generally accepted (Cheng, 2008, Cheng & Curtis, in press), it is imperative to evaluate and enhance the quality of a test. The CET is a large-scale language test with distinctive Chinese characteristics. However, with the fast increasin...
Article
University instructors’ classroom assessments play a central role in and inevitably influence their teaching and their students’ learning. This paper reports on a comparative interview study conducted in a range of three ESL/EFL university contexts in Canada, Hong Kong and China. Six major aspects of ESL/EFL classroom assessment practices were expl...
Article
Given the increasing numbers of ESL students in Canadian classrooms, this study investigated how teachers of mainstream classes assess the written work of ESL students and whether they use different assessment strategies for ESL versus non-ESL students. Interviews were conducted with seven mainstream teachers from a private high school in Ontario....
Article
The testing and examination history in China can be traced back to the imper- ial period nearly two thousand years ago. The existence of English language testing (tests), on the other hand, has a much shorter history. These English tests, developed and administered over the past 20 years, however, are taken by billions of learners of the English la...
Article
Full-text available
Large-scale testing in English affects second-language students not only greatly but also differently than first-language learners. The research literature reports that confounding factors in such large-scale testing such as varying test formats may differentially affect the performance of students from diverse backgrounds. An investigation of test...
Article
Full-text available
The Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test (OSSLT) is a cross-curricular literacy test issued to all secondary school students in the province of Ontario. The test consists of a reading and a writing component, both of which must be successfully completed for secondary school gradu- ation in Ontario. This study elicited 16 first language and second...
Article
Full-text available
Grading, feedback, and reporting of student achievement are key elements that support learning. This article reports an interview study on a range of English as a Second or Foreign Language (ESL/EFL) teachers' classroom assessment practices at the tertiary level in Canada, Hong Kong, and China. The interviews focused on teachers' use of marking cri...
Book
Language Testing Reconsidered provides a critical update on major issues that have engaged the field of language testing since its inception. Anyone who is working in, studying or teaching language testing should have a copy of this book. The information, discussions, and reflections offered within the volume address major developments within the f...
Article
The beliefs of 95 ESL/EFL instructors in Canada, 44 in Hong Kong, and 124 in Beijing about assessment and evaluation were examined with 32 questionnaire items. While the results revealed more similarities than the differences, among the instructors in the three contexts, the beliefs expressed by the instructors in the three contexts were somewhat m...
Article
Full-text available
Results from the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test (OSSLT) indicate that English as a Second Language (ESL) and English Literacy Development (ELD) students have comparatively low success and high deferral rates. This study examined the 2002 and 2003 OSSLT test performances of ESL/ELD and non-ESL/ELD students in order to identify and understand...
Article
Within the context of increasing numbers of second language (L2) learners in Canadian schools and expanding standards‐driven testing frameworks, a passing score on the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test (OSSLT) is a recently imposed secondary school graduation requirement in Ontario. There is evidence, however, that tests designed on the basis...

Network

Cited By

Projects

Projects (13)
Project
This projects reviews the test of HSK from an Assessment Use Argument perspective.
Archived project
The objectives of this study are to: 1) clarify the costs and benefits of English for Academic Purposes instruction in L2 undergraduate students’ academic performance in Canadian universities; 2) identify other key factors that contribute to (or impede) their performance; and, 3) identify stages of the academic acculturation process of L2 students as they adjust to the demands of university for the purpose of identifying the pedagogical approaches that exact the least cost for the greatest benefit. In order to investigate these issues, the proposed three-year study will include all of the 23 English medium universities with EAP programs that are accredited by the Council of Second Language Programs.