Research Items (9)
- Feb 2018
Creating safe environments for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer and/or questioning (LGBTQ) youth has become a significant public health concern. Despite the disparities in the risk factors associated with identifying as a member of the LGBTQ community, the theoretical frameworks for understanding these issues, particularly within criminology, have been limited. The purpose of this work is to review the historical treatment of gender and sexual orientation within criminology. More specifically, this work reviews how gender was introduced into criminology through the work of feminist criminology, followed by the need for theorization that further analyzed sexual orientation. This then became the focus of queer criminology. After tracing the historical development of gender and sexual orientation, the author uses the theoretical foundations of both to show how it applies to recognizing the issues faced by LGBTQ youth. Finally, the author discusses why consideration of these frameworks is paramount in understanding the issues faced by LGBTQ youth, as well as how such consideration and understanding can help mend the existing gap in providing safer environments for LGBTQ youth.
- Jul 2017
Bullying has garnered the attention of researchers and policy makers alike, because of various negative physical, mental, and educational outcomes that stem from these experiences. Certain youth are more at risk for bullying victimization (ASPA, 2012). Thus, research highlighting and addressing these experiences is crucial to provide safer environments for youth. This study utilizes the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) data to investigate whether or not experiences of victimization differ for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning (LGBQ) youth. Drawing from a sample of 12,642 9th through 12th grade youth, this study investigates two primary areas: (a) the prevalence of traditional bullying, electronic bullying, and homophobic bullying victimizations among LGBQ youth, and (b) the interaction of sexual orientation and gender with traditional bullying, electronic bullying, and homophobic bullying victimizations. Results suggest that LGBQ youth experience all types of bullying victimization at higher rates than heterosexual youth. Results also highlight the importance of the interaction of sexual orientation and gender in bullying victimization. Findings reveal that LGBQ females, LGBQ males, and heterosexual females experience each type of victimization at higher rates than heterosexual males. Findings confirm that disparities exist in bullying victimization among LGBQ youth, and thus cannot be ignored in schools. School policies must explicitly acknowledge and address how sexual orientation and gender matter within the constructs of youth violence if they wish to create safer learning environments for youth.
- May 2017
A great deal of research has investigated weight as a predictor for bullying victimization. However, weight is rarely examined in light of its potential role in explaining bullying perpetration, despite the fact that the definition of bullying typically requires a power imbalance, which can refer to either social power or physical size. Using negative binomial regressions, we investigated weight as a predictor of overt and relational bullying behaviors for a sample of 3208 6th–8th graders from 11 schools in a northeastern state. We examined whether this relationship differs by gender, and we explored whether objective size or perception of size is more predictive of perpetration. We also examined whether certain protective factors, like a positive school environment, moderated the effect of weight on bullying perpetration. We found that students who reported a higher BMI engaged in more overt, but not relational, bullying perpetration. Interestingly, students with misperceptions about their weight reported higher levels of both types of bullying perpetration, while students reporting a more positive school climate engaged in less overt and relational bullying. We also found gender differences in that girls are statistically more likely to commit overt bullying if they have a higher BMI. Our results suggest that prevention programs should address weight as a predictor of bullying behaviors, especially for girls, but also that body image and misperception of weight are important topics for prevention programs.
- Apr 2017
Victimization is a serious problem facing youth in American public schools. Prior research demonstrates that victimization is stratified by sex/gender; however, few studies consider factors that may moderate this relationship. This research investigates if victimization occurs when students break sex/gender stereotypes at school among female and male youth. The broad research question for this study is – are breaking sex/gender stereotypes regarding academic activities, math, and sports associated with victimization for female and male students at school? To address this research question, this study employs nationally representative data from the Education Longitudinal Study (ELS) of 2002 to investigate if breaking sex/gender stereotypes contributes to the likelihood of victimization for female and male students at school. The study finds that females who have favorable attitudes toward math and participate in math-related activities are less likely to be victimized, while students of both sexes who participate in female dominated sports (i.e. cheerleading and softball) have a higher risk of victimization, as do females who participate in male dominated sports (i.e. football and baseball). The implications for future research and policy implementation are discussed.
- Dec 2015
The problem of bullying among youth is receiving more attention because of long-lasting detrimental consequences of victimization at school. Research demonstrates that gender, race, ethnicity, and weight are separately linked to bullying victimization; however, little is known about the interaction of these factors in relationship to victimization at school. This study utilizes the 2005/2006 Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) data to investigate how bodies (i.e., gender, race, ethnicity, and weight) matter with youth victimization. Drawing from the 2005/2006 HBSC sample consisting of 7,143 youth, findings indicate that interactions of gender, race, ethnicity, and weight are linked to school bullying victimization.
Adolescent violence and misconduct, especially within schools, is a top sociological and educational concern because of the detrimental effects on adolescent physical health, emotional well-being, and educational progress. Concurrently, public schools in the United States are in the midst of a demographic transformation. More importantly, prior research suggests contextual characteristics are associated with rates of deviant behavior particularly in urban areas where racial and ethnic minorities reside. What remains uncertain, however, is the relationship between social control, intersectionality, and school misconduct. This study utilizes data from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 and incorporates multilevel modeling techniques to examine how the link between social control and adolescent school misconduct may differ by race, ethnicity, and biological sex in urban, rural, and suburban locations. The results suggest intersectionality may matter when understanding the associations between social control and school misconduct. The implications of how intersectionality may matter in social control are discussed.
School bullying has detrimental consequences for its victims, including undermining students' educational outcomes. Furthermore, gender has been shown to play a significant role in determining the type of bullying victimization experienced and educational outcomes. This research examines whether an interaction between gender and bullying victimization exists as well as its impact on educational outcomes (i.e., academic self-efficacy and educational achievement). Multivariate regression analyses, drawing on the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002, reveal that the interaction between gender and bullying victimization is linked to disparate educational outcomes. The findings and their implications are discussed regarding understanding the relationship between gender, bullying victimization, and education.
The United States is undergoing a historical racial and ethnic demographic shift. There is limited criminological research exploring if and how these changes influence variation in the relationship between routine activity theory and adolescent violence. Although the link between routine activities and victimization has been tested and well established, criminologists have questioned if routine activities can explain adolescent violence across different social contexts. Prior research demonstrates that there are potential nuances in the theoretical connections between routine activities and victimization, particularly when considering race and ethnicity. This study builds on previous research by questioning if the elements of routine activities predict victimization across predominately urban, rural, and suburban schools. The implications of the relevance of school context in the relationships between routine activities and adolescent victimization will also be discussed more generally.