Linus Munishi

Linus Munishi
The Nelson Mandela African Institute of Science and Technology | NMAIST · Department of Sustainable Agriculture Biodiversity and Ecosystem Management

PhD
Linus Munishi is an ecologist whose research covers aspects of biology and environment for sustainability science

About

114
Publications
20,962
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Citations
Introduction
Linus K Munishi is Associate Professor at The Nelson Mandela-African Institution of Science and Technology (NM-AIST), Arusha, Tanzania. Linus uses interdisciplinary approach to investigate on anthropogenic pressures that are influencing ecosystem degradation and uses the nature-based approach to develop evidence-based framework to accelerate restoration efforts and deliver transformative change towards sustainability science. His core training is on Ecology and Biology

Publications

Publications (114)
Article
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Rapid land use transformations and increased climatic uncertainties challenge potential sustainable development pathways for communities and wildlife in regions with strong economic reliance on natural resources. In response to the complex causes and consequences of land use change, participatory scenario development approaches have emerged as key...
Article
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In landscapes where people and lions coexist, conflicts are common due to livestock predation and threats to human safety. Retaliatory lion killing by humans is often a consequence and is one of the leading causes of lion population declines across Africa. We assessed the effects of retaliatory lion killing on male lion coalitions in the Tarangire-...
Article
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As the influx of different invasive species and their spread to new areas increases, there is a need for a rigorous and relevant scientific evidence-based control and restoration (EBCR) approaches to inform practical decisions and policymaking. While evidence-based decision is gaining popularity in science and policy, its potential for transformati...
Article
The agrochemicals and nutrient losses from farming areas such as paddy farming significantly dictate quality and eutrophication of the freshwater resource. However, how farming and land use pattern affect water qualities and eutrophication remain poorly understood in most African agro-ecosystems. The present study characterized how paddy farming in...
Article
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Pastoralist communities worldwide face complex challenges regarding food and feed productivity. Primary production systems are under stress, nutritional choices are changing and the relationship between development and agriculture is undergoing profound transformation. Under increasing pressure from climate and land use change, East African agro-pa...
Article
Water quality management requires consideration of surface water and groundwater dynamics. This study utilizes hydrogeochemical and isotopic techniques to understand anthropic influences on surface and groundwater resources in the Kikafu–Weruweru–Karanga (KWK) watershed southern slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro. The KWK watershed had two distinct charac...
Article
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The East-African lowland coastal forest (LCF) is one of Africa’s centres of species endemism, representing an important biodiversity hotspot. However, deforestation and forest degradation due to the high demand for fuelwood has reduced forest cover and diversity, with unknown consequences for associated terrestrial carbon stocks in this LCF system....
Article
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Habitat condition is a vital ecological attribute in wildlife conservation and management in protected areas, including the Burunge wildlife management areas in Tanzania. Traditional techniques, including satellite remote sensing and ground-based techniques used to assess habitat condition, have limitations in terms of costs and low resolution of s...
Article
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Despite the positive role of copper (Cu) in plants and animals, excessive amounts have environmental and health effects. Cu has been excessively accumulating in agricultural soils worldwide due to increased agrochemicals and wastewater use in farming. The increased Cu concentration in soil negatively impacts soil microbes and plants, affecting crop...
Article
In many areas, the main sources of mosquito vectors are not natural habitats but small artificial water bodies that are provided unintentionally by humans. Such container habitats have been linked to outbreaks of dengue fever and other arboviral diseases. However, in many parts of the world the possible risks associated with container habitats have...
Article
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The aim of this study was to assess the effects of varying water stress levels on morphological and physiological parameters of an invasive plant Gutenbergia cordifolia. The assessment was conducted in the screenhouse at the Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology following a completely randomized design (CRD). Both morphologic...
Article
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Dietary studies in birds of prey involve direct observation and examination of food remains at resting and nesting sites. Although these methods accurately identify diet in raptors, they are time-consuming, resource-intensive, and associated with biases from the feeding ecology of raptors like Gyps vultures. Our study set out to estimate diet compo...
Article
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Wildlife corridors are critical for maintaining the viability of isolated wildlife populations and conserving ecosystem functionality. Anthropogenic pressure has negatively impacted wildlife habitats, particularly in corridors between protected areas, but few studies have yet quantitatively assessed habitat changes and corresponding wildlife presen...
