Linnea Ehri

Linnea Ehri
CUNY Graduate Center | CUNY · Program in Educational Psychology

Doctor of Psychology

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114
Publications
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Publications

Publications (114)
Article
Reading Rescue (Reading Rescue), a research and evidence‐based programme for struggling readers (Ehri et al. 2007; Miles et al. 2018), was developed by an academic in response to the cost and lack of explicit letter, phonemic awareness and phonics instruction in Reading Recovery. Reading Rescue represents a pathway from research to practice. An aca...
Article
A hallmark of skilled reading is recognizing written words automatically from memory by sight. How beginning readers attain this skill is explained. They must acquire foundational knowledge, including phonemic segmentation, grapheme–phoneme knowledge, decoding, and spelling skills. When these skills are applied, spellings of words become bonded to...
Article
In this experiment, we examined whether beginning readers benefit more from grapheme–phoneme decoding (GPD) than from whole‐syllable decoding (WSD) instruction in learning to read and write words. Sixty Brazilian Portuguese‐speaking first graders (M age = 6 years 1 month) who knew letter names but could not read or write words were randomly assigne...
Article
Full-text available
Central coherence is the ability to perceive and connect salient information in a context such as a narrative text. Individuals with autism exhibit a detail-focused cognitive style of processing information that overlooks connections and shows weak central coherence. A six-session instructional intervention to foster coherence processing was admini...
Article
Previous research on teaching summarizing skill has focused on summarizing strategies that are appropriate for expository texts rather than narrative text. Findings of these studies showed an advantage for older over younger students but did not control for text difficulty, so age effects may have been confounded by text difficulty. The present stu...
Article
The author reviews theory and research by Ehri and her colleagues to document how a scientific approach has been applied over the years to conduct controlled studies whose findings reveal how beginners learn to read words in and out of text. Words may be read by decoding letters into blended sounds or by predicting words from context, but the way t...
Article
Two methods of decoding instruction were compared. Participants were kindergartners who knew letter sounds but could not decode nonwords, M = 5.6 years. The segmented phonation treatment taught students to convert graphemes to phonemes by breaking the speech stream (“sss – aaa – nnn”) before blending. The connected phonation treatment taught studen...
Article
Full-text available
An experiment examined orthographic facilitation of vocabulary learning, that is, whether showing students spellings of novel words during learning helps them remember the words when spellings are no longer present. The purpose was to determine whether having students decode the spellings of vocabulary words improves word learning over passive expo...
Chapter
Efficient word reading involves retrieving familiar written words from memory automatically by sight, and sounding out letters or guessing from context only when unfamiliar words are encountered. The process of storing written words for later immediate recall occurs through a process called orthographic mapping. This process involves connecting pro...
Article
Full-text available
This study, which was drawn from a larger published work, examined language proficiency and literacy skills predictive of learning content and function words via the commonly used practice of flashcard word reading, which tests word knowledge in isolation. The current study also investigated differences in word learning performance between students...
Article
The authors examined whether exposing young students to spellings as they learn proper names would facilitate memory for the spoken names when tested without the spellings present (i.e., orthographic facilitation), whether emergent readers with letter knowledge would show this effect, and whether phonemic segmentation (PS) training would enhance th...
Article
This experiment examined whether a partial read-aloud accommodation with pacing (PRAP) would improve the reading comprehension of poor decoders but not average decoders compared to standard testing procedures. Participants were 82 third graders with at least average listening comprehension skills: 28 were poor decoders, and 54 were average decoders...
Article
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The relationship between 2nd and 3rd grade teachers’ linguistic knowledge and spelling instructional practices and their students’ spelling gains from fall to spring was examined. Second grade (N = 16) and 3rd grade (N = 16) teachers were administered an instructional practices survey and a linguistic knowledge test. Total scores on the two instrum...
Article
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Teaching systematic phonics effectively to beginning readers requires specialized knowledge and training which many primary grade teachers lack. The current study examined effects of a year-long mentoring program to improve teachers’ knowledge and effectiveness in teaching phonics and the extent that it improved students’ achievement in reading and...
Article
Full-text available
A randomized control trial compared the effects of two kinds of vocabulary instruction on component reading skills of adult struggling readers. Participants seeking alternative high school diplomas received 8 h of scripted tutoring to learn forty academic vocabulary words embedded within a civics curriculum. They were matched for language backgroun...
