Linton C. Freeman

Linton C. Freeman
University of California, Irvine | UCI · Institute for Mathematical Behavioral Sciences

PhD

About

92
Publications
163,492
Reads
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41,239
Citations
Citations since 2017
1 Research Item
17424 Citations
201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,5002,0002,5003,000
201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,5002,0002,5003,000
201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,5002,0002,5003,000
201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,5002,0002,5003,000

Publications

Publications (92)
Article
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Betweenness centrality is generally regarded as a measure of others' dependence on a given node, and therefore as a measure of potential control. Closeness centrality is usually interpreted either as a measure of access efficiency or of independence from potential control by intermediaries. Betweenness and closeness are commonly assumed to be relat...
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Glossary Definition of the Subject Introduction Visualization in Social Network Analysis Images Based on One Mode Undirected Relations Images Based on One Mode Directed Relations Images Based on Two Mode Relations Images Based on One or Two Mode Data Matrices Future Directions Bibliography
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This is the first of two separate entries under the broad topic Social network analysis. This entry discusses the definition and history of development of social network analysis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This paper reviews the modularity index and suggests an alternative index of the quality of a division of a network into subsets.
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In a recent book I reviewed the development of social network analysis from its earliest beginnings until the late 1990s (Freeman, 2004). There I characterized social network analysis as an approach that involves four defining properties: (1) It involves the intuition that links among social actors are important. (2) It is based on the collection a...
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This paper reviews standards for measures of association. In particular, standards for order‐based measures are examined. The concept of monotonicity is shown to be ambiguous as it has been applied in this area, and it is clarified. The result is the specification of three — instead of the usual two — kinds of monotonic relations. These three monot...
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A new solution to the old problem of partitioning a matrix of social proximities into groups is proposed. It draws on a heuristic developed in computer science, the simple genetic algorithm. The algorithm is described and its utility is demonstrated with applications to three standard data sets.
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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When ideas and tools move from one field to another, the movement is generally from the natural to the social sciences. In recent years, however, there has been a major movement in the opposite direction. The idea of centrality and the tools for its measurement were originally developed in the social science field of social network analysis. But cu...
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This paper displays some differences between "normal science" journals in fields like physics and chemistry and those in "non-normal science" fields in the social sciences. It shows that one journal, Social Networks, looks more like a normal science journal than a typical social science journal. I argue that the normal science properties of social...
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Tests for the indirect assessment of attitudes have gained some currency in the literature of social psychology. They have been used primarily as indexes to behavior in situations where social pressures have been assumed to inhibit truthful response to direct questions. In such situations investigators have frequently assumed that re­ sponses to in...
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Here we introduce a computer-based visual display program, called MAGE. MAGE was designed to display molecules but we will explore its potential for application to the study of social networks. To do so, we will use MAGE to examine the structural properties of two data sets, friendship choices in an Australian college residence and peer choices amo...
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https://sites.google.com/site/ucinetsoftware/
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This paper examines the degree to which the constraints imposed by various social contexts influence social interaction. We draw on two data sets. In each, we compare the patterning of interaction of the same individuals across different contexts. If minimal constraints are imposed, then the interaction patterns among the individuals in the two con...
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Methods of ranking individuals in a dominance hierarchy that use transitivity of relationships may obscure irregularities. Furthermore, these methods use only a small proportion of the information available from dominance encounters. This paper presents an intuitively appealing and easily implemented alternative to existing methods for ordering dom...
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This paper adapts a procedure, canonical analysis of asymmetry,originally defined by Gower (1977) to the analysis of hierarchicalproperties in organizational structures. Its application is demonstratedusing two available data sets, Freeman and Freeman's (1980) data on computercommunication and Krackhardt's (1987) data on advice-giving and getting i...
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This study is a replication of a survey on personal networks conducted 7 years earlier in Tianjin, China. Comparing the results of the two surveys reveals a large amount of change. Tianjin residents now report having more ties to friends and to associates beyond work and family, and fewer workplace ties and far fewer family ties. Women have gained...
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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The mathematical definition of clique has never been entirely satisfactory when it comes to providing a procedure for defining human social groups. This paper shows how the Galois structure of containment among cliques and actors can be used to produce an intuitively appealing characterization of groups—one that is consistent with ethnographic desc...
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En 1977, Winship montre que lorsque les proximités sociales reliant un ensemble d'individus satisfont les propriétés d'une ultramétrique, la structure sociale qui donne lieu à ces proximités est une hiérarchie ascendante dans laquelle un ensemble d'acteurs sont rassemblés par agrégations successives. Dans la mesure où cette forme structurale corres...
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We explore how humans solve some problems of living in a social world. In particular, we focus on the ability to see affiliation or alliance patterns in social communities. We draw on data from two naturalistic studies in which subjects were observed interacting and required to reveal their perceptions of the patterning of that interaction. In both...
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This note follows an earlier suggestion by Borgatti (1989), and Everett and Borgatti (1992a). Here, we extend their notion of regular colorings to bipartite graphs.
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Galois lattices are introduced as a device to provide a general representation for two mode social network data. It is shown that Galois lattices yield a single visual image of such data in cases where most alternative models produce dual images. The inzage provided by the Galois lattice produces, moreover, an image that can suggest useful insights...
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
Article
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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The Ressurrection of Cliques: Àpplication of Galois Lattices. The mathematical definition of clique has never been entirely satisfactory when it comes to providing a procedure for assigning individuals to groups. This paper shows how the clique definition, when it is linked with Galois lattices, can be used to produce an intuitively appealing chara...
