Lixia Yang

Lixia Yang
Ryerson University · Department of Psychology

About

45
Publications
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536
Citations

Publications

Publications (45)
Article
Background The COVID19 pandemic has caused a mental health crisis worldwide, which may have different age-specific impacts, partly due to age-related differences in resilience and coping. The purposes of this study were to 1) identify the disparities in mental distress, perceived adversities, resilience, and coping during the COVID-19 pandemic amon...
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Aims The study examines the factors related to the appraisal and adherence of the individual and public health preventive measures. Background The effectiveness of the measures battling the pandemic was largely determined by the voluntary compliance of the public. Objectives This study aimed to identify psychological perception factors related to...
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The current study investigates the mental health condition of Mainland Chinese in Canada and identifies the associated sociodemographic and COVID-19-related predictors. A sample of 471 Mainland Chinese aged 18 or older completed an online survey that collected information on demographics, experience, cognition, and behaviours related to the COVID-1...
Article
According to the associative deficit hypothesis, older adults experience greater difficulty in remembering associations between pieces of information than young adults, despite their relatively intact memory for individual items. It has been demonstrated that this deficit could be simulated by depleting resources for relational processing. The curr...
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Objectives: Prior work has demonstrated that executive function training or physical exercise can improve older adults' cognition. The current study takes an exploratory approach to compare the feasibility and efficacy of online executive function training and low-intensity aerobic exercise for improving cognitive and psychosocial functioning in h...
Article
Our cognitive system implicitly binds relevant stimulus features into a coherent episodic event. According to past research, relative to young adults, older adults are more likely to hyper-bind extraneous co-occurrences and tend to prioritise positive over negative information. However, the interaction of these cognitive and emotional processes is...
Article
Memory monitoring is an inferential process that we use to evaluate and make judgments about the contents of our memory. Prior work has shown age-related similarity in prospective monitoring of ongoing memory processes, but age-related deficits when retrospectively monitoring the source of memories. In the current study, we examined how extrinsic a...
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It has been shown in literature that East Asians are more inclined to process context information than individuals in Western cultures. Using a context memory task that requires studying object images in social contexts (i.e., rating objects in an imagined social or experiential scenario), our recent study revealed an age-invariant advantage for Ch...
Data
The final SPSS dataset “S1_file_PONE-D-18-05261_final data set”. (SAV)
Article
The ability to selectively remember important information and forget irrelevant details is fundamental to successful memory. Research has shown that both younger and older adults can intentionally remember and forget information varying in emotional valence; however, whether the neural correlates of these processes change with age is unknown. In th...
Article
This paper explored the differential sensitivity young and older adults exhibit to the local context of items entering memory. We examined trial-to-trial performance during an item directed forgetting task for positive, negative, and neutral (or baseline) words each cued as either to-be-remembered (TBR) or to-be-forgotten (TBF). This allowed us to...
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Older adults are more at risk to become a victim of consumer fraud than any other type of crime (Carcach, Graycar, & Muscat, 2001) but the research on the psychological profiles of senior fraud victims is lacking. To bridge this significant gap, we examined 151 (120 female, 111 Caucasian) community-dwelling older adults in Southern Ontario between...
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Objective . To examine plasticity of inhibition, as indexed by practice effects of inhibition tasks and the associated transfer effects, using a multiple task approach in healthy older adults. Method . Forty-eight healthy older adults were evenly assigned to either a practice group or a no-contact control group. All participants completed pretest (...
Chapter
The benefit of forgetting lies in its ability to reduce clutter in memory by removing information that is no longer relevant. In the laboratory, forgetting can be experimentally induced using the directed forgetting paradigm, for which there are two versions: the item-based and list-based methods. Both tasks have shown to be effective in producing...
Chapter
Cognitive plasticity refers to capacity to improve mental abilities through practice or training. In the literature, three main approaches have been used to induce cognitive plasticity: practice/retest learning, strategy-based training, and lifestyle exercise. Using these approaches, cognitive plasticity has been demonstrated in a wide variety of c...
Chapter
The dual mechanisms of control framework distinguishes between two cognitive control modes that differ in terms of temporal dynamics: proactive and reactive control. Proactive control relies on the continuous maintenance of task goals in working memory and helps to prevent or minimize the impact of interference, prior to its onset, while reactive c...
Article
The aim of this study is to examine the long-term maintenance of training benefits in inhibition, as measured with the Stroop task, in older adults over 1- and 3-year periods. Participants from an original 6-session Stroop training study (Wilkinson & Yang, 2012 [Wilkinson, A. J., & Yang, L. (2012). Plasticity of inhibition in older adults: Retest p...
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Consistent with their emphasis on emotional goals, older adults often exhibit a positivity bias in attention and memory relative to their young counterparts (i.e., a positivity effect). The current study sought to determine how this age-related positivity effect would impact intentional forgetting of emotional words, a process critical to efficient...
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The survival effect in memory refers to the memory enhancement for materials encoded in reference to a survival scenario compared to those encoded in reference to a control scenario or with other encoding strategies [1]. The current study examined whether this effect is well maintained in old age by testing young (ages 18-29) and older adults (ages...
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A growing body of work on emotion-cognition interactions has revealed both facilitative and disruptive effects of emotion on working memory in younger adults. These differing effects may vary by the goal relevancy of emotion within a task. Additionally, it is possible that these emotional effects would be larger for older adults, considering findin...
