Linda Diane Parham

Linda Diane Parham
University of New Mexico | UNM · Occupational Therapy Graduate Program

PhD

About

53
Publications
122,608
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2,146
Citations
Introduction
Diane Parham is a Professor in the Occupational Therapy Graduate Program, University of New Mexico. She does research on sensory integration theory, assessment, and intervention. She is lead author of the Sensory Processing Measure-2nd Edition (SPM-2) published in 2021, & co-author of the Evaluation in Ayres Sensory Integration (EASI), currently undergoing international normative data collection. Currently she is working on a 3rd edition of her textbook on Play in Occupational Therapy.
Additional affiliations
July 2007 - present
University of New Mexico
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (53)
Article
Importance: Ayres Sensory Integration® is an evidence-based practice that requires a comprehensive assessment before intervention. The Evaluation in Ayres Sensory Integration (EASI) is intended for this purpose, and psychometric data are needed to determine its validity and reliability. Objective: To evaluate the internal consistency of four EASI P...
Article
Importance: Vestibular and proprioceptive functions play a critical role in occupational performance and participation. Assessment of these functions in a reliable and valid manner is part of a comprehensive assessment in the Ayres Sensory Integration® frame of reference, commonly applied in pediatric occupational therapy. Objective: To report o...
Article
Purpose: Reflective practitioners embody the ability to critique their own clinical thinking about the dilemmas that frequently arise in professional practice and everyday life. Conflicting evidence exists on whether or not self-reflective practices are effective in promoting academic, clinical, and personal success. This quantitative study investi...
Chapter
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This chapter discusses the the importance of assessing play, and the various purposes of play assessment from infancy through adulthood. Specific assessment tools are reviewed with regard to several purposes: assessment of core elements of play, assessment of developmental skills that are acquire through play, and assessment of environmental featur...
Article
Date Presented 04/04/19 The influence on sensory processing characteristics on occupational choices among the typical population has not been thoroughly studied. The purpose of this study was to understand the connection between the experiential characteristics of pleasurable occupations and sensory processing characteristics in typical adults util...
Article
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Sensory integration, now trademarked as Ayres Sensory Integration® or ASI, is based on principles of neuroscience and provides a framework for understanding the contributions of the sensory and motor foundations of human behavior. The theory and practice of ASI continues to evolve as greater understanding of the neurobiology of human behavior emerg...
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Evidence Connection articles provide case examples of how practice decisions may be informed by findings of systematic reviews sponsored by the American Occupational Therapy Association Evidence-Based Practice Project. This Evidence Connection article is the second article in a two-part series. The first article described a case report of occupatio...
Article
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Evidence Connection articles provide case examples of how practice decisions may be informed by findings of systematic reviews sponsored by the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) Project. This Evidence Connection article describes a case report of a child with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder who h...
Article
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Self-reflection is paramount to the development of professionalism and serves as the foundation of adult education and lifelong learning. Pedagogical approaches in health sciences programs that promote self-reflection are growing in popularity. Current literature identifies a gap in what and how students conceive self-reflection and whether self-re...
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Date Presented 4/19/2018 Sensory features of preschoolers with developmental delays are significantly related to their social participation as measured by the Sensory Processing Measure–Preschool. Practitioners should evaluate sensory features of these children and plan sensory-informed intervention to support participation. Primary Author and Spea...
Article
Background: Children born preterm are prone to motor problems. Research on their motor performance has, however, rarely been integrated with sensory processing. Aim: To examine sensory-motor performance in children born extremely preterm (EPT). Method: In a longitudinal prospective cohort study, 49 EPT (born <28 gestational weeks; 32 boys and...
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This systematic review examined the effectiveness of specific sensory techniques and sensory environmental modifications to improve participation of children with sensory integration (SI) difficulties. Abstracts of 11,436 articles published between January 2007 and May 2015 were examined. Studies were included if designs reflected high levels of ev...
Article
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Comprehensive, reliable, and valid assessment is essential for individually tailored, appropriate, and effective intervention planning and implementation. Research, education, and practice using an Ayres Sensory Integration® (ASI) approach have a long history of prioritizing comprehensive assessment. To meet the need for a set of tests that will fu...
Poster
Full-text available
This poster describes the features of the new edition of the Sensory Processing Measure
Article
