Linda Schenk

Linda Schenk
Karolinska Institutet | KI · Institute of Environmental Medicine - IMM

PhD Risk and Safety, Docent Toxicological Risk Management

About

68
Publications
7,064
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
398
Citations
Citations since 2017
26 Research Items
239 Citations
20172018201920202021202220230102030405060
20172018201920202021202220230102030405060
20172018201920202021202220230102030405060
20172018201920202021202220230102030405060
Introduction
I study the regulation and management of chemicals, ranging from regulatory decisions and expert group judgement to the role of the individual’s behavior in order to reduce risks. Among current projects are: --Cleaning agents as a chemical risk at work. --Exploring unconventional data sources for experience feed-back on accidents at work. --Special interests influence on exposure limit setting. --Assessing and regulating skin absorption.
Additional affiliations
March 2017 - present
Karolinska Institutet
Position
  • Professor
September 2011 - February 2015
Karolinska Institutet
Position
  • PostDoc Position
February 2010 - February 2015
KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Position
  • Researcher

Publications

Publications (68)
Article
Full-text available
Percutaneous absorption is highly variable between chemicals but also within chemicals depending on exposure conditions and experimental set up. We tested a larger number of organic solvents with the same experimental set up, using skin from new-born piglets and static diffusion cells. Thirty-six common organic solvents were studied neat (and 31 of...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To investigate chemical injuries caused by cleaning agents and disinfectants by reviewing poison control data. Methods: We performed a five year retrospective analysis of calls to the Swedish Poisons Information Centre (PIC) concerning occupational use of cleaning agents and disinfectants. In addition, callers for 17 new cases were inte...
Article
Full-text available
Derived no-effect levels for workers (wDNELs) under the European REACH legislation have many aspects in common with occupational exposure limits (OELs). In an attempt to examine under which circumstances wDNELs might be used as exposure guidance outside their intended application, we compared derivation methods, coverage of substances and numerical...
Article
At the 8th conference of Occupational and Environmental Exposure of the Skin to Chemicals (OEESC) (16–18 September 2019) in Dublin, Ireland, several researchers performing skin permeation assays convened to discuss in vitro skin permeability experiments. We, along with other colleagues, all of us hands-on skin permeation researchers, present here t...
Article
Full-text available
Lead exposure is still a major concern for occupations that regularly train or work with firearms, such as law enforcement and military personnel. Due to the increasing number of women of fertile age in such professions, there is a strong incentive to monitor lead exposures during firearms training. Personal air sampling was performed during two se...
Article
We explored the potential for addressing nature of science through a historic narrative about disagreement between researchers concerning a socio-scientific issue, incidence of juvenile thyroid cancer following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident. The narrative was developed from authentic sources and tested in two cycles. Eight groups of three...
Article
Uncertainty factors (UFs) are used to account for uncertainties and variability when setting exposure limits or guidance values. Starting from a proposal of a single UF of 100 to extrapolate from an animal NOAEL to a human acceptable exposure, the aspects of uncertainty and number of UFs have diversified and today there are several risk assessment...
Article
Full-text available
Using data from the Swedish Products Register, hosted by the Swedish Chemicals Agency (KemI), national occupational injury and disease statistics, and call records from the Swedish Poisons Information Centre (PIC) we characterize health hazards of marketed cleaning products and recorded injuries, disease, and incidents linked to cleaning or disinfe...
Article
Full-text available
In the current debate, there is no consensus on the relationship between knowledge and values in students’ reasoning and argumentation in socio-scientific and sustainability issues, i.e. if these should be addressed as separate entities or rather treated as a whole. In this study, we address this question empirically, with students engaging in two...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Lead is present in the gunpowder smoke from leaded ammunition and can cause serious effects on the central and peripheral nervous system, blood, kidneys, cardiovascular-, endocrine- and immune systems, gastrointestinal tract, and male and female reproduction. As the health effects of lead exposure increase, especially in low-dose exposure, proposal...
Article
Full-text available
Socioscientific issues (SSI) concern social issues, often lacking simple solutions, that relate to science and often also risk controversies. SSIs have become an established part of science education, aiming to teach students not only about content knowledge but also about the nature of science and to offer them practice in argumentation and decisi...
Article
Our aim was to evaluate policies and procedures for management of conflict of interest (CoI) and other sources of bias, implemented in Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL) expert groups. First, we compiled procedural criteria applicable to OEL-setting, based on literature on CoI and systematic reviews. Second, we identified 58 global OEL-sources and s...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Setting and implementing occupational exposure limits (OELs) is one of the measures taken to protect workers from adverse effects of hazardous chemicals. The EU Regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) introduced an additional kind of exposure guidance values for workers; namely, the de...
Article
How metals permeate skin is poorly understood. Risk assessments tend to take default approaches to account for the dermal route, often using numbers of questionable relevance. Moreover, simultaneous exposure to multiple metals may affect the permeation of individual metals. To investigate this, we developed an experimental setup where receptor medi...
Article
Full-text available