Article
Using both behavioural and event-related potential (ERP) data, the current study sought to examine the neurophysiological underpinnings for the effect of distracting pictorial information on semantic word matching performance in younger and older adults. This was tested in the context of semantic relations between task-relevant word pairs, a task-i...
Article
Given that cultural background might be an important factor that influences emotion processing, this study investigated age differences in emotion recognition between 30 younger and 30 older Chinese adults in a facial go/no-go task. In this task, participants were required to recognize faces of different emotional expressions (happy, neutral, and s...
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Research suggests that people in Eastern interdependent cultures process information more holistically and attend more to contextual information than do people in Western independent cultures. The current study examined the effects of culture and age on memory for socially meaningful item-context associations in 71 Canadians of Western European des...
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Objectives: Literature on cross-cultural differences in cognition suggests that categorization, as an information processing and organization strategy, was more often used by Westerners than by East Asians, particularly for older adults. This study examines East-West cultural differences in memory for categorically processed items and sources in y...
Article
The self-reference effect (SRE) is a powerful memory advantage associated with encoding in reference to the self (e.g., Rogers, Kuiper, & Kirker, 1977). To explore whether this mnemonic benefit occurs spontaneously, the current study assessed how ageing and divided attention affect the magnitude of the SRE in emotional memory (i.e., memory for emot...
Article
This study examined whether the nonitem-specific retest learning effects, previously shown with young-old adults primarily in their 60s and 70s, could be extended to oldest-old adults aged 80 and onward. Twenty-one oldest-olds participated in an 8-session retest training program with three ability domains: perceptual speed, inductive reasoning, and...
Article
This study assessed plasticity of inhibition in older adults through examining retest practice effects in a six-session training paradigm using the Stroop task and the training-induced transfer effects to a range of cognitive measures. Fifty-six older adults (aged 60-84 years, mean = 71.05, standard deviation = 6.17) participated in this study. The...
Article
This study examines how emotion-focused orientation at retrieval affects memory for emotional versus neutral images in young and older adults. A total of 44 older adults (ages 61-84 years, M=70.00, SD=5.54) and 43 young adults (ages 17-33 years, M=20.58, SD=3.72) were tested on their free recall and forced-choice recognition of images. At retrieval...
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Using a speeded word fragment completion task, we assessed age differences in the automatic accessibility of emotional versus neutral words from semantic memory. Participants were instructed to complete a series of single-solution word fragments as quickly as possible. The results demonstrate that older adults are biased against accessing both posi...
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It has been well documented that aging is associated with declines in a variety of cognitive functions. A growing body of research shows that the age-related cognitive declines are reversible through cognitive training programs, suggesting maintained cognitive plasticity of the aging brain. Retest learning represents a basic form of cognitive plast...
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Reviews the book, Aging and cognition: Research methodologies and empirical advances edited by Hayden B. Bosworth and Christopher Hertzog (see record 2009-08050-000). This book selectively summarises the latest methodological developments, broadly reviews recent empirical findings, and briefly describes the implications and challenges in the appl...
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This study examined the maintenance of retest learning benefits in young old and oldest old adults over an 8-month period in 3 cognitive abilities: reasoning, perceptual-motor speed, and visual attention. Twenty-four young old (aged 70–79 years, M = 74.2) and 23 oldest old adults (aged 80–90 years, M = 83.6) who participated in a previously publish...
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We investigated retest learning (i.e., performance improvement through retest practice) in the absence of item-specific effects (i.e., learning through memorizing or becoming familiar with specific items) with older adults. Thirty-one older adults (ages 60-82 years, M = 71.10, SD = 6.27) participated in an eight-session self-guided retest program....
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We assessed the extent to which implicit proactive interference results from automatic versus controlled retrieval among younger and older adults. During a study phase, targets (e.g., "ALLERGY") either were or were not preceded by nontarget competitors (e.g., "ANALOGY"). After a filled interval, the participants were asked to complete word fragment...
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Using a picture–word paradigm, we investigated age differences in distraction from to-be-ignored pictures. On each trial, participants viewed a prime word that was superimposed on an irrelevant picture, followed by a test word. The task was to determine whether the prime and test words were semantically related. The pictures were either congruent o...
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Using a speeded retrieval procedure, we investigated time-of-day effects in automatic and controlled retrieval. Morning-type adults were tested at either peak (early morning) or off-peak (late afternoon) times on a speeded implicit (Experiment 1) or explicit (Experiment 2) stem completion task. In Experiment 1, retrieval strategies were identified...
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Full-text available
To address the question of whether cognitive plasticity varies by age and level of cognitive functioning in the older population, the authors used a self-guided retest paradigm to assess the basic forms of plasticity of 34 young-olds (M=74.4 years, range=70-79) and 34 oldest-olds (M=84.0 years, range=80-91), with half in each age group screened for...

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Project (1)
Project
The objectives of the current study are to understand how the unique experience of the COVID-19 pandemic relates to older adults’ psychosocial and cognitive functioning. The proposed study adopts an online experiment including survey and computerized cognitive task components. The survey questions assess factors of social isolation/support, engagement with daily activities, psychological experiences of the COVID-19 pandemic, coping strategies of older adults. The cognitive tasks assess memory and executive functions of older adults. We hypothesize that increased feelings of loneliness and psychological distress, decreased engagement in daily activities, and avoidant-style coping strategies will be related to decreased performances on memory and executive functioning tasks in older adults.