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A recent paper by Iverson & Sade (J. quant. Anthropol., 1990, 2, 61–83) suggests that red deer stags that are high in a dominance ranking are equally likely to defeat those lower in the ranking, regardless of how different they are in their relative positions. Their result contradicts the common observation that stags find it easier to defeat those...
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Two models of the structural form of small, informal groups are compared. One, derived by Winship, requires that patterns of social affiliation be strictly transitive. The other, based on Granovetter's ideas about weak and strong ties, requires only a special limited form of transitivity. When these alternative models are tested with data on human...
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This paper shows that people are aware of who is affiliated with whom in their immediate social world. Their perceptions of the patterning of affiliation, however, do not correspond to the patterning actually displayed by interacting humans. Affiliation is not categorical; perceptions of affiliation are, however. On the basis of experimental eviden...
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A new measure of centrality, CF, is introduced. It is based on the concept of network flows. While conceptually similar to Freeman's original measure, CB, the new measure differs from the original in two important ways. First, CF is defined for both valued and non-valued graphs. This makes CF applicable to a wider variety of network datasets. Secon...
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Science grows and cumulates on the research fronts of disciplinary specialties, implying that the most fruitful citation analyses will be those looking at well-defined specialties or subspecial ties. The entire literature on centrality and productivity from 1948 to 1979 is used to construct a citation network. Methods are proposed for the analysis...
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Arguments for social intelligence in primates require that individuals be able to perceive and recall complex patterns of social relationships among the members of their communities. Indirect evidence suggests that non-human primates possess such ability, but, so far, little is known about the extent of human ability to process information about th...
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The problem of informant accuracy is examined in light of principles of memory organization from cognitive psychology. These principles turn out to be powerful, not only in explaining overall patterns of informant error, but in predicting details about the types of errors made. Predictions are made in terms both of different kinds of informants and...
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This paper attempts to case new light on the results of an earlier study of the social context of Swedish literary criticism. Data from a study of persons mentioned by literary critics are re-analysed using new ideas and techniques from biology, mathematics and social network analysis. The results of this new analysis suggest that there may be prev...
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This is a study of the impact of a computer conference on the formation of interpersonal ties among scientists. Various techniques from social networks analysis are adapted and used to study the structure of interpersonal ties among a set of scientists both before and during a computer conference. Although the data are not experimental, the results...
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This is an examination of a set of dimensional conceptions of graphs that might be used to shed light on the structural complexity of social networks. Problems of characterizing various conceptions are explored and computational methods are reviewed.
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A way of comparing ego networks through examining patterns among their ties is introduced. It is derived from graph-theoretic ideas about centered graphs. An illustration using data from a computer conference is provided.
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Three competing hypotheses about structural centrality are explored by means of a replication of the early MIT experiments on communication structure and group problem-solving. It is shown that although two of the three kinds of measures of centrality have a demonstrable effect on individual responses and group processes, the classic measure of cen...
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This is a study of a collection of social scientists. It examines the social context out of which they develop close friendship ties and the impact of an extended computer conference on such ties. The perspective of R. H. Atkin (1974) is used to uncover shifts in the structure of ties among the participants.
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This is a note to introduce a new measure of a kind of structural centrality called pair-dependency. Pair-dependency explicates the centrality-related notion of the gatekeeper. Moreover, it turns out to be a fundamental structural property of communication networks that provides the basis for the derivation of two standard measures of structural ce...
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The intuitive background for measures of structural centrality in social networks is reviewed and existing measures are evaluated in terms of their consistency with intuitions and their interpretability.
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The intuitive background for measures of structural centrality in social networks is reviewed and existing measures are evaluated in terms of their consistency with intuitions and their interpretability.Three distinct intuitive conceptions of centrality are uncovered and existing measures are refined to embody these conceptions. Three measures are...
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The intuitive literature on segregation is reviewed and a segregation measure, S, is constructed to embody existing intuitions. S measures segregation over a network of symmetrical social relations. Distributional problems are explored and two kinds of applications are illustrated.
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A Family of new measures of point and graph centrality based on early intuitions of Bavelas (1948) is introduced. These measures define centrality in terms of the degree to which a point falls on the shortest path between others and therefore has a potential for control of communication. They may be used to index centrality in any large or small ne...
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Data from the urban renewal experience in Syracuse, New York are used to examine the impact of race on patterns of intra-urban migration. The results show that, overall, the migration patterns exhibited an exponential decay in frequency with increasing distance. Both blacks and whites display this pattern, but blacks tend to cluster more closely ar...
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This note extends and elaborates Hubert's attempt to provide an interpretation of Freeman's measure of association,ϑ. Theϑ measure is used in a a contingency table when observations are ordered on one variable and unordered on the other. No attempt is made explore the distribution ofϑ.
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Both theroretical work and research results have been somewhat equivocal on the subject of recency in the two-choice probability learning task. The present paper describes a computer controlled experiment designed to investigate the consequences of reinforcement of negative recency on its occurrence. Results are examined in terms of both the method...
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A separate index of systematic integration is introduced that seems to solve the problems raised by Mitchell (1978) . Taken together with the segration index, this measure of integration permits the systematic examination of social links between two classes of people whether their observed cross-class links are over or underrepresented as compared...
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Contiene: 1. Fundamentos para el estudio de la estadística; 2. Distribuciones unidimensionales; 3. Descripción de la asociación entre dos variables; 4. Inferencia estadística;
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This is a comparison of several approaches to the problem of locating leaders in a single community. Decision-making, voluntary activity, reputation, and position are compared, and a new index--organizational participation--is introduced. These procedures do not converge on a single set of leaders. Some overlap is evident, however, and the patterns...
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