Lisa D Wiggins

Lisa D Wiggins
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | CDC · National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities

About

92
Publications
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Publications

Publications (92)
Article
Full-text available
Increasing evidence exists for an association between early life fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure and several neurodevelopmental outcomes, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, the association between PM2.5 and adaptive and cognitive function remains poorly understood. Participants included 658 children with ASD, 771 with a non...
Article
Full-text available
The study examined timing of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) identification in education versus health settings for 8-year-old children with ASD identified through records-based surveillance. The study also examined type of ASD symptoms noted within special education evaluations. Results indicated that children with records from only education sourc...
Article
Objective: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may achieve continence later than other children. Little is known about factors associated with toileting resistance in children with ASD and other developmental delays/disabilities (DD). We sought to describe toileting resistance in children with ASD and DD and those from the general populat...
Article
Background: Current knowledge about parental reasons for allowing child participation in research comes mainly from clinical trials. Fewer data exist on parents' motivations to enrol children in observational studies. Objectives: Describe reasons parents of preschoolers gave for participating in the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED), a U...
Article
Sensory features (i.e., atypical responses to sensory stimuli) are included in the current diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder. Yet, large population-based studies have not examined these features. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sensory features among autistic children, and examine associations between sensory features...
Article
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This paper describes a process to define a comprehensive list of exemplars for seven core Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and report on interrater reliability in applying these exemplars to determine ASD case classification. Clinicians completed an iterative process to map specific exe...
Article
The heterogeneous nature of children with symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) makes it difficult to identify risk factors and effective treatment options. We sought to identify behavioral and developmental features that best define the heterogeneity and homogeneity in 2–5-year-old children classified with ASD and subthreshold ASD characteris...
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Gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) are commonly reported in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This multi-site study evaluated the prevalence of GIS in preschool-aged children with ASD/(n = 672), with other developmental delays (DD)/(n = 938), and children in the general population (POP)/(n = 851). After adjusting for covariates, children i...
Article
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Prior studies investigating restricted and repetitive behavior (RRB) subtypes within autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have found varied factor structures for symptom groupings, in part, due to variation in symptom measurement and broad sample age ranges. This study examined RRBs among 827 preschool-age children, ages 35 to 71 months, through an explo...
Article
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The goal of this preliminary investigation was to compare demographic and clinical characteristics in a sample of children with likely Social (Pragmatic) Communication Disorder (SCD) (N = 117) to those in children with possible (N = 118) and some (N = 126) SCD traits, other developmental delay (DD) (N = 91) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (N = 6...
Article
Background and aims Research in school-aged children, adolescents, and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has found sex-based differences in behavioral, developmental, and diagnostic outcomes. These findings have not been consistently replicated in preschool-aged children. We examined sex-based differences in a large sample of 2–5-year-old...
Article
This study confirms previous research indicating that physical difficulties and co-occurring mental health or other conditions are prevalent among adolescents identified with autism in early childhood (1-3,9). Approximately one in five had physical difficulties, and approximately three in five had additional mental health or other conditions, such...
Article
Objectives to explore how many pre-school aged children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) used psychotropic medication, (child and geographic factors associated with psychotropic medication use, and how many children who used psychotropic medication did or did not ever receive behavior therapy. Study design Children 2–5 years of age were enrolle...
Article
Background and objectives: Pica, the repeated ingestion of nonfood items, can be life-threatening. Although case reports describe pica in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or intellectual disability (ID), there has been little systematic study of pica prevalence. We assessed pica in children 30 to 68 months of age (median = 55.4 months)...
Article
Background Pica, the repeated ingestion of nonfood items, can result in gastrointestinal (GI) outcomes. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental disabilities (DDs) are disproportionately affected by both pica and GI symptoms. Study of the inter-relationship between pica, GI symptoms, and ASD/DD is limited. Objective/Hyp...
Chapter
This custom collection consists of important studies, expert recommendations, and practice pathways that inform pediatricians on practical ways to improve the lives of children with ASD and their families. https://shop.aap.org/pediatric-collections-autism-spectrum-disorder-paperback/
Article
Previous studies investigating the association between dysmorphology and cognitive, behavioral, and developmental outcomes among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been limited by the binary classification of dysmorphology and lack of comparison groups. We assessed the association using a continuous measure of dysmorphology severi...
