Linda Morgan

Linda Morgan
University of Surrey · Department of Nutrition and Metabolism

About

189
Publications
52,599
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11,166
Citations
Citations since 2016
3 Research Items
3417 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500

Publications

Publications (189)
Article
Active, as opposed to inactive, individuals are able to adjust their energy intake after preloads of different energy content. The mechanisms responsible for this remain unknown. This study examined differences in plasma concentration of appetite-related hormones in response to breakfasts of different energy content, between active and inactive men...
Article
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Purpose: Use of polypharmacy in the treatment of diabetes is the norm; nonetheless, optimal control is often not achieved. Konjac-glucomannan-based fibre blend (KGB) and American ginseng (AG) have individually been shown to improve glycaemia and CVD risk factors in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine whether co-administration o...
Article
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Purpose: Studies on the impact of chronic interval training on appetite in the obese population are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 12 weeks of isocaloric programs of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) or high-intensity interval training (HIIT), or a short-duration HIIT (1/2HIIT), on subjective feelings of a...
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This study aimed to determine the effects of 12 weeks of isocaloric programs of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) (or a short-duration HIIT (1/2HIIT) inducing only half the energy deficit) on a cycle ergometer, on body weight and composition, cardiovascular fitness, resting metabolism rate...
Article
Background/objective: Addition of viscous fiber to foods has been shown to significantly reduce postprandial glucose excursions. However, palatability issues and the variability in effectiveness due to different methods of administration in food limits it use. This study explores the effectiveness of a viscous fiber blend (VFB) in lowering postpra...
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The impact of acute exercise, and exercise intensity, on appetite control in obese requires further study. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acute isocaloric bouts (250kcal) of high-intensity intermittent cycling (HIIC) and moderate-intensity continuous cycling (MICC), or short-duration HIIC (S-HIIC) (125kcal), and a resting contr...
Article
Prevention of weight gain in adults is a major public health target. Animal experiments have consistently demonstrated a relationship between fermentable carbohydrate intake, such as oligofructose, anorectic gut hormones, and appetite suppression and body weight control. This study was designed to determine the dose of oligofructose which would aug...
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Purpose: To determine the relative impact of three iso-caloric breakfast meals, of variable composition, on satiety, hunger and subsequent intake of energy. Methods: In a three-way, crossover design, 30 healthy men (age of 21.7 ± 1.2 years; BMI, 23.1 ± 2.7 kg/m²) were randomised to one of three test breakfasts, on three separate occasions, separ...
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Shiftworkers have a higher risk of CHD and type 2 diabetes. They consume a large proportion of their daily energy and carbohydrate intake in the late evening or night-time, a factor which could be linked to their increase in disease risk. We compared the metabolic effects of varying both dietary glycaemic index (GI) and the time at which most daily...
Article
Many factors thought to influence the control of food intake have been investigated independently, but the relative importance of each of these factors remains unknown. This study investigated the concurrent role of 21 factors in accurate compensation for energy consumed 60min previously. Energy compensation was assessed by measuring the difference...
Chapter
In the face of the current obesity epidemic and high prevalence of physical inactivity, it is extremely important to determine how inactivity and exercise (both in the short- and long-term) impact on different aspects of appetite. Exercise has been shown to improve energy compensation by leading to a more sensitive eating behavior in response to pr...
Article
The impact of eating behaviours on circulating levels of appetite-regulating hormones remains largely unknown. The aims of this study were to assess the role of restraint and disinhibition on fasting/postprandial peptide YY (PYY) plasma levels and subjective feelings of appetite in normal-weight individuals and to determine whether the effect was e...
Article
Subjects working a 12 h offshore night shift for 2 weeks normally adapt to the night shift and are out of synchrony when they return home to day life, with consequent problems of poor sleep. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of timed light treatment to hasten circadian adaptation and improve sleep after the night shift. Ten...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Evidence of a detrimental effect of low vitamin D status on markers of cardiovascular health in the Vitamin D, Food Intake, Nutrition and Exposure to Sunlight in southern England (D-FINES) Study population: ethnic and age influences - Volume 69 Issue OCE1 - O. A. Hakim, A. L. Darling, S. Starkey, M. C. Y. Wong, R. Abrams, F. Shojaee-Moradie, K. Har...
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Determinants of accurate compensation for previous energy intake over 1 h - Volume 69 Issue OCE1 - K. M. Appleton, C. Martins, L. M. Morgan
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Suboptimal levels of 25(OH)D are associated with poorer indices of cardiovascular health: further analysis of D-FINES study - Volume 69 Issue OCE6 - O. A. Hakim, A. L. Darling, S. Starkey, M. C. Y. Wong, F. Shojaee-Moradie, K. H. Hart, L. M. Morgan, J. L. Berry, A. M. Umpleby, B. A. Griffin, S. A. Lanham-New