Article
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Wildlife corridors are critical for maintaining the viability of isolated wildlife populations and conserving ecosystem functionality. Anthropogenic pressure has negatively impacted wildlife habitats, particularly in corridors between protected areas, but few studies have yet quantitatively assessed habitat changes and corresponding wildlife presen...
Article
Invasive plants are establishing in many protected areas where use of synthetic herbicides is prohibited. We introduce a nature-based approach (NbA) as an alternative to controlling invasives. The integration of NbA into ecosystem conservation provides potential to suppress invasive plants, improve soil cover, increase the diversity of native plant...
Conference Paper
The African baobab is widely distributed in the semi-arid Sub-Saharan Africa and is known for its dense nutritional properties that can be harnessed to improve community livelihoods. The baobab has been recognized as food and vegetable resource for more than two centuries. Now, there is a need to guide research and development agenda on how to harn...
Preprint
Full-text available
1. Dietary studies in birds of prey involve direct observation and examination of food remains at resting and nesting sites. Although these methods accurately identify diet in raptors, they are time-consuming, resource-intensive, and associated with biases from the feeding ecology of raptors like Gyps vultures. Our study set out to estimate diet co...
Article
Pesticides are crucial to improve agricultural productivity, but often adversely affect surrounding aquatic systems and their fauna. To determine the environmental risk of pesticides, routine ecotoxicological tests are performed on several organisms, including standard fish models. However, these typically do not include fish species from variable...
Preprint
Full-text available
1. Dietary studies in birds of prey involve direct observation and examination of food remains at resting and nesting sites. Although these methods accurately identify diet in raptors, they are time-consuming, resource-intensive, and associated with biases from the feeding ecology of raptors like Gyps vultures. Our study set out to estimate diet co...
Article
Full-text available
Soil organic carbon (SOC) is widely recognised as pivotal in soil function, exerting important controls on soil structure, moisture retention, nutrient cycling and biodiversity, which in turn underpins a range of provisioning, supporting and regulatory ecosystem services. SOC stocks in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are threatened by changes in land prac...
Article
The dramatic increase in world population underpins current escalating food demand, which requires increased productivity in the available arable land through agricultural intensification. Agricultural intensification involves increased agrochemicals use to increase land productivity. Increased uses of agrochemicals pose environmental and ecologica...
Article
This study was conducted to assess arsenic (As) status and distribution in Usangu agroecosystem-Tanzania, including three land use. About 198 soil samples were collected in ten irrigation schemes in three land uses. Total and bioavailable As were determined by acid digestion (Aqua regia (AQ)) and Mehlich 3 method (M3) to estimate status, distributi...
Article
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The study aimed to assess the performance of farmer-led production practices adopted in maize farming systems to recommend the best adoption methods for coping with Chromolaena odorata, one of the world's deadliest invasive alien species (IAS). The study also aims to make this adaptive strategy available so that smallholder farmers can readily use...
Article
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Background: Masai Giraffes have declined dramatically in recent decades due to loss of habitat and illegal hunting. Hence, it is critically important that the epidemiology and etiology of so-called giraffe skin disease (GSD) is understood well. Aim: To assess the prevalence and histopathological characteristics of GSD in the Tarangire-Manyara Ecosy...
Article
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Soil resources in parts of Tanzania are rapidly being depleted by increased rates of soil erosion and downstream sediment transport, threatening ecosystem health, water- and livelihood security in the region. However, incomplete understanding to what effect the dynamics of soil erosion and sediment transport are responding to land use changes and c...
Article
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Malignant Catarhal Fever (MCF), caused by a virus transmitted from asymptomatic wildebeest, is a lethal disease in cattle that threatens livestock-based livelihoods and food security in many areas of Africa. Many herd owners reduce transmission risks by moving cattle away from infection hot-spots, but this imposes considerable economic burdens on t...
Article
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Water bodies in Tanzania are experiencing increased siltation, which is threatening water quality, ecosystem health, and livelihood security in the region. This phenomenon is caused by increasing rates of upstream soil erosion and downstream sediment transport. However, a lack of knowledge on the contributions from different catchment zones, land u...