Article
Full-text available
Problem/condition: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Period covered: 2016. Description of system: The Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network is an active surveillance program that provides estimates of the prevalence of ASD among children aged 8 years whose parents or guardians live in 11 ADDM Network sites in the United...
Article
Full-text available
Problem/condition: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Period covered: 2016. Description of system: The Early Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (Early ADDM) Network, a subset of the overall ADDM Network, is an active surveillance program that estimates ASD prevalence and monitors early identification of ASD among children aged 4 yea...
Article
Objectives: (1) Report the occurrence of wandering, or leaving a supervised space, among children with confirmed autism spectrum disorder (ASD), other developmental delay (DD) with a previous but unconfirmed ASD diagnosis (DDprevASD), DD without a previous ASD diagnosis, and a population comparison group (POP) at an age when wandering is no longer...
Article
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The objectives of our study were to (a) report how many children met an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) surveillance definition but had no clinical diagnosis of ASD in health or education records and (b) evaluate differences in demographic, individual, and service factors between children with and without a documented ASD diagnosis. ASD surveillance...
Article
Background ASD-related services can improve outcomes for children, but less is known about service outside of school settings during preschool age. We aimed to describe amount and category of community-based service use among 3–5-year-old children with ASD and examine differences by health insurance. Methods We used cross-sectional data on 792 chi...
Article
Background Evidence about injury management and outcomes in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is limited. Method Cross-sectional analyses included children aged 30–68 months with at least one medically attended injury. Standardized diagnostic instruments determined ASD cases. Parent-reported injury treatments and outcomes were examined...
Article
Full-text available
We analyzed CBCL/1½-5 Pervasive Developmental Problems (DSM-PDP) scores in 3- to 5-year-olds from the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED), a multi-site case control study, with the objective to discriminate children with ASD (N = 656) from children with Developmental Delay (DD) (N = 646), children with Developmental Delay (DD) plus ASD featur...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were revised in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of DSM-IV-Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) and DSM-5 definitions of ASD in a community-based sample of preschool children....
Article
Background Studies that examine the role of factors documented before self-injurious behaviors (SIB) occur are important in establishing a temporal relationship between these factors and SIB. Using data from a population-based surveillance system of 8-year-olds with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we: (1) explored potential associations between SIB...
Article
: media-1vid110.1542/5984243260001PEDS-VA_2018-0492Video Abstract BACKGROUND: Sleep problems can impact daytime behavior, quality of life, and overall health. We compared sleep habits in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental delays and disorders and in children from the general population (POP). Methods: We in...
Article
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The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in Table 2. The "Time of use" should be the column header with the corresponding row with "N = 126" belonging to the "Peri-pregnancy" row. The "Preconception" row should be the row with "N = 17", "Trimester 1" should be the "N = 29" row, "Trimester 2" should be the "N = 25" row,...
Article
Purpose The criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were revised in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of DSM-IV-Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) and DSM-5 definitions of ASD in a community-based sample of preschool children. M...
Article
Full-text available
For the first time, the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network (ADDM) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported prevalence estimates based on two different diagnostic schemes in the 2014 surveillance period. Results found substantial agreement between surveillance case status based on Diagnostic and Statisti...
Conference Paper
Evidence about injury outcomes in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is limited. We compared injury treatments and outcomes in children with ASD versus typically-developing (TD) controls. Children aged 30–68 months were recruited from education and health providers and randomly sampled birth certificates. Cases were determined using estab...
Article
Background: Autism spectrumdisorder (ASD) commonly presents with co-occurring medical conditions (CoCs). Little is known about patterns in CoCs in a time of rising ASD prevalence. Aims: To describe trends in number and type of documented CoCs in 8-year-old children with ASD. Methods: We used Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Net...
Article
Opioid use during pregnancy is associated with suboptimal pregnancy outcomes. Little is known about child neurodevelopmental outcomes. We examined associations between maternal opioid prescriptions preconception to delivery (peri-pregnancy) and child’s risk of ASD, developmental delay/disorder (DD) with no ASD features, or ASD/DD with autism featur...