Article
The effect of cereal source and processing on postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to test meals of commercially-available cereal products was investigated in two groups of six healthy, non-obese volunteers. The first study investigated the possible effect of different cereal sources used to make bread. Portions of a wholemeal wheat br...
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To investigate the relative efficacy of four popular weight-loss programmes on plasma lipids and lipoproteins as measures of CVD risk. A multi-centred, randomised, controlled trial of four diets - Dr Atkins' New Diet Revolution, The Slim-Fast Plan, Weight Watchers Pure Points programme and Rosemary Conley's 'Eat yourself Slim' Diet and Fitness Plan...
Article
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Restrained eating behaviour has been linked to abnormalities in metabolic and endocrine functions. However, the impact of restraint on fasting insulin and glucose plasma levels and insulin sensitivity remains controversial. Moreover, the few postprandial studies to date are limited by an inappropriate sampling time frame and a low “net” energy and...
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SUMMARY  The pineal hormone melatonin has clear circadian phase-shifting effects in humans which have recently been formalized as a phase response curve. Its potential use in circadian rhythm disorders has been investigated in field studies of jet lag and shift work and in simulated phase shift. A substantial amount of information indicates that in...
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In this review, we discuss the role of inactivity and exercise on appetite regulation, both in the short and long term, and the potential mechanisms involved. A better short-term appetite control has been described in active compared to sedentary men, and an exercise intervention was shown to improve appetite control in previously sedentary individ...
Article
The effect of dietary supplementation with guar gum, sugar beet fibre (SBF) and wheat bran on serum lipoprotein leveh was assessed in normocholesterolemic men. Each fibre preparation was incorporated into bread and subjects ate half a loaf a day which provided 20 g of the fibre preparation. Each bread was eaten for 14 days with a 21-dey rest period...
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Complaints concerning sleep are high among those who work night shifts; this is in part due to the disturbed relationship between circadian phase and the timing of the sleep-wake cycle. Shift schedule, light exposure, and age are all known to affect adaptation to the night shift. This study investigated circadian phase, sleep, and light exposure in...
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Obesity is a global epidemic; increased consumption of energy-dense food and reduced physical activity levels are likely to be the main drivers. Previous cross-sectional research has shown that sedentary males, unlike their active counterparts, are unable to compensate for previous energy intake (EI). Using a longitudinal design a 6-week exercise i...
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Many laboratories offer glycemic index (GI) services. We assessed the performance of the method used to measure GI. The GI of cheese-puffs and fruit-leather (centrally provided) was measured in 28 laboratories (n=311 subjects) by using the FAO/WHO method. The laboratories reported the results of their calculations and sent the raw data for recalcul...
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Previous cross-sectional studies have shown that sedentary males, unlike their active counterparts, are unable to compensate for previous energy intake (EI). The present study therefore investigated the effects of a 6-week moderate exercise programme (4 times per week, 65-75 % maximal heart rate) on appetite regulation in healthy sedentary voluntee...
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This study investigated the acute effects of exercise on the postprandial levels of appetite-related hormones and metabolites, energy intake (EI) and subjective measures of appetite. Ghrelin, polypeptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) were measured in the fasting state and postprandially in 12 healthy, nor...
Article
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Insulin resistance is associated with elevated plasma triacylglycerol, low HDL concentrations, elevated postprandial lipemia, and a predominance of small, dense LDLs (sdLDLs). It has been hypothesized that the dietary ratio of n-6 to n-3 (n-6:n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may have favorable effects on these risk factors by increasing ins...
Article
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To compare the effectiveness of four commercial weight loss diets available to adults in the United Kingdom. Six month multicentre randomised unblinded controlled trial. Community based sample of otherwise healthy overweight and obese adults. Dr Atkins' new diet revolution, Slim-Fast plan, Weight Watchers pure points programme, and Rosemary Conley'...
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Purpose of review: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) plays an important role in the enteroinsular axis, stimulating insulin secretion. In addition, it has extrapancreatic actions, which may have pathophysiological relevance. This review highlights recent findings with regard to GIP's actions both within the enteroinsular axis and b...
Article
The effect of different classes of dietary polyphenols on intestinal glucose uptake was investigated using polarised Caco-2 intestinal cells. Glucose uptake into cells under sodium-dependent conditions was inhibited by flavonoid glycosides and non-glycosylated polyphenols whereas aglycones and phenolic acids were without effect. Under sodium-free c...