Article
This study investigated three questions: 1) Does clarifying the meanings of words during flashcard reading better support word learning over not providing meanings? 2) Does grammatical word class affect word learning? 3) Do these manipulations affect word learning differently in native and nonnative speakers of English? Native (n = 40) and nonnativ...
Article
Full-text available
p> An experiment was conducted to investigate methods that enable college students to learn the meaning of unknown words as they read discipline-specific academic text. Forty-one college students read specific passages aloud during three sessions. Participants were randomly assigned to three vocabulary learning interventions or a control condition....
Article
Full-text available
Studies have shown that children benefit from a spelling pronunciation strategy in remembering the spellings of words. The current study determined whether this strategy also helps adults learn to spell commonly misspelled words. Participants were native English speaking college students (N = 42), mean age 22.5 years (SD = 7.87). An experimental de...
Article
Full-text available
Orthographic facilitation refers to the boost in vocabulary learning that is provided when spellings are shown during study periods, but not during testing. The current study examined orthographic facilitation in beginning readers and whether directing their attention to print enhances the effect. In an experiment, first graders (N = 45) were rando...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has shown that the presence of English word spellings facilitates children’s oral vocabulary learning. Whether a similar orthographic facilitation effect may exist in Chinese is interesting but not intuitively obvious due to the character writing system representing morphosyllabic but not phoneme-size information, and the more dir...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
: A randomized control experiment compared the effects of two interventions, morpho-phonemic word study and traditional whole word study, on component literacy skills of adult struggling readers. Participants: 1) Young adults (18-31) seeking high school equivalency diplomas 2) African Americans who were native English speakers 3) Latino/a bilingual...
Article
Full-text available
The study examined whether exposure to spellings of new vocabulary words improved monolinguals’ and language minority (LM) students’ (n = 25) memory for pronunciations, meanings, and spellings of the words. College students who are native English-speaking monolinguals (n = 12) and LM students who learned English as their second language (n = 13) we...
Article
This study examines students’ exposure to print, vocabulary and decoding as predictors of spelling skills. Participants were 42 college students (Mean age 22.5, SD = 7.87; 31 females and 11 males). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that most of the variance in spelling was explained by vocabulary knowledge. When vocabulary was entered first i...
Article
An experiment compared the impact of more and less semantically connected sentence contexts on vocabulary learning. Third graders (N = 40) were taught the definitions and meanings of six unfamiliar verbs: anticipate, attain, devise, restrain, wield, and persist. The verbs were embedded in four sets of sentences written to fill syntactic and semanti...
Article
Using the Internet for vocabulary development is a powerful way for students to rapidly expand their vocabularies. The Internet affords students opportunities to interact both instantaneously and multimodaly with words in different contexts. By using search engines and hyperlinks, students can immediately access textual, visual, and auditory inform...
Article
Orthographic mapping (OM) involves the formation of letter-sound connections to bond the spellings, pronunciations, and meanings of specific words in memory. It explains how children learn to read words by sight, to spell words from memory, and to acquire vocabulary words from print. This development is portrayed by Ehri (2005a11. Ehri , L. 2005a....
Article
Using the Internet as a learning tool has great promise, but also poses significant challenges. Theories and research confirm the importance of students' engagement in self-regulated learning processes for effective Internet learning. In this article the Authors describe a structured think-aloud procedure intended to support students' engagement in...
Article
English-speaking preschoolers who knew letters but were nonreaders (M = 4 years 9 months; n = 60) were taught to segment consonant–vowel (CV), VC, and CVC words into phonemes either with letters and pictures of articulatory gestures (the LPA condition) or with letters only (the LO condition). A control group received no treatment. Both trained grou...
Chapter
The ability to spell is highly correlated with the ability to read. Shanahan (1984) reported correlations of 0.66 and 0.60 in samples of second and sixth graders, respectively. Various reasons for the high correlations can be identified. One is that some of the same knowledge sources, processes and strategies are utilized (Ehri, 1986; Simon and Sim...
Article
Two experimental training studies with Portuguese-speaking preschoolers in Brazil were conducted to investigate whether children benefit from letter name knowledge and phonological awareness in learning letter-sound relations. In Experiment 1, two groups of children were compared. The experimental group was taught the names of letters whose sounds...
Chapter
Vocabulary learning is central to reading ability and academic achievement. Vocabulary researchers and educators have viewed its essence as a process of associating the pronunciations and meanings of words in memory, and they have neglected the contribution that spellings might make to vocabulary learning. We review theory and evidence that shows t...