Article
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This study explored whether ASD phenotypes in the child were associated with a history of anxiety or depression in the mother. We hypothesized that an ASD profile in children characterized by mild delays and increased rates of dysregulation would be associated with preexisting maternal anxiety or depression. Participants were 672 preschool children...
Article
Full-text available
Problem/condition: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Period covered: 2014. Description of system: The Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network is an active surveillance system that provides estimates of the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among children aged 8 years whose parents or guardians reside within 11...
Article
The autism spectrum disorder phenotype varies by social and communication ability and co-occurring developmental, behavioral, and medical conditions. Etiology is also diverse, with myriad potential genetic origins and environmental risk factors. Examining the influence of parental broader autism phenotype—a set of sub-clinical characteristics of au...
Article
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The Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) and the Social Responsiveness Scales (SRS) are commonly used screeners for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Data from the Study to Explore Early Development were used to examine variations in the performance of these instruments by child characteristics and family demographics. For both instruments, speci...
Article
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The objective of this study was to identify homogenous classes of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to improve phenotypic characterization. Children were enrolled in the Study to Explore Early Development between 2 and 5 years of age. 707 children were classified with ASD after a comprehensive evaluation with strict diagnostic algo...
Article
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Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis relies on parent-reported and clinician-observed instruments. Sometimes, results between these instruments disagree. The broader autism phenotype (BAP) in parent-reporters may be associated with discordance. Study to Explore Early Development data (N = 712) were used to address whether mothers with BAP and c...
Article
The severity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often measured by co-occurring conditions, such as intellectual disability or language delay, rather than deficits in social interaction, and restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule calibrated severity score (ADOS CSS) was created to facilitate compa...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we explored potential associations among self-injurious behaviors (SIB) and a diverse group of protective and risk factors in children with autism spectrum disorder from two databases: Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network and the Autism Speaks-Autism Treatment Network (AS-ATN). The presence of SIB was deter...
Article
The US Secretary of Health and Human Services recommended in February 2016 that mucopolysaccharidosis type 1 (MPS I) be added to the recommended uniform screening panel for state newborn screening programs. One of the key factors in this decision was the evidence suggesting that earlier treatment with hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for th...
Article
Self-injurious behaviors (SIB) have been reported in more than 30 % of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in clinic-based studies. This study estimated the prevalence of SIB in a large population-based sample of children with ASD in the United States. A total of 8065 children who met the surveillance case definition for ASD in the Auti...
Article
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This study examined associations between ASD diagnosis retention and non-ASD co-occurring conditions (CoCs) by child sex. The sample included 7077 males and 1487 females who had an ASD diagnosis documented in their school or health records in a population-based ASD surveillance system for 8-year-old children. ASD diagnosis retention status was dete...
Article
This study examined the phenotypic profiles of children aged 30-68 months in the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED). Children classified as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), developmental delay (DD) with ASD symptoms, DD without ASD symptoms, and population comparison (POP) differed significantly from each other on cognitive, adaptive, behavio...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the prevalence and characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), cerebral palsy (CP), hearing loss (HL), intellectual disability (ID), and vision impairment (VI) over a 15-20 year time period, with specific focus on concurrent changes in ASD and ID prevalence. We used data from a population-based developmental disabilities...
Article
Full-text available
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is over four times more prevalent in males compared to females. Increased understanding of sex differences in ASD endophenotypes could add insight into possible etiologies and the assessment and management of the disorder. Consequently, the purpose of this review is to describe current literature regarding sex differe...
Article
Full-text available
The Study to Explore Early Development (SEED) is a multi-site case-control study designed to explore the relationship between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenotypes and etiologies. The goals of this paper are to (1) describe the SEED algorithm that uses the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (A...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background: The use of standardized tools is a recommended professional practice when considering an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), although little research has been done to characterize the use of these tools in community population samples. Objectives: To characterize ASD test use in developmental evaluations of children with ASD. Methods: T...
Conference Paper
Background: The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published in 2013, included revised diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Studies using clinical research samples have shown that some children who met ASD criteria based on DSM-IV-TR will not meet DSM-5ASD criteria, raising concern...
Conference Paper
Background: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have many features beyond diagnostic symptoms that contribute to phenotypic heterogeneity. Little is known about the underlying structure of these associated features (AF) and how they relate to diagnostic criteria. Objectives: Our goal was to examine the latent structure of common ASD...