Article
Flavonoids have the potential to modulate inflammation by inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) transcription. In this study, we compared the effect of the human flavonoid plasma metabolites (quercetin 3'-sulfate, quercetin 3-glucuronide and 3'-methylquercetin 3-glucuronide) on expression of COX-2 mRNA in human lymphocytes ex vivo using TaqMan rea...
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Shift workers are known to have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with day workers. An important factor contributing to this increased risk could be the increased incidence of postprandial metabolic risk factors for CVD among shift workers, as a consequence of the maladaptation of endogenous circadian rhythms to...
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An exaggerated postprandial lipaemic response is thought to play a central role in the development of an atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype, a recognized lipid risk factor for coronary heart disease. A small number of limited studies have compared postprandial lipaemia in subjects of varying age, but have not investigated mechanisms underlying age-a...
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Time-dependent variations in the hormonal and metabolic responses to food are of importance to human health, as postprandial metabolic responses have been implicated as risk factors in a number of major diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Early work reported decreasing glucose tolerance in the evening and at night with evidence for insulin...
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Accumulating evidence suggests that certain dietary polyphenols have biological effects in the small intestine that alter the pattern of glucose uptake. Their effects, however, on glucose tolerance in humans are unknown. The objective was to investigate whether chlorogenic acids in coffee modulate glucose uptake and gastrointestinal hormone and ins...
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Gastrointestinal peptides, including insulin, glucagon and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) have previously been reported in salivary glands. Recent evidence has suggested they might influence postprandial macronutrient metabolism. This study therefore investigated and compared postprandial hormone concentrations in saliva and pla...
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Diets rich in insoluble-fibre are linked to a reduced risk of both diabetes and cardiovascular disease; however, the mechanism of action remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess whether acute changes in the insoluble-fibre (resistant starch) content of the diet would have effects on postprandial carbohydrate and lipid handling. Ten heal...
Article
Aspartame has been previously shown to increase satiety. This study aimed to investigate a possible role for the satiety hormones cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in this effect. The effects of the constituents of aspartame, phenylalanine and aspartic acid, were also examined. Six subjects consumed an encapsulated preload c...
Article
Measurement of the electrical impedance of the gastric region is carried out with the epigastrograph. This generates and applies alternating current around the abdominal area and measures the potential difference in order to determine the impedance externally, via electrodes. The change of epigastric impedance for a subject, given a meal after fast...
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Postprandial concentrations of glucose, insulin and triacylglycerols (TG) correlate to risk for CHD. Carbohydrates affect many metabolites that could have a potential effect on cardiovascular risk factors. The objective of the present study was to examine, using a randomised prospective study, the acute (day 1) and ad libitum medium-term (day 24) e...
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Protein, generally agreed to be the most satiating macronutrient, may differ in its effects on appetite depending on the protein source and variation in digestion and absorption. We investigated the effects of two milk protein types, casein and whey, on food intake and subjective ratings of hunger and fullness, and on postprandial metabolite and ga...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether naturally occurring phenolic compounds in apple juice had any physiological effects on plasma glucose concentrations and circulating gastrointestinal hormone profiles in volunteers. The results show that the consumption of a 25 g glucose load in commercial apple juice compared with that consumed...
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n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have proven benefits for both the development of atherosclerosis and inflammatory conditions. The effects on atherosclerosis may be partly mediated by the observed reduction in fasting and postprandial triacylglycerol concentrations after both acute and chronic n-3 PUFA ingestion. The aim of this study was to...
Article
This study evaluated circadian adaptation in a 'swing shift' schedule (seven nights, 18:00-06:00 h; then 7 days, 06:00-18:00 h) on North Sea oil installations. Eleven healthy men provided sequential urine collections for the study period offshore. The urinary melatonin metabolite 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) was used as an index of circadian phase...
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The present study tested the hypothesis that habitual exercisers demonstrate an increased accuracy of regulation of food intake in compensation for previous dietary energy intake. Twenty-three lean healthy male subjects were divided into two groups on the basis of their habitual exercise levels: non-exercisers (no exercise sessions/week, n 9), and...