Article
An experiment with random assignment examined the effectiveness of a strategy to learn unfamiliar English vocabulary words during text reading. Lower socioeconomic status, language minority fifth graders (M=10years, 7months; n=62) silently read eight passages each focused on an unknown multi-syllabic word that was underlined, embedded in a meaningf...
Article
Can embedded mnemonics ease the task of learning a foreign alphabet? English-speaking preschoolers (N = 36, M = 5;2 years) were taught 10 Hebrew letter-sound relations. Experimental letters were learned with mnemonics that embedded letter shapes in drawings of objects whose shapes resembled the letters and whose English names began with the letters...
Article
An experiment examined whether metalinguistic awareness involving the detection of semantic ambiguity can be taught and whether this instruction improves students' reading comprehension. Lower socioeconomic status third graders (M age = 8 years, 7 months) from a variety of cultural backgrounds (N = 46) were randomly assigned to treatment and contro...
Article
Children's ability to read and spell their own and classmates' personal names in and out of context in Hebrew was studied. Preliterate children aged 4 to 6 years (N = 60) showed high knowledge of their own names but varied greatly in knowledge of others' names and emergent literacy skills. Reading and spelling of names was primarily related to lett...
Article
First, second, and third graders (N = 102) who had completed from 1 to 3 years of literacy instruction in other schools and had experienced failure entered a private school for struggling readers and received instruction in either of 2 types of systematic phonics programs over a 4-year period. One group received a keyword analogy method (KEY) that...
Article
In 2 experiments, the authors examined whether spellings improve students' memory for pronunciations and meanings of new vocabulary words. Lower socioeconomic status minority 2nd graders (M = 7 years 7 months; n = 20) and 5th graders (M = 10 years 11 months; n = 32) were taught 2 sets of unfamiliar nouns and their meanings over several learning tri...
Article
The Reading Rescue tutoring intervention model was investigated with 64 low–socioeconomic status, language-minority first graders with reading difficulties. School staff provided tutoring in phonological awareness, systematic phonics, vocabulary, fluency, and reading comprehension. Tutored students made significantly greater gains reading words and...
Article
Sight word learning and memory were studied to clarify how early during development readers process visual letter patterns that are not dictated by phonology, and whether their word learning is influenced by the legality of letter patterns. Forty kindergartners and first graders were taught to read 12 words containing either single consonants (e.g....
Article
Sight word learning and memory were studied to clarify how early during development readers process visual letter patterns that are not dictated by phonology, and whether their word learning is influenced by the legality of letter patterns. Forty kindergartners and first graders were taught to read 12 words containing either single consonants (e.g....
Article
Many U.S. students speak nonstandard forms of English, yet dialect issues are slighted in teacher education programs and literacy courses. In this study, classroom teachers who spoke Standard American English (SE) were familiarized with seven syntactic features characterizing African American English (AAE). Three approaches to instruction based on...
Article
The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
Article
Reading words may take several forms. Readers may utilize decoding, analogizing, or predicting to read unfamiliar words. Readers read familiar words by accessing them in memory, called sight word reading. With practice, all words come to be read automatically by sight, which is the most efficient, unobtrusive way to read words in text. The process...
Article
Adolescents with word-reading skills below grade level were randomly assigned to one of three conditions. Those receiving interventions practiced reading 100 multisyllabic words, either by analyzing graphosyllabic units in the words or by reading the words as unanalyzed wholes. The third group received no special instruction. Posttests revealed tha...
Article
This experiment examined whether kindergartners who were taught to segment words into phonemes either by monitoring articulatory gestures or by manipulating blocks would benefit in their ability to read and spell. Novice beginning readers who could invent partial sound spellings but could not decode new words were assigned randomly to three groups....
Article
In this study, an analysis was undertaken of the word-reading and spelling error patterns of 72 adult literacy students and 72 normally developing child readers who read words at the same grade-equivalent levels. Their utilization of orthographic and phonological strategies to read sight words, to decode nonwords, to spell words, and to detect rhym...
Article
A quantitative meta-analysis evaluating the effects of systematic phonics instruction compared to unsystematic or no-phonics instruction on learning to read was conducted using 66 treatment-control comparisons derived from 38 experiments. The overall effect of phonics instruction on reading was moderate, d = 0.41. Effects persisted after instructio...