The Netherlands' system for occupational exposure limits (OELs) encompasses two kinds of OELs: public and private. Public OELs are set by the government. Private OELs are derived by industry and cover all substances without a public OEL. In parallel, the regulation concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals...
Article
Full-text available
The present paper takes its point of departure in risk being a relevant content for science education, and that there are many different approaches to how to incorporate it. By reviewing the academic literature on the use and definitions of risk from fields such as engineering, linguistics and philosophy, we identified key elements of the risk conc...
Article
Full-text available
The levels of stochastic health effects following exposure to low doses of ionising radiation are not well known. A consequence of the uncertainty is that any radiation exposure is met with deep concern—both by the public and by scientists who disagree about how the partly conflicting results from low-dose studies should be interpreted. The concern...
Data
Predicted (EPISuite, US EPA [73]) versus experimental (present study) permeability coefficients (Kp, cm/h) plotted on a linear scale. (PDF)
Article
Full-text available
Decision on the safety margin, for instance by using uncertainty factors (UFs), is a key aspect in setting Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs). We analyzed the UFs in 128 OEL recommendations from the European Commission’s Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limits (SCOEL). We investigated factors expected to potentially influence the UFs,...
Article
Chemical safety management is an iterative process where reviews of safety deficiencies (e.g., inspection notes) and failures (e.g., injuries) guide improvement efforts. The present work investigates safety in the school chemistry laboratory through two substudies. First, we interviewed 10 Swedish middle and high school chemistry teachers about how...
Article
Full-text available
We present a retrospective analysis of records on occupational accidents from the Swedish Poisons Information Centre. The aim was to explore these data as a means for surveillance of accidents and incidents with chemicals at the workplace. We extracted data on all telephone consultations regarding occupational incidents (n=8240) during 2010 to 2014...
Article
Protection without Discrimination: Pregnancy and Occupational Health Regulations – ERRATUM - Sven Ove HANSSON, Linda SCHENK
Article
Full-text available
Records of injuries and incidents provide an important basis for injury prevention related to hazardous substances at the workplace. The present study aimed to review available data on injuries and incidents involving hazardous substances and investigate how data from the Poisons Information Centre could complement the records of the Swedish Work E...
Conference Paper
Objective: Official occupational accident statistics are often incomplete which reduces their value as a decision basis for risk management measures [1]. The present study aims to investigate whether calls made to the Swedish Poisons Information Centre (PIC) concerning occupational exposures can improve the knowledge about occupational accidents in...
Article
Full-text available
Nanoscience and nanotechnology (NST) is a rapidly developing knowledge area, which need incorporating in the school science curricula. The many uncertainties of risks and benefits with NST also open up for using NST as a socio-scientific issue (SSI). We present the two first iterations of a teaching sequence aimed for upper secondary school physics...
Article
Full-text available
Asthma, a chronic respiratory disease, can be aggravated by exposure to certain chemical irritants. The objectives were first to investigate the extent to which experimental observations on asthmatic subjects are taken into consideration in connection with the registration process under the EU REACH regulation, and second, to determine whether asth...
Article
Occupational exposures of pregnant workers can give rise to foetal damage. Twomajor types of strategies against detrimental effects on the foetus are described: differentiated protection that reduces only the exposure of pregnant workers (or only of female workers) and unified protection that reduces the exposure of all workers to a level that is s...
Article
Full-text available
In the present study we have examined how the European chemicals regulation Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) has influenced occupational risk management of chemicals at Swedish downstream user companies. The data were collected through interviews with occupational health and safety professionals, safety r...
Article
The European REACH regulation places responsibility for providing safety information, including derived no-effect levels (DNELs), on chemicals and chemical products on 'industry', i.e. manufacturers and importers. We compared long-term inhalation worker-DNELs (wDNELs) presented by industry with the corresponding Swedish occupational exposure limits...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
> Risk-based occupational exposure limits (OEL) provide an opportunity to study how differences in the exposure limits set by different regulators are influenced by differences in the scientific judgment (what is the risk at different exposures?) and in the policy judgment (how large risks are accepted?). In a broad search seven regulators were ide...
Article
In the present paper we combine two analytical frameworks in order to extend our understanding of how students reason about a socio-scientific issue, namely, nanomaterials in consumer products. Using the results from two focus group discussions including seven students each, we first thematically explored undergraduate engineering students' risk pe...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Dermal exposure to chemicals is highly relevant in relation to the use of cosmetic products, both in consumers and in individuals exposed occupationally. Regulatory frameworks exist within the EU to limit the dermal exposure of the general population and workers to chemicals in general as well as to limit the use of certain substances in cosmetic p...
Article
Several regulators have recently issued so-called risk-based occupational exposure limits for carcinogenic substances, and also reported estimates of the risk of fatality that exposure to the limit value would give rise to. This practice provides an opportunity to study how differences in the exposure limits set by different regulators are influenc...
Article