Aim: To identify and compare the sensory characteristics of young people at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis to those of peers at clinical low risk (CLR), and to national normative data. CHR and CLR participants were recruited from 6 US regions. Method: A descriptive cohort design was used to analyse baseline data collected as part of the...
Article
Date Presented 3/30/2017 A sample (N = 292) of youths ages 12–25 at risk for psychosis were administered the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile during intake in a multisite research project. Significant differences were found for the high-risk group compared with low-risk youths and norms, findings that can inform treatment interventions. Primary Aut...
Article
Date Presented 4/8/2016 A systematic review showed that massage protocols produce outcomes of improved sleep, behavior regulation, and sensory responsiveness for children with autism spectrum disorder. Other somatosensory-based interventions such as brushing protocol or weighted vests do not yet have adequate research to evaluate their effectivenes...
Article
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This article builds on the work of Case-Smith and colleagues and proposes a roadmap to guide future research in occupational therapy. To foster best practice in the application of principles and practices of sensory integration (SI), the pillars of practice, advocacy, and education are identified as elements that provide the foundation for research...
Article
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OBJECTIVE. We sought to characterize sensory integration (SI) and praxis patterns of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and discern whether these patterns relate to social participation. METHOD. We extracted Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests (SIPT) and Sensory Processing Measure (SPM) scores from clinical records of children with ASD a...
Article
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This study examined the reliability and validity of the structural section of the Ayres Sensory Integration® Fidelity Measure© (ASIFM), which provides a method for monitoring the extent to which an intervention was implemented as conceptualized in studies of occupational therapy using sensory integration intervention methods (OT-SI). We examined th...
Article
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This study investigated the validity of sensory systems as distinct measurable constructs as part of a larger project examining Ayres's theory of sensory integration. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to test whether sensory questionnaire items represent distinct sensory system constructs. Data were obtained from clinical records of...
Article
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This article presents the current state of measurement in the area of sensory integration within the field of occupational therapy in three areas: (1) phenotypic characterization, (2) intervention adherence and dosage, and (3) outcome measurement. The need for additional measurement tools in all three areas is addressed. In regard to outcome measur...
Article
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This article describes the development of the Adult Sensory Processing Scale (ASPS), a sensory processing questionnaire for adults. The ASPS measures self-reported responses to input from distinct sensory systems and is intended to be sensitive to individual differences in the adult population. ASPS construction involved two phases: item developmen...
Chapter
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Sensory-Motor Development in Persons with Autism Clinical Assessment of Sensory and Motor Features Considerations for Intervention Conclusion
Article
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OBJECTIVES. We examined whether children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) differ in autonomic activity at rest and in response to auditory stimuli and whether behavioral problems related to sounds in everyday life are associated with autonomic responses to auditory stimuli. METHOD. We measured skin conductance (SC) at rest and in res...
Article
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We developed a reliable and valid fidelity measure for use in research on Ayres Sensory Integration (ASI) intervention. We designed a fidelity instrument to measure structural and process aspects of ASI intervention. Because scoring of process involves subjectivity, we conducted a series of reliability and validity studies on the process section. R...
Article
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The overall goal of this study was to determine if Parasympathetic Nervous System Activity (PsNS) is a significant biomarker of sensory processing difficulties in children. Several studies have demonstrated that PsNS activity is an important regulator of reactivity in children, and thus, it is of interest to study whether PsNS functioning affects s...
Article
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In this article, the current status of the theory and practice of sensory integration in the United States since the 1960s is described and analyzed. In order to characterize current issues in this growing field of practice, historical developments in sensory integration are examined. The following four topics are explored: theoretical constructs,...
Article
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This study examined interrater reliability of score interpretation on the Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests (SIPT). Using SIPT scores of two complex cases, 20 trained participants independently rated each case for presence of sensory integrative dysfunction and for relevance of specific patterns of dysfunction. They also provided comments to jus...
Book
Focused on the importance of play in evaluating and treating children with disabilities, Play in Occupational Therapy for Children, 2nd Edition presents play theories and assessments along with the theories and assessments reached from research conducted by occupational therapists and occupational scientists. This edition also includes five new cha...