Article
Full-text available
A quantitative meta-analysis evaluating the effects of phonemic awareness (PA) instruction on learning to read and spell was conducted by the National Reading Panel. There were 52 studies published in peer-reviewed journals, and these contributed 96 cases comparing the outcomes of treatment and control groups. Analysis of effect sizes revealed that...
Article
Although nonstandard dialects of English are legitimate forms of spoken language used by many Americans, students in U.S. schools must acquire writing competence using Standard English (SE). Participants in this study were 3rd- and 4th-grade African-American students who exhibited Black English Vernacular (BEV) features in their written work. Six s...
Article
: Learning to read words and learning to spell words are closely related. Both follow a similar course of acquisition. Both rely on the same knowledge sources-knowledge about the alphabetic system, and memory for the spellings of specific words-that develop together and are reciprocally related. Correlations between reading and spelling are high, t...
Article
The ability to segment phonemes in words is fundamental for learning to read and spell. In two experiments, kindergartners segmented 2- and 3-phoneme words in an oral task using blank markers. Children segmented vowel–consonant (VC) words (e.g., age) more easily than consonant–vowel (CV) words (e.g., me) and much more easily than consonant–vowel–co...
Article
The ability to segment phonemes in words is fundamental for learning to read and spell. In two experiments, kindergartners segmented 2- and 3-phoneme words in an oral task using blank markers. Children segmented vowel-consonant (VC) words (e.g., age) more easily than consonant-vowel (CV) words (e.g., me) and much more easily than consonant-vowel-co...
Article
Graphophonemic (GP) awareness, the ability to match up graphemes to phonemes within individual words, was examined in 78 2nd, 3rd, 5th, and 6th graders who were grouped by spelling performance into 3 literacy levels: Young, Middle, Older. Students marked 24 words by circling letters and digraphs that represented the smallest sounds in words and cro...
Article
Full-text available
Metaphonological sensitivity to the component sounds of spoken words has been shown to develop in conjunction with alphabetic literacy. It is generally presumed that skilled readers possess and display a high degree of phonemic awareness. Data are presented that challenge this claim and indicate that many mature readers are unexpectedly inaccurate...
Article
Ehri delivered this presidential address at the annual meeting of the Society for the Scientific Study of Reading, March 1997, Chicago. Ehri provides a glimpse of her experiences conducting research on word-reading processes in beginning readers for more than 20 years. At the outset, she proposed a theory that the spellings of individual words beco...
Article
When students attain reading skill, they learn to read words in several ways. Familiar words are read by sight. Unfamiliar words are read by decoding, by analogy to known words, or by prediction from graphophonic and contextual cues. Five phases of development are identified to distinguish the course of word reading; each phase is characterized by...
Article
This study examined whether word-reading processes operate similarly in adult literacy (AL) students and elementary school students matched for reading level. Comparison of mean performances revealed that adults were severely deficient on phonologically complex tasks (segmentation, deletion, and nonword reading). In contrast, on orthographically co...
Article
This study examined whether word-reading processes operate similarly in adult literacy (AL) students and elementary school students matched for reading level. Comparison of mean performances revealed that adults were severely deficient on phonologically complex tasks (segmentation, deletion, and nonword reading). In contrast, on orthographically co...
Article
Advanced and novice readers in 1st grade and older disabled readers were given nonword reading and spelling tasks. In addition, they practiced learning to read simplified phonetic spellings of 16 words for several trials (e.g., 'messenger' spelled MESNGR, 'stupid' spelled STUPD). Following Reitsma's (1983) procedure, three days later subjects read...
Article
In sessions conducted individually, 45 kindergartners who were nonreaders listened to an adult read the same storybook twice, 2–4 days apart, and then completed a posttest measuring their knowledge of the meanings of 22 unfamiliar words, half of which had appeared in the story. Some target words occurred twice in the story and some only once, so ch...
Article
A lthough written English displays three types of units that make contact with readers' knowledge of language, letters, words, and sentences, read-ers' eyes come to favor words as the units that are most easily processed (Rayner & Pollatsek, 1989). The advantage of words over sentences is that words can be assimilated in one glance. The advantage o...
Article
traces the development of sight word reading from a time when prereaders use strictly visual cues to a time when readers analyze spellings as symbols for the phonemic structure of words (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Beginning readers are capable of reading unfamiliar words by analogy to others, e.g., using beak to read peak, but does reading words by analogy require decoding skill or precede this skill? Kindergartners' and first graders' ability to read nonsense words was used to distinguish decoders. Subjects were taught to read 5 English words and then were...