In Sweden, as in other industrialised nations, occupational exposure limits are considered to be an important tool for chemical risk management, although many other factors also play a role in occupational safety and health management. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of occupational exposure limits in relation to information about...
Article
This study provides a description and analysis of the development of occupational diseases in China as recorded in the official statistics during the period 2000-2010, identifies major challenges, and explores possible solutions for prevention and control. In-depth textual analysis and data analysis of China's annual national reports of occupationa...
Article
Full-text available
The efficiency of a risk management tool, such as occupational exposure limits (OELs), partly depends on the responsible parties' awareness and understanding of it. The aim of this study was to measure the awareness and understanding of OELs at Swedish workplaces and to collect opinions on their use and function. Through a web-based questionnaire t...
Article
Full-text available
Although work environment conditions have improved much in the last decades, occupational exposures to chemicals and air pollutants still cause adverse health effects. The risk perception of occupational exposures to hazardous substances and the motivations for it have been investigated through a questionnaire study. These results have also been co...
Article
Full-text available
In 2007, the Dutch Working Conditions Act was revised with the goal to decrease the regulatory burden, and to open up for company-specific solutions of establishing a safe and healthy work environment. One tool geared towards company-specific solutions is the compilation of the Arbocatalogs, which are company or sector-level collections of safe wor...
Conference Paper
Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs) are one regulatory instrument to protect workers’ health from adverse effects of chemical exposures. Through a series of studies, the risk assessment process towards setting OELs has been investigated, with a focus on the EU level, including the indicative OELs of the EU expert group SCOEL and the REACH derived n...
Article
Occupational exposure limits (OELs) are used as a risk management tool aiming at protecting against negative health effects of occupational exposure to harmful substances. The systems of OEL development have not been standardized and divergent outcomes have been reported. However some harmonization processes have been initiated, primarily in Europe...
Article
Full-text available
The new European Union (EU) REACH legislation requires derived no-effect levels (DNELs) to be calculated for substances produced in quantities above 10 tonnes/year. Meanwhile, the setting of occupational exposure limits (OELs) continues both at the member state and the EU levels. According to REACH, indicative OEL values (IOELVs) from the Commissio...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to investigate how the Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limits (SCOEL) of the European Commission uses uncertainty factors when proposing health-based indicative occupational exposure limit values (IOELVs). In total, 75 IOELVs in 62 summary documents published from 1991 to 2003 were analyzed. For 31 of the IOE...
Chapter
Full-text available
This is a book about the regulation of chemical risks; this chapter specifically concerns the regulation of chemicals in the occupational setting. People are exposed to a variety of chemicals during their life; some are to our knowledge not harmful while others are. Working life may be a major contributor to a person’s accumulated chemical exposure...
Conference Paper
Chemicals in the occupational setting are wellknown to pose a variety of health risks to workers, and are accordingly subject to risk managementmeasures. In Sweden, as well asmanyother countries, occupational exposure limits (OELs) are presented as an important tool for managing chemical risks. However, measurements to ensure compliance with OELs h...
Article
It has previously been shown that occupational exposure limits (OELs) for the same substance can vary significantly between different standard-setters. The work presented in this paper identifies the steps in the process towards establishing an OEL and how variations in those processes could account for these differences. This study selects for fur...
Conference Paper
In health risk assessments so called assessment factors are often used to handle scientific uncertainties. In this paper the size of assessment factors used to derive occupational exposure limits (OELs) are analysed and compared taking the following aspects into account: the type of critical effect reported, the type of effect data used as the poin...
Article
The occupational exposure limits (OELs) established by seven different national regulatory agencies of EU member states are compared with those of the European Commission (EC). The comparison concerned: (1) what chemicals have been selected, (2) the average level of exposure limits for all chemicals, and (3) the similarity between the OELs of diffe...
Article
Occupational exposure limits (OELs) are used as an important regulatory instrument to protect workers' health from adverse effects of chemical exposures. The OELs mirror the outcome of the risk assessment and risk management performed by the standard setting actor. In this study we compared the OELs established by 18 different organisations or nati...
Article
Ozone (O3) concentration and air temperature/relative humidity were monitored using diffusive samplers (weekly, 3 m above ground) and Tinytag loggers (10 min sampling, 1 m above ground, self-ventilating radiation shields), respectively, in the forested landscape of south-west Sweden, 40 km north-east of Gothenburg. Two forest sites were included, o...

Network

Cited By

Projects

Projects (7)
Archived project
In my thesis work I investigated the level of OELs and the process to derive them.
Archived project
In the present project we perform a series of retrospective analyses of records on occupational accidents from the Swedish Poisons Information Centre. The aim is to explore these data as a means for surveillance of accidents and incidents with chemicals at the workplace, and in particular how they can complement official Swedish occupational injury statistics.
Archived project
The aim was to investigate how the implementation of REACH, and overlaps between REACH and OSH legislation, influences chemicals risk management at the workplace. Particular focus on DNELs and OELs.