Lisa Yon

Lisa Yon
University of Nottingham | Notts · School of Veterinary Medicine and Science

PhD

About

71
Publications
22,612
Reads
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962
Citations
Citations since 2016
43 Research Items
863 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
Introduction
Lisa Yon currently works at the School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham. Lisa's research focuses on the health and welfare of captive and free living wildlife. She has a current project on 'The influence of dietary fibre on tiger gut health, behaviour and welfare', and another on 'The role of environmental geochemistry in land use decisions of African elephants', with additional projects on drivers for human-elephant conflict in South Africa and in Tanzania. She is Head of the Behaviour Subgroup of BIAZA's Elephant Welfare Group.
Additional affiliations
August 2007 - present
University of Nottingham
Position
  • Wildlife disease, elephant behaviour, welfare and conservation
August 1999 - July 2006
University of California, Davis
Position
  • PhD Student
Description
  • PhD student (research in U.S. and Thailand)

Publications

Publications (71)
Article
Full-text available
Directional freezing (in 2 or 10 ml hollow glass tubes) has been reported to improve post-thaw sperm survival parameters compared to conventional methods (in 0.5 ml straws). However, the biophysical properties that increase post-thaw survival are poorly understood. Therefore, the aim for the current study was to investigate the effect of ice morpho...
Article
Full-text available
Within the southern African elephant tourism industry, chaining or tethering elephants is still a relatively routine practice, despite the known negative impacts. Cited reasons for chaining include fear of aggressive interactions between elephants when handlers are absent, or a general increase in expression of aggressive behaviours (both to other...
Article
Full-text available
Lead pollution from metalliferous mines can have major environmental and health effects long after the mines have closed. Animals living near derelict mine sites can inadvertently ingest lead-contaminated soils, causing them to accumulate lead and potentially experience significant adverse health effects. Human food products, such as eggs, produced...
Article
Storing cryopreserved spermatozoa in a genome resource bank safeguards against the loss of heterozygosity in endangered species and provides opportunities to reincorporate genes into populations through the application of assisted reproductive technologies. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of breeding strategy on ejaculate charac...
Article
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This paper evaluated analytical methods used to generate time-series data from elephant tail hairs, which can be used to reflect changing exposure to environmental geochemistry. Elephant tail hairs were analysed by three methods sequentially, each providing data to inform subsequent analysis. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Microanalys...
Article
As a consequence of accelerated and excessive use of pesticides in tropical regions, wilderness areas are under threat; this includes the Pantanal wetlands in the Upper Paraguay River Basin (UPRB). Using a Land Cover Land Use Change (LCLUC) modelling approach, we estimated the expected pesticide load in the Pantanal and the surrounding highlands re...
Preprint
Full-text available
The effect of aging in the human retina has been well documented, as have the signs of age-related retinal disease. Comparative studies in animals allow us to further investigate how the retina ages in different species. The African bush elephant (Loxodonta africana) has a retina comparable to other mammalian species, but with some reported distinc...
Article
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The aim of this study was two-fold: (1) identify suitable bio-indicators to assess elemental status in elephants using captive elephant samples, and (2) understand how geochemistry influences mineral intake. Tail hair, toenail, faeces, plasma and urine were collected quarterly from 21 elephants at five UK zoos. All elephant food, soil from enclosur...
Article
The unique geochemistry surrounding the Palabora Mining Company (PMC) land may act as a micronutrient hotspot, attracting elephants to the area. The PMC produces refined copper and extracts phosphates and other minerals. Understanding the spatial influence of geochemistry on the home range size of African elephants is important for elephant populat...
Article
In the wild, bull elephants socialize with conspecifics of all ages and both sexes, and young bulls develop social bonds with other elephants which will be sustained throughout their lives. Significant progress has been made towards providing an environment that facilitates social behaviour and multi‐generational family structure for female elephan...
Article
Full-text available
There has been much concern in recent years about the welfare of elephants in zoos across North America and Europe. While some previous studies have assessed captive elephant welfare at a particular point in time, there has been little work to develop methods which could be used for regular, routine welfare assessment. Such assessment is important...
Article
Full-text available
Background The increasing human population and global intensification of agriculture have had a major impact on the world’s natural ecosystems and caused devastating effects on populations of mega-herbivores such as the African savanna elephants, through habitat reduction and fragmentation and increased human–animal conflict. Animals with vast home...