Article
In a laboratory study, we investigated the kinds of print-related knowledge that emergent readers must possess in order to learn to point to the words of a text as they recited it from memory (fingerpoint-reading) and to remember information about the print from this activity. Children whose ages ranged from 4.5 to 6 years completed several tests o...
Article
In a previous study, Ehri and Wilce (1985) found that prereaders who had not mastered letters were better at forming logographic access routes than letter-sound access routes into memory to read words by sight. Of interest here was whether prereaders who knew all their letters would reveal the same pattern. Preschoolers and kindergartners who could...
Article
In contrast to the hypothesis that dyslexics possess phonological deficits that are neurological in origin, I suggest that the source of the deficit is primarily experiential--that dyslexics exhibit phonological deficits because they have not learned to read and spell in a way that develops their spelling knowledge so that it penetrates and comes t...
Article
Four experiments were conducted with primary grade and college students to examine whether subjects who misspell words before studying correct spellings find it harder or easier to learn the correct spellings than subjects who only study correct spellings. Opinions differ about this, some believing that learning is delayed because misspellings have...
Article
Conducted 3 experiments to examine the ability of beginning readers to categorize short front vowel sounds in familiar spoken words and to determine whether learning spellings of these vowels improved the accuracy of their classifications. Ss were 20 1st and 30 2nd graders in Exp I, 20 2nd graders in Exp II, and 3 2nd graders and 11 kindergartners...
Article
Phonetic-cue reading involves reading words by storing and retrieving associations between some of the letters in spellings and sounds in pronunciations. Cipher reading involves processing all of the letter–sound relations in spellings. These two types of reading were compared experimentally. Novice beginning readers in kindergarten were assigned e...
Article
Learning to read and spell words is a central part of becoming literate. During text reading, most words are processed, and skilled readers are able to do this effortlessly. How they become skilled at processing graphic cues has been the focus of our research. Findings indicate that prereaders do not acquire graphic skill by learning to read signs...
Article
Phonetic-cue reading involves reading words by storing and retrieving associations between some of the letters in spellings and sounds in pronunciations. Cipher reading involves processing all of the letter-sound relations in spellings. These two types of reading were compared experimentally. Novice beginning readers in kindergarten were assigned e...
Article
In this experiment, we examined whether teaching beginners to produce phonetic spellings improves their ability to read words. Kindergarten students who could name letters but could not spell words with consonant clusters were assigned either to an experimental group that was taught to spell or to a control group that practiced matching letters to...
Article
Caption title: Movement into word reading and spelling. Running title: Reading and spelling. This paper will also appear in J. Mason (ed.), Reading and writing connections. Newton, MA: Allyn and Bacon. Bibliography: p. 10-12
Article
The question under study was whether context-free word reading skill evolves out of extensive experience with environmental print. Selected for the study were preschoolers aged three to five years who could identify at least 8 out of 10 samples of environmental print, such as a McDonald's sign in a photograph of the restaurant, and hence were envir...
Article
Evaluated whether picture mnemonics help prereaders learn letter–sound associations in 2 experiments with 20 1st graders (Exp I), 30 preschoolers, and kindergartners (Exp II). Pictures integrating the associations were compared with disassociated pictures and with a no-picture control condition. Ss in the integrated-picture group learned 5 letter-s...
Article
In learning to spell words, learners may be directed to pronounce the words in various ways. Some commercial spelling programs have learners decode dictionary pronunciation keys (also called phonetic or sound spellings). This activity serves to clarify pronunciations but it also exposes learners to phonetically plausible misspellings of the words....
Article
Tested the assumptions that phonemic segmentation skill is learned best in the oral mode and that teaching segmentation with alphabet letters confuses learners. Three treatment groups of 8 prereaders (mean age 67.8 mo) were formed. The letter group was taught to segment nonword blends using letter tokens. The nonletter group was taught to segment b...
Article
Skilled and less skilled beginning readers were taught to read and define 10 printed pseudowords. Then they rehearsed the spellings of the words in one of two ways. Experimental subjects performed activities to retain spellings in memory as orthographic images. Control subjects rehearsed the letters similarly but with the correct spellings in view....