Conference Paper
Background: A recent report from the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network reported that 83% of 8-year-olds with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) had at least one co-occurring developmental, neurologic, or psychiatric diagnosis (CD). Estimated prevalence of ASDs has significantly increased from 2002 to 2008. Little is k...
Conference Paper
Background: Screeners for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are important for determining ASD risk in population-based studies. Consequently, identifying socio-economic status (SES) factors that affect the validity of an ASD screener can improve the accurate identification of autism-related behaviors and inform future screening efforts. The Social C...
Conference Paper
Background: Research findings suggest that although most children retain an ASD diagnosis after the initial diagnosis, some children may experience sufficient change in symptoms such that they no longer meet criteria for an ASD diagnosis at a later time. Objectives: To examine whether there is a sex difference in retention of ASD diagnosis and th...
Article
Purpose Numerous studies establish associations between adverse perinatal outcomes/complications and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There has been little assessment of population attributable fractions (PAFs). Methods We estimated average ASD PAFs for preterm birth (PTB), small-for-gestational-age (SGA), and Cesarean delivery (CD) in a US populat...
Article
The goals of our study were to (a) compare agreement between autism spectrum disorder diagnosis and outcome of the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers and Parents Evaluation of Developmental Status in a sample of toddlers and (b) examine specific concerns noted for toddlers who screened negative on the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddler...
Article
Introduction: Records-based autism spectrum disorder surveillance developed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has been extended to younger cohorts, although the utility of additional record sources has not been examined. We therefore conducted a pilot project to describe whether Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillan...
Conference Paper
Background: The Study to Explore Early Development (SEED) was funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to enhance knowledge of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenotypes and etiologies. SEED presents a unique opportunity to investigate ASD phenotypes because of its population- based ascertainment, large sample size, and comprehensive...
Article
Full-text available
Past research is inconsistent in the stability of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnoses. The authors therefore sought to examine the proportion of children identified from a population-based surveillance system that had a change in classification from ASD to non-ASD and factors associated with such changes. Children with a documented age of firs...
Article
The Study to Explore Early Development (SEED), a multisite investigation addressing knowledge gaps in autism phenotype and etiology, aims to: (1) characterize the autism behavioral phenotype and associated developmental, medical, and behavioral conditions and (2) investigate genetic and environmental risks with emphasis on immunologic, hormonal, ga...
Conference Paper
Background: The criteria used by professionals to diagnose autism and related disorders are defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of the American Psychiatric Association (APA). Autism was initially defined in the DSM as a form of childhood schizophrenia. In 1980 (DSM-III), autism was listed under the category of “Pervasive Developm...
Article
We examined whether clinically distinct subgroups can be derived from a sample of toddlers (n = 186) who failed the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers, received a comprehensive clinical evaluation, and were diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Three subgroups emerged from cluster analysis distinguished by (a) social, communicati...
Article
We conducted the first study that estimates the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of a population-based autism spectrum disorders (ASD) surveillance system developed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The system employs a records-review methodology that yields ASD classifi...
Article
Past research indicates that non-Hispanic black (NHB) children are less likely than non-Hispanic white (NHW) children to have an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis, even if they seem to meet criteria for the disorder. This study examined differences in community identification of ASDs between NHB and NHW children identified by a population-ba...
Conference Paper
Background: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are developmental disabilities that affect social, communication, and behavioral development and are often associated with intellectual disabilities (ID). Although ASDs are generally accepted as life-long conditions, recent studies indicate that 10-20% of children once diagnosed with an ASD no longer mee...
Conference Paper
Background: One of the most challenging aspects in diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is the wide heterogeneity of features in individual children. Some features such as inattention/hyperactivity or intellectual disability that are associated with the ASDs are not included in current diagnostic algorithms. These ASD-associated features (AAF...
Article
One of the most consistent features of the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is the predominance among males, with approximately four males to every female. We sought to examine sex differences among children who met case definition for ASD in a large, population-based cohort with respect to age at first developmental evaluation, age of diagnosis, i...
Article
This study evaluated the phenomenon of autistic regression using population-based data. The sample comprised 285 children who met the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) case definition within an ongoing surveillance program. Results indicated that children with a previously documented ASD diagnosis had higher rates of autistic regression than children...