Article
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This study aimed to reconstruct the sedimentation rates over time and identify the changing sources of sediment in a major hydropower reservoir in Tanzania, the Nyumba ya Mungu (NYM). Fallout 210Pb measurements were used to estimate age of sediment deposits and broad changes in sedimentation rates were reconstructed. Sedimentation peaks were cross...
Article
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Soil fertility determines crop growth, productivity and consequently determines land productivity and sustainability. Continuous crop production exploits plant nutrients from soils leading to plant nutrient imbalance, thus affecting soil productivity. This study was conducted to monitor soil fertility status in soils of Usangu agro-ecosystem to est...
Article
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Understanding the ecological impacts of invasive plant species on the native communities and identifying native plant species that co-exist with invasive plants are important for planning the effective control and restoration of invaded rangelands. Systematic random sampling technique was applied to assess the effect of the two invasive plants (Gut...
Article
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Phosphorus (P) is an important nutrient required for plant growth. Land use influences concentration and bioavailability P in agricultural soils in an agroecosystem. 198 soil samples (0-30 cm soil depth) were collected from three land-use types (maize, paddy, and conserved areas) in the Usangu basin. The concentration of Soil P determined were comp...
Article
Spatial distribution of Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs) in agricultural soils in Usangu Basin (Mbeya Region)- Tanzania were conducted. The study included three land-use types (paddy farming, maize farming, and conserved community forest areas). About 198 soil samples were collected from November to December 2019 across contrasting land management...
Article
This study was conducted to highlight status and distribution of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in Usangu agroecosystem-Tanzania. The study involved 198 soil samples from 10 irrigation schemes including three land use. The concentrations of selected PTEs (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, As, Hg, Co, Nie etc)were determined to estimate status, distribution, a...
Article
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The build-up of heavy metals (HM) in agricultural soils accelerates the HM uptake by plants, which could potentially affect food quality and food safety. Here we studied the status and bioaccumulation of HM from soils to plant parts (roots, stem, and grains) in Usangu agro-ecosystem-Tanzania. In total 68 soil samples and 42 rice plant samples from...
Article
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Ecosystem and livelihood sustainability of small-scale farmers in Eastern Africa are often challenged by climate change and unsustainable land use practices. Little is known on the small-scale temporal processes of cropping systems in relation to long-term climatic conditions. To understand the climatic influence on the cropping patterns, and its i...
Article
Mosquitoes and the diseases they transmit are a global public health threat that affects most human populations. Mosquito abundances are strongly linked to the number of suitable larval habitats available. However, it is still not well understood how different land uses impact larval habitat quality in different parts of the world. We investigated...
Article
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This study provides a detailed assessment of land cover (LC) changes on the water balance components on data constrained Kikafu-Weruweru-Karanga (KWK) watershed, using the integrated approaches of hydrologic modeling and partial least squares regression (PLSR). The soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model was validated and used to simulate hydro...
Article
Phosphorus (P) is a vital plant macronutrient required for plant growth which usually available in limited amount. P availability for plant uptake in highly weathered soil is controlled by soil erosion and high, fixation. The availability of P applied from fertilizers depend on the soil pH, soil sorption capacity (PSC) and P saturation status (PSD)...
Conference Paper
Loss of natural landscapes surrounding major conservation areas compromise their future and threaten long-term conservation. We evaluate the effectiveness of fully and lesser protected areas within Katavi-Rukwa and Ruaha-Rungwa ecosystems in south-western Tanzania to protecting natural landscapes within their boundaries over the past four decades....
Article
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Rapid rates of land use and land cover change (LULCC) in eastern Africa and limited instances of genuinely equal partnerships involving scientists, communities and decision makers challenge the development of robust pathways toward future environmental and socioeconomic sustainability. We use a participatory modelling tool, Kesho, to assess the bio...
Article
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Increasing demand for food production results in Land use and land cover (LULC) changes, which afflicts the provision of ecosystem services in high mountain areas. This work used time-series LULC and selected spatial metrics to predict the LULC changes for Kikafu-Weruweru-Karanga (KWK) watershed (on the southern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro) for the n...
Article
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Increasing demand for food production results in Land use and land cover (LULC) changes, which afflicts the provision of ecosystem services in high mountain areas. This work used time-series LULC and selected spatial metrics to predict the LULC changes for Kikafu-Weruweru-Karanga (KWK) watershed (on the southern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro) for the n...