Article
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We sought to assess validity of sensory integration outcomes research in relation to fidelity (faithfulness of intervention to underlying therapeutic principles). We identified core sensory integration intervention elements through expert review and nominal group process. Elements were classified into structural (e.g., equipment used, therapist tra...
Article
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Goal attainment scaling (GAS) is a methodology that shows promise for application to intervention effectiveness research and program evaluation in occupational therapy (Dreiling & Bundy, 2003; King et al., 1999; Lannin, 2003; Mitchell & Cusick, 1998). This article identifies the recent and current applications of GAS to occupational therapy for chi...
Chapter
Der Schwerpunkt dieses Kapitels liegt auf den Zusammenhängen zwischen der Bewegungsplanung und der Organisation von Alltagsbeschäftigungen. Das Kapitel beginnt mit einem Überblick über die Literatur, in der Praxie mit Verhaltensorganisation und Konzepten zu Raum und Zeit in Zusammenhang gebracht wird. Anschlieβend wird ein Modell vorgestellt, das d...
Article
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Occupational therapists who are interested in exporting occupational science concepts or occupational therapy practice principles to different cultural groups often encounter problems surrounding the translation of information from one language to another. The case example presented in this article illustrates how one might go about generating a va...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of a sensory history questionnaire using contrasting groups. Specifically, the goal was to identify items on the Evaluation of Sensory Processing that differentiate between parent ratings of children with sensory integrative dysfunction and parent ratings of typically developing children. Data w...
Article
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This longitudinal investigation evaluated the relationship of sensory integrative development to achievement. It was hypothesized that perceptual abilities would be strongly related to achievement when participants were 6 to 8 years of age, but not 4 years later. Participants (32 school-identified learning handicapped children and 35 non-learning h...
Article
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This paper discusses three major issues in the provision of occupational therapy services to persons with learning disabilities and/or mild to moderate perceptual and motor deficits. The issues are (a) the historical influence of federal legislation on the scope and content of occupational therapy services to persons with these disabilities; (b) th...
Article
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Occupational science is a new scientific discipline that is defined as the systematic study of the human as an occupational being. A doctoral program in occupational science has been established at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles. With its emphasis on the provision of a multidimensional description of the substrates, form, functi...
Article
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This article draws from the research and clinical work of A. Jean Ayres to present a rationale and set of procedures for occupational therapy evaluation of the preschooler whose presenting problems suggest dyspraxia. The concept of praxis is briefly discussed and the problems of evaluating praxis in the preschooler are outlined. Based on the litera...
Article
A survey of 275 occupational therapy faculty asked about the factors influencing faculty to conduct research and the barriers obstructing it. About half had conducted research, although more felt a strong pressure in the department to do so. Most felt they did not have sufficient time to pursue research. (CH)
Article
This article, the second in a two-part study of academic rewards for occupational therapy (OT) faculty, identifies statistical predictors of rewards and scholarly productivity. Multiple regression analyses revealed that, in contrast with traditional academe, publications do not predict salaries for OT faculty. Variables such as advanced degree, pro...
Article
This study examined academic rewards in occupational therapy education through a survey of baccalaureate and postbaccalaureate programs. Questionnaires from 275 full-time faculty were analyzed Results are presented in two parts Part One describes faculty characteristics, and predictors of rewards and publications are identified in Part II. Analysis...
Article
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This is the second of two papers addressing the occupational behavior and sensory integration approaches to occupational therapy for children. In the previous paper, basic concepts from these two approaches were discussed as presenting different, yet complementary, perspectives. The use of play was identified as central to occupational therapy prac...
Article
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This series of two articles presents a model of play development for use in pediatric occupational therapy. Proposing to unify the theoretical approaches of sensory integration and occupational behavior, the model uses play as the unifying link between these two apparently different approaches. This first article reviews the major concepts of senso...
Article
When one considers the amount of time that children are under the charge of the educational system, it becomes clear that successful participation within this environment is imperative. If, as is articulated, the educational environment provides children with multiple opportunities for engagement, and the development of play, it becomes imperative...

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