Article
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The importance of infectious diseases originating from or carried by wildlife is increasingly being recognised. An understanding of these diseases is based on knowledge of their epidemiology; thus, it is essential to gather pathogen data which are region-specific. The objective of this review was to provide an update on changes in the epidemiology...
Article
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Opportunities for positive social interaction are important in captive animals, and social interactions can be used as a welfare indicator. Wild elephants live in related multigenerational herds; however, in captivity they are often managed in less related groups, which could impact the quality of their social interactions, and thus their welfare....
Article
Concerns over elephant welfare in UK zoos have implications for their future in captivity. To monitor improvements made to elephant welfare in UK zoos, non-invasive, valid and reliable indicators of welfare are needed. Using a rapid review strategy and critical appraisal tool, we aimed to appraise evidence from peer-reviewed literature on potential...
Research
Full-text available
A novel tool was created to assess the welfare of captive elephants using behavioural indicators of welfare. The tool was designed for use by elephant keepers to provide a rapid, reliable and valid way to monitor changes in the welfare of elephants over time. A detailed and extensively evidence-based review was made of the Secretary of State Standa...
Article
Recent concerns over the welfare of elephants in UK zoos have implications for their future in captivity, and it is clear that improvements in welfare should be made. Evidence suggests that the knowledge of experienced stakeholders is vital to captive animal welfare assessment. However, there have been few attempts to consult with zoo personnel and...
Article
Coracoid fractures are a frequent presentation in wild birds, commonly due to collisions with motor vehicles, windows, or other obstacles such as pylons. Despite this, there are few literature reports of outcomes, and those published consist of small numbers of animals, with conflicting results when comparing conservative management with surgical i...
Article
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An epidemiological study was performed to compare the Entamoeba communities present in faecal samples collected from captive primates in two zoological establishments in England and India (The Tree House). Faecal samples (n=206) were collected from 61 individually identified non-human primates (NHPs) and samples from 2 groups of NHPs, between July...
Article
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Mature male African Savannah elephants are known to periodically enter a temporary state of heightened aggression called "musth," often linked with increased androgens, particularly testosterone. Sexually mature males are capable of entering musth at any time of year, and will often travel long distances to find estrous females. When two musth bull...
Article
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The use of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGCMs) has facilitated the development of non-invasive methods to study physiological conditions of endangered wildlife populations. One limitation is that fGCM concentrations are known to change over time and to vary according to different environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to perform...
Article
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Native to China and Mongolia, the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) now enjoys a worldwide distribution. While black rats and the house mouse tracked the regional development of human agricultural settlements, brown rats did not appear in Europe until the 1500s, suggesting their range expansion was a response to relatively recent increases in global tr...
Preprint
Full-text available
A major constraint on the evolution of large body sizes in animals is an increased risk of developing cancer. There is no correlation, however, between body size and cancer risk. This lack of correlation is often referred to as ‘Peto’s Paradox’. Here we show that the elephant genome encodes 20 copies of the tumor suppressor gene TP53 and that the i...
Article
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A homologue to a widely used genetic marker, pla, for Yersinia pestis has been identified in tissue samples of two species of rat (Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus) and of mice (Mus musculus and Apodemus sylvaticus) using a microarray based platform to screen for zoonotic pathogens of interest. Samples were from urban locations in the UK (Liverp...
Article
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SUMMARY The objectives of this work were (i) geographical analysis of the 2012–2014 outbreak of rabies in Greece using GIS and (ii) comparative analysis of animal cases with data of potential human exposure to rabies together with environmental data, in order to provide information for risk assessment, effective monitoring and control. Most animal...
Article
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Wildlife disease surveillance is the first line of defence against infectious disease. Fluctuations in host populations and disease prevalence are a known feature of wildlife disease systems. However, the impact of such heterogeneities on the performance of surveillance is currently poorly understood. We present the first systematic exploration of...