Article
Land-use systems are among the leading sources of anthropogenic GHG into the atmosphere; driving global warming, climate change, and associated extreme weather events. To estimate GHGs from the land-use systems, we measured fluxes (positive/negative emissions per unit of time) of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) from the...
Article
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The baobab seed oil has been consumed by humans due to its medicinal and nutrient values for many years. However, the consumption of baobab seed oil has been perceived by different communities as a health risk caused by cyclopropenoid fatty acids (CPFAs), which are carcinogenic ingredients present in the oil. This study investigated the physicochem...
Article
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Baobab is a deciduous non-timber tree species that is facing severe threats from both anthropogenic and climatic pressures across its range states. This study assessed natural rates of recruitment and associated threats of baobabs within and across different land-use types in semi-arid areas of Tanzania. The study was based on a stratified random s...
Article
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Conservationists need detailed information on human population growth and distribution in areas adjacent to protected areas. This information can help determine land use/land cover changes (LULCC), which affect the quality and quantity of elephant habitat and, thus, elephant populations. We assessed the influence of human population trends on demog...
Article
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Soil resources in East Africa are being rapidly depleted by erosion, threatening food‐, water‐ and livelihood security in the region. Here we demonstrate how integration of evidence from natural and social sciences has supported community‐led change in land management in an agro‐pastoral community in northern Tanzania. Geospatial analysis of erosio...
Article
Extensive land degradation is a global problem that presents a critical threat to pastoralists’ welfare in East Africa and beyond. Although the reasons for this environmental problem are complex, it is likely to be exacerbated by communal land management practices that have become suboptimal due to changes in land access and population growth. In t...
Article
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Knob wood (Zanthoxylum chalybeum - Rutaceae) is a medicinal plant species subject to heavy exploitation throughout its areas of occurrence in Sub-Saharan Africa. Despite that the tree has different values as a traditional herb, there is a gap in understanding its current distribution and anthropogenic threats in its range areas. This study aimed at...
Article
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Achieving change to address soil erosion has been a global yet elusive goal for decades. Efforts to implement effective solutions have often fallen short due to a lack of sustained, context-appropriate and multidisciplinary engagement with the problem. Issues include prevalence of short-term funding for 'quick-fix' solutions; a lack of nuanced unde...
Article
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Background: Current animal tracking studies are most often based on the application of external geolocators such as GPS and radio transmitters. While these technologies provide detailed movement data, they are costly to acquire and maintain, which often restricts sample sizes. Furthermore, deploying external geolocators requires physically capturin...
Article
Problems associated with the invasiveness of exotic tree species such as Acacia mearnsii have increased recently causing vast damage in environment and economy worldwide. Sao Hill Forest Plantation (SHFP) in southern Tanzania which is the potential plantation in East Africa is under Acacia mearnsii invasion which threatens the productivity of the p...
Article
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The information on the medicinal use, availability, challenges, and future conservation strategies for the medicinal plant Zanthoxylum chalybeum were gathered by using a semi-structured questionnaire, focused group discussions, and field observations in Simanjiro Area, Tanzania. Data were collected from local village members who were familiar with...
Article
The social-ecological system of the Lake Manyara basin (Northern Tanzania), a UNESCO Biosphere reserve (BR) suffers from social-economic and environmental problems due to decreasing water levels, erosion and land and water use conflicts. We propose an integrated assessment of the social-ecological interactions of the area to support future sustaina...
Article
Temporal and spatial sediment dynamics in an East-African Rift Lake (Lake Manyara, Tanzania), and its river inputs, have been evaluated via a combination of sediment tracing and radioactive dating. Changes in sedimentation rates were assessed using radioactive dating of sediment cores in combination with geochemical profile analysis of allogenic an...
Article
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The use of direct methods such as Total Counts (TC) and Systematic Reconnaissance Flights (SRF) to estimate large mammal numbers is common practice in major protected areas (PAs), while the use of indirect methods involving indices such as tracks and signs is also widespread. Unfortunately, whilst conservation actions are dependent on population es...
Article
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Plant-Plant competitive interactions have been reported to be among the forces that shape plant community structure. We studied the effects of varying the density of Cynodon dactylon on the growth and development of the invasive plant species Tagetes minuta and Gutenbergia cordifolia in pot and field plot experiments following a completely randomiz...