Article
Three phases comprise the development of word reading skill: accuracy, automaticity, and speed. The 3rd phase is reached when components of the identification process (i.e., graphic, phonological, semantic) are unitized in memory for particular words. Attainment of this final phase was explored with 2 experiments. In Exp I with Ss from 1st-, 2nd-,...
Article
• Three phases comprise the development of word reading skill: accuracy, automaticity, and speed. The 3rd phase is reached when components of the identification process (i.e., graphic, phonological, semantic) are unitized in memory for particular words. Attainment of this final phase was explored with 2 experiments. In Exp I with Ss from 1st-, 2nd-...
Article
Three experiments explored whether visual properties of word spellings are retained in memory. Two forms of a multiple-choice spelling recognition test were given to college students and seventh graders, one with the choices printed in lower-case type, the other printed in mixed-case type (e.g., eXaMpLe). Significantly more correct spellings were d...
Article
To compare children’s memory for silent and pronounced letters in familiar spellings of words, 7- to 10-year-olds were given two tasks. First, they imagined word spellings and decided whether target letters were present. Then they recalled the words associated with the target letters. Five experiments yielded similar findings. Pronounced letters we...
Article
A number of studies exploring how beginning readers acquire knowledge that enables them to spell words fairly accurately and to recognize words correctly and quickly as they are reading are described in this report. (The reported studies were designed to test hypotheses derived from a theory of printed word learning proposed by L. C. Ehri.) In the...
Article
This study was designed to determine whether children's conceptualization of the component sounds in words is influenced by their knowledge of the words' spellings. For example, the spelling of pitch may lead learners to discover the phonetic element [t] in its pronunciation and to conceptualize this as a separate phoneme, whereas the spelling of r...
Article
Three experiments were conducted to evaluate a language-training procedure in which preschool children (age 51 months) were given sentences evoking opposite interpretations of the same syntactic structures. The syntactic forms of interest were before/after sentences in which order of event mention reverses the order of event occurrence. It was know...
Article
The picture-word interference task was administered to Spanish-English adults in order to determine whether the lexicons of bilinguals are integrated or whether words are stored and accessed separately in semantic memory. Pictures were printed with Spanish words naming other objects, with English translations, and with X's. Spanish and English dist...
Article
The relationship between comprehension of relational adjective forms and seriation ability was assessed for 60 children aged 4-6. Three groups, operational seriators, intuitive seriators, and nonseriators, were given a test measuring comprehension of affirmative and negative comparative and equative forms. Results indicated that operationals unders...
Article
First graders practiced reading 10 unfamiliar function words (i.e., might, which, enough). Half of the children studied the words embedded in printed sentences. Half studied the words in unstructured lists of words and then listened to sentences comprised of the words. Posttest measures revealed that the sentence readers learned more about the synt...
Article
First graders were taught to read 16 words. Half of the subjects studied the words in printed-sentence contexts. Half learned the words printed singly on flash cards and listened to sentences containing the words. Posttest scores indicated that context-trained children learned more about the semantic identities of printed words, whereas flash card-...
Article
First and second graders (6- and 7-year-olds) practiced reading 20 words. Before and after word training, they named pictures printed with and without these words as distractors. Of interest was whether training would enhance or diminish the interference created by these words in the picture-naming task. Results indicated that children who learned...
Article
The mnemonic value of spellings in a paired-associate sound learning task was examined in 4 experiments. 120 1st and 2nd graders were taught 4 CVC nonsense sounds as oral responses. The stimuli were geometric figures or numbers of alphabet letters corresponding to initial consonant sounds. Various types of adjunct aids or activities occurred during...
Article
Third- and sixth-grade readers were asked to label sets of pictures printed with distracting words (either nouns, adjectives, or functors) and nonsense syllables. Picture-naming latencies were significantly longer with nouns than with adjectives and functors, indicating that noun interference stems from semantic-conceptual rather than phonological...
Article
Describes 3 experiments using a total of 141 kindergartners and 1st graders as Ss. In a paired associate task, readers and prereaders were taught 5 words as oral responses, each word paired with a distinctive nonsense figure. Context-dependent words (i.e., past tense verbs, prepositions, functors, which require verbal contexts to be meaningful) too...
Article
To explore adjective language development and to examine its relationship to seriation, several tasks were given to 40 children aged 4;0 to 8;0. Comprehension and production of various adjective forms were measured: vocabulary, coordination, comparison. The ability to order objects by size was used to assess intuitive-level seriation. In addition t...

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