Preprint
Full-text available
A homologue to a widely used genetic marker, pla, for Yersinia pestis has been identified in tissue samples of two species of rat ( Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus ) and of mice ( Mus musculus and Apodemus sylvaticus ) using a microarray based platform to screen for zoonotic pathogens of interest. Samples were from urban locations in the UK (Li...
Preprint
Full-text available
A homologue to a widely used genetic marker, pla, for Yersinia pestis has been identified in tissue samples of two species of rat ( Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus ) and of mice ( Mus musculus and Apodemus sylvaticus ) using a microarray based platform to screen for zoonotic pathogens of interest. Samples were from urban locations in the UK (Li...
Chapter
Retinoids are natural and synthetic derivatives of vitamin A, also termed retinol. This article will address the current understanding of (i) the uptake, the metabolism, and storage of dietary retinoids; (ii) the molecular mechanisms whereby retinoids activate transcription via the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) and ther...
Article
The demand for diagnostic tools that allow simultaneous screening of samples for multiple pathogens is increasing because they overcome the limitations of other methods, which can only screen for a single or a few pathogens at a time. Microarrays offer the advantages of being capable to test a large number of samples simultaneously, screening for m...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction EEHV-1 is a viral infection of elephants that has been associated with a fatal haemorrhagic syndrome in Asian elephants. Previous studies have suggested that pregnant animals may shed more virus than non-pregnant animals. Methods This study examined whether pregnancy affected the frequency or magnitude of shedding of elephant endothel...
Article
Maintaining adequate welfare in captive elephants is challenging. Few studies have investigated overnight rest behavior in zoo elephants, yet time spent resting has been identified as a welfare indicator in some species. We investigated resting behavior in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in UK zoos, with the aim of identifying patterns or prefere...
Article
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Weak environmental assessments undermine regulations. An estimated 6051 tons of active substances went into the production of veterinary pharmaceuticals (VPs) for the treatment of food animals in the European Union (EU) in 2004, including 5393 tons of antibiotics and 194 tons of an- tiparasitics (1). With global meat production projected to increas...
Article
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The bacterium Francisella tularensis causes the vector-borne zoonotic disease tularemia, and may infect a wide range of hosts including invertebrates, mammals and birds. Transmission to humans occurs through contact with infected animals or contaminated environments, or through arthropod vectors. Tularemia has a broad geographical distribution, and...
Article
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The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of amoebic infection in NHPs from six Zoological gardens in the United Kingdom. Initially, 126 faecal samples were collected from 37 individually identified NHPs at Twycross Zoo, UK, and were subjected to microscopic examination. A subsequent, nationwide experiment included 350 faecal samples fr...
Article
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West Nile Virus (WNV) is the causative agent of a vector-borne, zoonotic disease with a worldwide distribution. Recent expansion and introduction of WNV into new areas, including southern Europe, has been associated with severe disease in humans and equids, and has increased concerns regarding the need to prevent and control future WNV outbreaks. S...
Article
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The moose (Alces alces) is an intensively managed keystone species in Fennoscandia. Several aspects of reproduction in moose have not been fully elucidated, including puberty, timing of mating and oestrus, and the length of the oestrus period. These aspects are relevant for an adaptive management of moose with respect to harvest, population size, d...
Article
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Adipose tissue (AT) is a dynamic and flexible organ with regulatory roles in physiological functions including metabolism, reproduction and inflammation; secreted adipokines, including leptin, and fatty acids facilitate many of these roles. The African elephant (Loxodonta africana) is experiencing serious challenges to optimal reproduction in capti...
Article
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Surveillance of Wildlife Diseases: Lessons from the West Nile Virus Outbreak, Page 1 of 2 Abstract In 1998, before the West Nile virus (WNV), monkeypox, and severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreaks, Childs et al. ( 1 ) made the prescient observation that “multidisciplinary teams of ecologists, mammalogists, ornithologists, and entomologists, a...
Article
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SUMMARY The occurrence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum was investigated in spleen and serum samples from Swedish moose (Alces alces) in southern Sweden (island and mainland). Samples were analysed for presence of A. phagocytophilum DNA by real-time PCR (n = 263), and for Anaplasma antibodies with ELISA serology (n = 234). All serum samples had antibod...